EPS 20-R1 Appendix EPS 20-R1 Air Quality

EP Supplement
EPS 20-R1 Air Quality Regulatory Info
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
EPS 20-R1
Appendix EPS 20-R1
Air Quality Regulatory Information
Clean Air Act and Amendments
The Clean Air Act (CAA) was enacted in 1963 and amended in 1970,1977, and 1990. [The
CAA is now referred to as the Clean Air Act and Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The
law now provides a comprehensive regulatory framework aimed at protecting air
quality and public health.] The 1990 amendments are comprised of 11 titles which
address various air quality issues and also allow for creative means of improving air
quality, including encouraging the minimization of wasted energy. Four of these titles
have the potential to impose requirements or have an impact on operations at Jefferson
Virginia’s Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) administers and enforces the state’s air
pollution rules using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved State
Implementation Plan (SIP). The SIP is frequently amended to comply with the CAAA.
The EPA maintains control over programs that are not addressed in an approved SIP.
The state regulations implementing the SIP, provided in 9 VAC 5-30 through –80, are
based on Virginia’s Air Pollution Control Law. (See the requirements for each of the
applicable regulations in the second part of this appendix.)
Title I, Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS), is intended to bring areas of the country not meeting NAAQS
into attainment with the standards. The City of Newport News is part of the
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News metropolitan statistical area (MSA). This MSA
was designated as a marginal nonattainment area for ozone in 1996. This designation
was changed on July 2, 2001, as the Hampton Roads MSA again met ozone attainment
criteria. As there was a period of nonattainment, the MSA is now designated as the
Hampton Roads Ozone Maintenance Area. The region continues in attainment for the
other NAAQS criteria: sulfur dioxide, particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide,
and lead.
As Jefferson Lab's emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx from fuel
burning equipment and solvent usage activities are very minimal and well below major
source (100 tons per year) thresholds, potential future requirements are unlikely to be
imposed. However, all new emission sources require review by ESH&Q staff. Results
of this review shall be provided promptly to ESH&Q Reporting.
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Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Table 1: National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Standard Value*
Standard Type
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
8-hour Average
9 ppm
(10 mg/m3)
1-hour Average
35 ppm
(40 mg/m3)
0.053 ppm
(100 μg/m3)
Primary & Secondary
1-hour Average
0.12 ppm
(235 μg/m3)
Primary & Secondary
8-hour Average**
0.08 ppm
(157 μg/m3)
Primary & Secondary
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Annual Arithmetic Mean
Ozone (O3)
Lead (Pb)
Quarterly Average
Particulate (PM 10)
1.5 μg/m3
Primary & Secondary
Particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less
Annual Arithmetic Mean
50 μg/m3
Primary & Secondary
24-hour Average
150 μg/m3
Primary & Secondary
Particulate (PM 2.5)
Annual Arithmetic Mean**
24-hour Average**
Particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less
15 μg/m3
Primary & Secondary
65 μg/m3
Primary & Secondary
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Annual Arithmetic Mean
0.03 ppm
(80 μg/m3)
24-hour Average
0.14 ppm
(365 μg/m3)
3-hour Average
0.50 ppm
(1300 μg/m3)
* Parenthetical value is an approximately equivalent concentration.
** The ozone 8-hour standard and the PM 2.5 standards are included for information only. A 1999 federal court ruling
blocked implementation of these standards, which EPA proposed in 1997. EPA has asked the U.S. Supreme Court to
reconsider that decision. The EPA’s Updated Air Quality Standards website has additional information.
Information compiled from: http://www.epa.gov/airs/criteria.html
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Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), requires the EPA to regulate 188 specific air
toxins from 174 industrial source categories. The sources affected by Title III are those
which emit 10 tons or more per year of any one HAP or those which emit 25 tons or
more per year of any combination of HAPs (both exclude radionuclides). Maximum
available control technology (MACT), which typically represents an extremely high
level of emissions control, will be required by major sources under these requirements.
Based on current operations, Jefferson Lab is not classified in one of the 174 industrial source
categories. The Lab emits HAPs in quantities well below threshold amounts; therefore,
the facility will not have to meet the requirements of a source-specific MACT standard.
In addition to the MACT standards which apply to specific industrial source categories,
pollutant specific standards have also been developed. One such standard, the National
Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for emissions of
radionuclides, applies to Jefferson Lab. Emissions of small quantities of radionuclides
generated during Jefferson Lab’s accelerator and physics program operations are
regulated under 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Jefferson Lab complies with the requirements
set forth in this standard. There are no other emissions subject to NESHAPs.
Title V, Permits, requires each state to issue permits to businesses and industries that are major
sources of air emissions. Virginia’s operating permit program received interim approval
from the EPA in 1997. The State is currently revising its regulations to meet the EPA’s
conditions for approval.
Jefferson Lab is not classified as a major source based on its low levels of emissions of criteria
pollutants and HAPs (other than radionuclides), which are well below the major source
threshold levels. Also, sources subject solely to NESHAP provisions have been
deferred from initial Title V applicability. Therefore, under present conditions,
Jefferson Lab is not required to obtain a Title V operating permit.
Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection, addresses the phase-out of substances known to
deplete the ozone layer in the upper region of the earth’s atmosphere. The provisions
also require labeling of products containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and for
the recycling of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) during air conditioning and refrigeration
servicing and disposal activities (to minimize ODS emissions). This title reflects the
goals of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This
protocol calls for reduced production, consumption, and the eventual phase-out of
specific compounds responsible for depletion of stratospheric ozone.
The provisions of Title VI impact Jefferson Lab directly. The activities related to the periodic
servicing of ODS-containing air conditioning and refrigeration units at Jefferson Lab
fall under this title. Also, other ODSs are used at the facility including small amounts
for use in experimental setups and in fire suppression units. The nationwide production
of these CFCs has been phased out except to serve designated essential uses. These
issues are further addressed in Appendix EPS 20-T1 Ozone-Depleting Substances and
Jefferson Lab.
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Virginia’s Program for Emission Standards for Toxic Pollutants
The Commonwealth of Virginia has developed Emission Standards for Toxic Pollutants which
address emissions of noncriteria pollutants. Noncriteria pollutants are materials which are
hazardous to human health when airborne and have threshold limit values (TLVs)
established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Virginia’s
program establishes ambient air concentration guidelines which are a fraction of the TLVs.
Jefferson Lab’s emissions of noncriteria pollutants are below the exemption levels defined in
applicable Virginia regulations. Therefore, the provisions currently do not apply.
State Air Quality Requirements
9 VAC 5-20-160 Registration
Registration information, including a list of emissions sources and associated operating
parameters, is required to be submitted to the DEQ upon request.
Currently, Jefferson Lab registers seven natural gas-fired boilers and one radiator unit with
the DEQ – units which are used for heating buildings. When emission sources are
modified, added, or removed, the DEQ may need to be notified. The responsible
line manager shall inform ESH&Q Reporting of any changes to our emissions
9 VAC 5-20-180 Facility and control equipment maintenance or malfunction
At all times, a given facility shall be maintained and operated in a manner consistent with
good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions.
9 VAC 5-30-10 General
Ambient air quality standards are required to assure that ambient concentrations of air
pollutants are consistent with established criteria. These standards serve as the basis
for effective and reasonable management of the air resources of the Commonwealth
of Virginia.
• Primary air quality standards define levels of air quality which, allowing an
adequate margin of safety, are essential to protecting public health; and,
• Secondary standards define more stringent levels of air quality, which are necessary
to protect public welfare from any known or anticipated adverse effects associated
with the presence of air pollutants in the ambient air.
There are no required actions involving this regulation at Jefferson Lab to date. See
Hampton Roads information in Chapter EPS-20 Air Quality Management.
9 VAC 5-40-50 Notification, records and reporting
Information on radionuclide emissions is discussed under 9 VAC 5-60-70.
9 VAC 5-50-60 Applicability and designation of affected facility
9 VAC 5-50-80 Standard for Visible Emissions
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No facility shall discharge visible emissions, which exhibit greater than 20% opacity,
except as noted in the regulation. Failure to meet this requirement because of the
presence of water vapor, such as from cooling towers, is not a violation of this
section. If a visible emission is observed, contact Facilities Management at
ext. 7400 to report the situation.
9 VAC 5-50-90 Standard for Fugitive Dust/Emissions
Reasonable precautions shall be taken to prevent particulate matter from becoming
airborne during periods of facility construction or demolition. These may include:
• Use of water or chemicals to control dust;
• Paving of roadways and maintaining them in good, clean condition;
• Installation of hoods, fans and fabric filters to enclose and vent or collect dusty
• Covering open containers used in conveying or transporting materials; and,
• Using proper erosion control measures at all disturbed areas.
Facilities Management and the appropriate SOTR will ensure that fugitive dust emissions
are addressed in contract documents and managed during the activity to minimize
9 VAC 5-50-100 Monitoring
9 VAC 5-50-110 Test methods and procedures
9 VAC 5-50-120 Waivers
9 VAC 5-60-70 Designated emission standards
This regulation, which cites the federal regulations, describes procedures and emission
limits for HAPs. The two that are addressed at Jefferson Lab are:
• Asbestos: Chapter 6681 Asbestos Management.
• Radionuclide emissions from accelerator operations and physics experimental
activities: Chapter 6315 Environmental Monitoring of Ionizing Radiation.
Regulations that may have applicability in the future are listed here.
Jefferson Lab has no current obligations under the following regulations. If determined necessary
in the future, Jefferson Lab will take any appropriate action.
9 VAC 5-50-10 Applicability
9 VAC 5-50-20 Compliance
At all times, the disposal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) shall be accomplished by
taking measures consistent with air pollution control practices for minimizing
emissions. Jefferson Lab minimizes emissions of VOCs through evaporation by
storing VOC containing solvents, paints, adhesives, and fuels in covered
containers. For additional information see Chapter 6610 Chemical Hygiene.
9 VAC 5-50-270 Standard for Major stationary sources (nonattainment areas)
9 VAC 5-80-1100 Permits - New and Modified Stationary Sources
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Any new sources or modifications to existing emission sources that may introduce
additional emissions to the ambient air must be identified. ESH&Q Reporting
should be kept informed of new equipment and changes to current emission
9 VAC 5-80-800 State Operating Permits – Applicability
9 VAC 5-80-1700 Permits for Major Stationary Sources and Modifications–Applicability
The provisions under this article apply to the construction of any major stationary
source or major modification done by increments and, to the prevention of any
significant deterioration areas. At present, there are no known planned sources
or modifications that would affect emissions at Jefferson Lab.
9 VAC 5-80-2000 through 9 VAC 5-80-2190
Applicability (major stationary source or modification) through Application Review
and Analysis.
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