Seismic and Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation of the Area of Influence of the Magdalena Submarine Fan, Offshore Northern Colombia* Andrea Fernanda Cadena Mendoza1 Search and Discovery Article #50971 (2014)** Posted June 30, 2014 *Adapted from oral presentation given at Geoscience Technology Workshop, Deepwater Reservoirs, Houston, Texas, January 28-29, 2014 **AAPG©2014 Serial rights given by author. For all other rights contact author directly. 1 Marathon Oil Technology, Houston, TX ([email protected]) Abstract Third and fourth order seismic and stratigraphic sequences based on 2D seismic data from the Northern offshore Colombia helped to depict the different depositional events from the Middle Miocene - Holocene time span, in the area of influence of the Magdalena Submarine fan. Based on this information, the location of potential reservoirs and the relation of deformation with deposition were established. Selected References Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH), 2009, Cuenca Guajira. Open Round Colombia 2010. http://anh.gov.co/media/presentaciones_open_round_2010/Cuenca_Guajira_Geol_Gustavo_Montenegro.pdf Cadena, A.F., 2012, Middle Miocene – Holocene stratigraphic evolution of the Magdalena Submarine Fan: implications for deepwater architectural elements distribution in a tectonically active basin, offshore Colombia: M.S. Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 300 p. Cadena, A.F., and R. Slatt, 2014 Seismic and sequence stratigraphy interpretation of the area of influence of the Magdalena Submarine Fan, Offshore northern Colombia: Interpretation, v. 1/1, p. SA53-SA74. Corredor, F., J.H. Shaw, and T. Villamil, 2003, Complex Imbricate Systems in the Southern Caribbean Basin, Offshore Northern Colombia: Advanced Structural and Stratigraphic Analysis, and Implications for Regional Oil Exploration: Bolivarian Symposium VIII – Oil Exploration in the Sub-Andean Basins, pp. 46-56. Duque-Caro, H., 1978, Observaciones generales a la bioestratigrafía y geología regional en los departamentos de Bolívar y Córdoba: Boletín de Geología de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, v. 24, p. 71-87. Duque-Caro, H., and R. Reyes, 1999, Biostratigraphy study integrating seismic data of the Guajira region (onshore and offshore): Technical Report, Colombian Petroleum Institute –ICP-Ecopetrol S.A., p. 1-130. Escalante, C., 2005, Integrated seismic stratigraphic and 1-D basin analysis of the Tayrona depression: offshore Baja Guajira basin, Colombia: M.S. Thesis, University of Oklahoma. Mitchum, Jr., R.M., P.R. Vail, S. Thompson, III, 1977, Part two, The depositional sequence as a basic unit for stratigraphic analysis, in C.E. Payton, eds., Seismic Stratigraphy – Application to hydrocarbon exploration: American Association of Petroleum Geologist Memoir 26, p. 53-62. Nino, C., 2005, S Petroleum systems unfurnished da da north Sinu-San Jacinto, Colombia: uma integrated geological and geochemical avaliação: M.Sc Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2013 p. Pince, J., C. Osorio, B. Mouly, and J. Amaral, 2003, Tertiary Depositional Environments And Reservoir Properties In The Sinú Accretionary Prism (Offshore - Colombia): VIII Simposio Bolivariano – Exploracio Petrolera en las Cuencas Subandinas, p. 348-359. Rincon, D.A., J.E. Arenas, C.H. Cuartas, A.L. Cardenas, C.E. Molinares, C. Caicedo, and C. Jaramillo, 2007, Eocene-Pliocene planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy from the continental margin of the southwest Caribbean: Stratigraphy, v. 4/4, p. 261311. Romero, G., 2009, Deep-water Sedimentary Processes in an Active Margin, Magdalena Submarine Fan, Offshore Colombia: Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 322 p. Sangree, J.B., and J.M. Widmier, 177, Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level; Part 9, Seismic interpretation of clastic depositional facies, in C.E. Payton, Seismic stratigraphy; applications to hydrocarbon exploration: AAPG Memoir 26, p. 165-184. Taboada, A., and L. Rivera, 2000, Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation (Colombia): Tectonics, v. 19, p. 787-813. Andrea Fernanda Cadena Mendoza Petrophysicist, Subsurface Technology' Marathon 011 January, 28th 2014 Why is this relevant ?? Data available and methodology Geological Setting Stratigraphic Characterization Seismic Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy Stratigraphic evolution Magdalena Submarine Fan Implications for Hydrocarbons Exploration Conclusions Acknowledgements Questions Submarine Fan Size Variation The Magdalena Submarine fan is located in an active margin where deposition is controlled by deformation. It’s size, tectonic deformation and active sedimentation provide the opportunity to complement current studies (Prather, 2000; Steffens et al., 2003; Jennette et al., 2003; Jennette et al., 2003; Smith, 2003; Prather, 2003) about sedimentary processes in complex slopes. Magdalena (A) Northern offshore Colombia is a frontier basin where exploration has been intensified lately (Equion Energia, Petrobras, Chevron), although pure structural play concepts alone don’t apply to this setting. Sedimentology is also important. Bibliography Study Seismic Stratigraphy • Study of previous work to improve data base. Age control of seismic sequences. • Seismic interpretation using P. Vail’s approach. • Structural interpretation. • Seismic sequences delineation / Age control – Well tie. • Chronostratigraphic chart. • Curve of changes in accommodation space. Sequence Stratigraphy Framework • Identification of stratigraphic indicators of sea level fluctuations. Progradational reflectors, onlap, toplap, truncations and erosional channels. Log pattern recognition and environments from biostratigraphy. Evolution of the margin Discussion • Compilation and discussion of stratigraphic evolution of the northern margin of Colombia and the Magdalena submarine fan. Location Area of Study PL I OCE N E _ PLE I STOCE N E SEQ U E N CES EARLY MI OCE N E TO LATE MI OCE N E SEQ U E N CES Modified from Romero, 2009 and Corredor et al., 2003. Cadena et al., 2014 6 ). Modified Modified from from Pince Pince et et al.,al., 2003. 2003. CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC CHART MY AGE REGIONAL TECTONIC EVENTS ENVIRONMENTS j~ ~o ", cr 0 mm NW SINU ~ > ~ ~ w m m 1.8 5.3 11. 2 23. ~ "- llJ Z llJ 0 :;; Late ~e lta Central Cordillera " - Collision Panama Arc OnN. S.Am. COOeo Block accretion "-' Late 33. 7 '"' ~ Early w Late :z w U 0 w 53. ~ ii5 u 5l li! 65 ;;; Deltaic on shel f Late ~~ Earty " II Middle carly Eastward migration of Caribbean Plate: Uplift Perija, Santa Marta, Central Cordillera Uplift San Jacinto Belt L5 ~ "'I ~II OJ..!.. ConiacianMaastrichtian ~ ~ ,. Aby ss al! Slope ..--..; ' ~ --s: cr=- ~~ ........ III II "---~~~~-----~-----~~ ~ _-os.;: ~ TUBARA r----~~~~~~~~ FLORESANTO - CARMEN PORQUERO ~ CIENAGA DE ORO ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~--. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ TOLUVIEJ L. ~~~~~/~ ~ ~ ~~~-- ~~=-L"""'~- ~ , . I=~ ?--~""-~""-'"'-'"'- , , , , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ '----.lS4l:l.C~EJkl>LO..::2::.. ""-'~~~~~ .~. High sed . ra te Western Cordillera .~ «: ~ ?~~ Submarin e f ans ~ :>- ~~~""'-""'-'"'-""'-""------~""- ~~ ~ Sh elf erosion Incised vall ey Shallow marin eSubmarine fa ns :...: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ IV Quiescence Tectonic = 0 Previous delt aic sand rew orked as slop e turbidi tes . ... .. .... ~. ' ~' \: : :: ..... ·· .. 0 I Q~~ V to the..?~u t h .... CERRITO· ZAMBRANO· RANCHO -~~ Early ~ ~ ::;7 - Up/it San Jacinto Belt, ~ c "' : ''' 0~ POPA - SINCELEJO VI -",-",-",--,--/,-",-~-,--/,-~ Deltaic deposit sturbidite s 'L5" Middle Magd alena Ri ve r Sy st em In tra Slope Sub-basin Paroxysmal Andean Phase E merg ence Panama Isthmus Colombian Trench U) Early PLIOCENE U 16. L lU Late PLIOCENE ~ 180 Km . Approx ~ ~ Uplift SINU PRISM LOWER MAGDALENA 0 w PLEISTOCENE SE SAN JACINTO I ~ ~~ 0 ~ - - - - - - -", ,.", ,-", ,-", ,-", ,." ., , ." ., , -" ., , -" ., ,-" -, ,-", ,-" -, ,-" -, ,--", ,." -, _I, _I, 1~ I 1 ~ I , ,, .............." ~~;rr!~~ D D 0.. Fluvio - Deltaic Shallow marine I Sandstone D Basin Floor Fans [2;j ,- Oceanic Crust IS2l Piggy back Basin infill G:::l Cristalline Basement D Deep marine cherts & basalts Shallow marine Shales 1=1 Deep Water Shales Turbidites I Submarine Fans Modified from Pince et al., 2003 Seismic Stratigraphy Depositional sequence is defined as “a stratigraphic unit composed of a relatively Cadena et al., 2014 conformable succession of genetically related strata and bounded at its top and base by unconformities or their correlative conformities” (Mitchum et al, 1977). Type Seismic Line with distribution of Seismic Sequences Cadena et al., 2014 Seismic sequences I to VIII were obtained from Escalante, (2005) which had age control in the area. Characteristic of Seismic Sequences Cadena et al., 2014 Characteristic of Seismic Sequences Cadena et al., 2014 Characteristic of Seismic Sequences Cadena et al., 2014 Areal Extension of Seismic Sequences Cadena et al., 2014 Extension of seismic sequence VI is determinate by deposition. Lack of good quality seismic image in deformed wedges and central fan area is responsible for limited interpretation of youngest seismic sequences. Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation 1 Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation Chronostratigraphic Chart Cadena, 2012 0.1 m.y Fourth order Cycles 1-5 m.y Third order Cycles Coastal Onlap Cadena, 2012 Fourth order Sequence Stratigraphy Cycles Cadena, 2012 Stratigraphic indicators of Sea Level fluctuations 21 Cadena et al., 2014 Farallon vs South America Plate Middle Eocene Oligocene Western Cordillera San Jacinto Belt Nazca/Cocos and Caribbean vs South America Plate Taboada et al., 2000. Late Cretaceous Taboada et al., 2000. Modified from Duque-Caro, 1978. Middle Miocene Cadena, 2012 Modified from Duque-Caro, 1978. Upper Miocene 24 Cadena, 2012 -:= ~b '--', - -j"1 "'" J ~ -~ -:= "" -~ ~~~ , ,- 1 "" ~ , -,r.:: ,, r-: r . . ., "i -r , h , "" r "'" -'", - ~ J ~ "'" ~ J , - J , -j"! , -~ "" , - r "'" , - , '" i , , ~-s , '" , - -- ,- ,- -~ ii "'" J r -., "i ~ J ,. -J "'" 1 ", , / -~ "'" ~ ~ J J -~ -~ ~ J TWT ms ~ PLlOCt:NE -1'LEI~'TOCI::NJ:: SEQUt:~ct;S Cadena, 2012 Modified from Duque-Caro, 1978. Pliocene Cadena, 2012 -:= ~b '--', - -j"1 "'" J ~ -~ -:= , ,- "" -~ ~~~ 1 "" ~ AGE EPOCHS , ,, - -,r.:: r-: r . . ., "i -r ~ J ~ "'" , -j"! ~~ ,/ ,0 0· " EARLY , -~ ~ "" , - r "'" , , , '" i -- ,- l' 0 0 0 0 0 , ,, ,- '" - -~ ii r -., "i "'" J ~ J ,. -J "'" 1 ", , / -~ "'" ~ ~ J J -~ -~ J COASTAL ONLAP CHANGES 3rd Order C clicit ,. <0 " '" '" 0 0 ~-s ~ - J r - , - J Transgression LATE MIDDLE , h , "" "'" -'", - 0 0 0 W 0 0 0 TWT ms ~ stillstand Periods SEALEVEL 4th Order C clicit N 0 0 0 0 0 0 Regression Sequence VIII Rise Fall /' TECTONO STRATIGRAPHIC EVENTS Caribbean plate subducion. Active deformation. Mud vulcanism/plutonism. Romero ' s (2009) stages of evolution. - --- ---------------------------------- . Romero, 2009 Reservoirs Erosional: East: 4th order cycles within Sequences III, IV, V and VI. Channel Elements PBB: Sequences VII and VIII. Steep slopes. Aggradational: Central Fan: Sequences V, VII and VIII. PBB: Sequences VII and VIII. Wide PBB and gentle slope. Levee-Overbank Central Fan: Sequences VII and VIII. PBB: Sequences VII and VIII. Wide PBB and gentle slope. Lobe Sandstones Central Fan: Sequence VIII. Toe of slope. PBB: Sequences VIII. Point of sediment entrance into the mini-basin. Traps Traps and seal are mainly associated with shale deposition above and below the potential reservoirs. Also, active structural deformation certainly has affected some areas (east and west deformed wedges), promoting hydrocarbon trapping. THERMAL MATURITY DIAGRAM 80 Exce/cnt 70 5u 60 ~ ~ :z: .. .... 50 E 01 40 + g ... '" Maturity Level 30 20 , ,,---------- 1------------------------------------- - ---------------------- 10 o 2 6 4 10 8 12 %TOC • San Jose-l I lI f\I1ero-l I .. k uchara • Ballena Almeja-l e Ephei n-l A Pavon-l .. Pto Est rella-l .... Sierra-l 19 Tairona-11 WTIrka-l Modified from ANH - Open Round, (2010). M.a San Jacinto Belt C RETACEOUS GEOLOGIC TIME Sinu Accretionary Prism ELEME TS & PROCESSES PETROLEUM PALEOGENE Eoc Oli Mio SO RCE ROCK RESERVOfR SEA L OVERBUR DEN T RA PS FORMATION GE ERATION/ MIGR ATION + CRITICA L MOMENT Modified from Nino, (2005). Eight third order (1 to 5 m.y) seismic sequences were identified. Seismic Sequence I to V were deposited in inner shelf to bathyal environments during Early Miocene to Late Miocene time. Seismic Sequence VII and VIII correspond to Magdalena Submarine Fan deposition. Fourth order stratigraphic events are present within each third order cycle. Fourth order cycles describe an increase in sea level from Early Miocene to middle Late Miocene (Tortonian) followed by a lowstand event that is permanent until Holocene. A third-order coastal onlap curve and fourth-order sea level curves have been constructed for the Magdalena Submarine Fan area of influence from seismic and well data. These curves can be utilized as a guide to predict the stratigraphic occurrence of reservoir, source, and seal rock. Coastal onlap changes marked by regressions and relative lowstand events will promote possible reservoir rock to be deposited in basinward locations; transgressions will be associated with source and seal deposition whereas stillstand coastal onlaps or highstand system tract will place potential reservoirs in more proximal locations. Deformation started during late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic time with the Farallon plate (Nazca plate) subduction beneath the South America plate. During Early Miocene time the Caribbean plate started its subduction against the South America plate. Maximum tectonic deformation took place during Late Miocene time due to the accretion of the Central American Arc in the southwest corner of the Caribbean plate. This event corresponds to the Andrean Orogeny and formed the two deformed wedges in the area of study. The oldest geologic record of the Magdalena Submarine fan corresponds to Late Miocene time in the Plato and Sucre canyons. The Magdalena Submarine fan was deposited sequentially in Luruaco (Late Pliocene), Galerazamba (Middle Pleistocene), north of Cartagena (Late Pleistocene), Cienaga de Santa Marta (Early Holocene) and near Barranquilla (current position). The area of study corresponds to a frontier basin where a petroleum system has not been proven, although potential reservoir such as channel-fills, sheet sandstones and levees are present in different third order sequences. Roger Slatt Conoco Phillips School of Geology and Geophysics. Ecopetrol S.A. PhD. Goria Romero and M.Sc. Carlos Escalante. Marathon Oil.