Seismic and Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation of the Area of

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Seismic and Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation of the Area of Influence of the Magdalena
Submarine Fan, Offshore Northern Colombia*
Andrea Fernanda Cadena Mendoza1
Search and Discovery Article #50971 (2014)**
Posted June 30, 2014
*Adapted from oral presentation given at Geoscience Technology Workshop, Deepwater Reservoirs, Houston, Texas, January 28-29, 2014
**AAPG©2014 Serial rights given by author. For all other rights contact author directly.
1
Marathon Oil Technology, Houston, TX ([email protected])
Abstract
Third and fourth order seismic and stratigraphic sequences based on 2D seismic data from the Northern offshore Colombia
helped to depict the different depositional events from the Middle Miocene - Holocene time span, in the area of influence of the
Magdalena Submarine fan. Based on this information, the location of potential reservoirs and the relation of deformation with
deposition were established.
Selected References
Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH), 2009, Cuenca Guajira. Open Round Colombia 2010.
http://anh.gov.co/media/presentaciones_open_round_2010/Cuenca_Guajira_Geol_Gustavo_Montenegro.pdf
Cadena, A.F., 2012, Middle Miocene – Holocene stratigraphic evolution of the Magdalena Submarine Fan: implications for
deepwater architectural elements distribution in a tectonically active basin, offshore Colombia: M.S. Thesis, University of
Oklahoma, 300 p.
Cadena, A.F., and R. Slatt, 2014 Seismic and sequence stratigraphy interpretation of the area of influence of the Magdalena
Submarine Fan, Offshore northern Colombia: Interpretation, v. 1/1, p. SA53-SA74.
Corredor, F., J.H. Shaw, and T. Villamil, 2003, Complex Imbricate Systems in the Southern Caribbean Basin, Offshore
Northern Colombia: Advanced Structural and Stratigraphic Analysis, and Implications for Regional Oil Exploration: Bolivarian
Symposium VIII – Oil Exploration in the Sub-Andean Basins, pp. 46-56.
Duque-Caro, H., 1978, Observaciones generales a la bioestratigrafía y geología regional en los departamentos de Bolívar y
Córdoba: Boletín de Geología de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, v. 24, p. 71-87.
Duque-Caro, H., and R. Reyes, 1999, Biostratigraphy study integrating seismic data of the Guajira region (onshore and
offshore): Technical Report, Colombian Petroleum Institute –ICP-Ecopetrol S.A., p. 1-130.
Escalante, C., 2005, Integrated seismic stratigraphic and 1-D basin analysis of the Tayrona depression: offshore Baja Guajira
basin, Colombia: M.S. Thesis, University of Oklahoma.
Mitchum, Jr., R.M., P.R. Vail, S. Thompson, III, 1977, Part two, The depositional sequence as a basic unit for stratigraphic
analysis, in C.E. Payton, eds., Seismic Stratigraphy – Application to hydrocarbon exploration: American Association of
Petroleum Geologist Memoir 26, p. 53-62.
Nino, C., 2005, S Petroleum systems unfurnished da da north Sinu-San Jacinto, Colombia: uma integrated geological and
geochemical avaliação: M.Sc Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2013 p.
Pince, J., C. Osorio, B. Mouly, and J. Amaral, 2003, Tertiary Depositional Environments And Reservoir Properties In The Sinú
Accretionary Prism (Offshore - Colombia): VIII Simposio Bolivariano – Exploracio Petrolera en las Cuencas Subandinas, p.
348-359.
Rincon, D.A., J.E. Arenas, C.H. Cuartas, A.L. Cardenas, C.E. Molinares, C. Caicedo, and C. Jaramillo, 2007, Eocene-Pliocene
planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy from the continental margin of the southwest Caribbean: Stratigraphy, v. 4/4, p. 261311.
Romero, G., 2009, Deep-water Sedimentary Processes in an Active Margin, Magdalena Submarine Fan, Offshore Colombia: Ph.
D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 322 p.
Sangree, J.B., and J.M. Widmier, 177, Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level; Part 9, Seismic interpretation of
clastic depositional facies, in C.E. Payton, Seismic stratigraphy; applications to hydrocarbon exploration: AAPG Memoir 26, p.
165-184.
Taboada, A., and L. Rivera, 2000, Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation
(Colombia): Tectonics, v. 19, p. 787-813.
Andrea Fernanda Cadena Mendoza
Petrophysicist, Subsurface Technology'
Marathon 011
January, 28th 2014
Why is this relevant ??
Data available and methodology
Geological Setting
Stratigraphic Characterization
Seismic Stratigraphy
Sequence Stratigraphy
Stratigraphic evolution Magdalena Submarine Fan
Implications for Hydrocarbons Exploration
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Questions
Submarine Fan Size Variation
The Magdalena Submarine fan is located in an
active margin where deposition is controlled by
deformation. It’s size, tectonic deformation and
active sedimentation provide the opportunity to
complement current studies (Prather, 2000;
Steffens et al., 2003; Jennette et al., 2003;
Jennette et al., 2003; Smith, 2003; Prather,
2003) about sedimentary processes in complex
slopes.
Magdalena
(A)
Northern offshore Colombia is a frontier basin
where exploration has been intensified lately
(Equion Energia, Petrobras, Chevron), although
pure structural play concepts alone don’t apply
to this setting. Sedimentology is also important.
Bibliography Study
Seismic Stratigraphy
• Study of previous work to improve data base. Age control of
seismic sequences.
• Seismic interpretation using P. Vail’s approach.
• Structural interpretation.
• Seismic sequences delineation / Age control – Well tie.
• Chronostratigraphic chart.
• Curve of changes in accommodation space.
Sequence Stratigraphy
Framework
• Identification of stratigraphic indicators of sea level fluctuations.
Progradational reflectors, onlap, toplap, truncations and erosional
channels.
Log pattern recognition
and environments from
biostratigraphy.
Evolution of the margin
Discussion
• Compilation and discussion of stratigraphic evolution of the
northern margin of Colombia and the Magdalena submarine
fan.
Location
Area of Study
PL I OCE N E _ PLE I STOCE N E SEQ U E N CES
EARLY MI OCE N E TO LATE MI OCE N E SEQ U E N CES
Modified from Romero, 2009 and Corredor et al., 2003.
Cadena et al., 2014
6
). Modified
Modified
from
from
Pince
Pince
et et
al.,al.,
2003.
2003.
CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC CHART
MY
AGE
REGIONAL TECTONIC
EVENTS
ENVIRONMENTS
j~
~o
",
cr
0
mm
NW
SINU
~
>
~
~
w m
m
1.8
5.3
11. 2
23.
~
"-
llJ
Z
llJ
0
:;;
Late
~e lta
Central Cordillera
"
-
Collision Panama Arc
OnN. S.Am.
COOeo Block accretion
"-'
Late
33. 7
'"'
~
Early
w
Late
:z
w
U
0
w
53.
~
ii5
u
5l
li!
65
;;;
Deltaic on
shel f
Late
~~
Earty
" II
Middle
carly
Eastward migration of
Caribbean Plate: Uplift
Perija, Santa Marta,
Central Cordillera
Uplift San Jacinto Belt
L5
~
"'I
~II
OJ..!..
ConiacianMaastrichtian
~
~
,.
Aby ss al! Slope
..--..; '
~
--s: cr=-
~~
........
III
II
"---~~~~-----~-----~~
~
_-os.;:
~
TUBARA
r----~~~~~~~~
FLORESANTO - CARMEN
PORQUERO
~
CIENAGA
DE ORO
~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~--.
~~~~~~~~~~~~
TOLUVIEJ
L.
~~~~~/~
~
~
~~~--
~~=-L"""'~-
~
, . I=~
?--~""-~""-'"'-'"'-
, , , ,
~
~ ~
~
~
~~~~~~~~~
~
'----.lS4l:l.C~EJkl>LO..::2::..
""-'~~~~~ .~.
High sed . ra te
Western Cordillera
.~
«: ~
?~~
Submarin e f ans
~
:>-
~~~""'-""'-'"'-""'-""------~""-
~~ ~
Sh elf erosion
Incised vall ey
Shallow marin eSubmarine fa ns
:...:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
IV
Quiescence Tectonic
=
0
Previous delt aic sand
rew orked as slop e
turbidi tes
. ... .. ....
~. ' ~'
\: : :: ..... ·· .. 0
I Q~~
V
to the..?~u t h
....
CERRITO· ZAMBRANO· RANCHO
-~~
Early
~
~
::;7
-
Up/it San Jacinto Belt,
~
c "' : ''' 0~
POPA - SINCELEJO
VI
-",-",-",--,--/,-",-~-,--/,-~
Deltaic deposit sturbidite s
'L5"
Middle
Magd alena Ri ve r Sy st em
In tra Slope Sub-basin
Paroxysmal Andean Phase
E merg ence Panama Isthmus
Colombian Trench
U)
Early PLIOCENE
U
16. L
lU
Late PLIOCENE
~
180 Km . Approx
~
~
Uplift SINU PRISM
LOWER
MAGDALENA
0
w
PLEISTOCENE
SE
SAN JACINTO
I ~
~~
0
~
- - - - -
-
-", ,.", ,-", ,-", ,-", ,."
., , ."
., , -"
., , -"
., ,-"
-, ,-", ,-"
-, ,-"
-, ,--", ,."
-,
_I, _I,
1~ I
1
~
I
, ,,
.............."
~~;rr!~~
D
D
0..
Fluvio - Deltaic
Shallow marine I Sandstone
D
Basin Floor Fans
[2;j
,-
Oceanic Crust
IS2l
Piggy back Basin infill
G:::l
Cristalline Basement
D
Deep marine cherts & basalts
Shallow marine Shales
1=1
Deep Water Shales
Turbidites I Submarine Fans
Modified from Pince et al., 2003
Seismic Stratigraphy
Depositional
sequence is defined as “a stratigraphic unit composed of a relatively
Cadena et al., 2014
conformable succession of genetically related strata and bounded at its top and base
by unconformities or their correlative conformities” (Mitchum et al, 1977).
Type Seismic Line with distribution of Seismic Sequences
Cadena et al., 2014
Seismic sequences I to VIII were obtained from Escalante, (2005) which had age control in the area.
Characteristic of Seismic Sequences
Cadena et al., 2014
Characteristic of Seismic Sequences
Cadena et al., 2014
Characteristic of Seismic Sequences
Cadena et al., 2014
Areal Extension of Seismic Sequences
Cadena et al., 2014
Extension of seismic sequence VI is
determinate by deposition. Lack of good
quality seismic image in deformed wedges
and central fan area is responsible for limited
interpretation of youngest seismic sequences.
Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation
Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation
Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation
1
Slope Healing Due to Sedimentation
Chronostratigraphic Chart
Cadena, 2012
0.1 m.y
Fourth order Cycles
1-5 m.y
Third order Cycles
Coastal Onlap
Cadena, 2012
Fourth order Sequence Stratigraphy Cycles
Cadena, 2012
Stratigraphic indicators of Sea Level fluctuations
21
Cadena et al., 2014
Farallon vs South
America Plate
Middle Eocene
Oligocene
Western Cordillera
San Jacinto Belt
Nazca/Cocos
and Caribbean
vs South
America Plate
Taboada et al., 2000.
Late Cretaceous
Taboada et al., 2000.
Modified from Duque-Caro, 1978.
Middle Miocene
Cadena, 2012
Modified from Duque-Caro, 1978.
Upper Miocene
24
Cadena, 2012
-:= ~b
'--', -
-j"1
"'"
J
~
-~
-:=
""
-~
~~~
,
,-
1
""
~
,
-,r.::
,,
r-:
r . . ., "i -r
,
h , "" r
"'" -'", -
~
J
~
"'"
~
J
, -
J
,
-j"!
,
-~
""
, -
r "'"
,
- , '" i , , ~-s , '"
, -
-- ,-
,-
-~
ii
"'"
J
r -., "i
~
J
,. -J "'" 1 ", , /
-~
"'"
~
~
J
J
-~
-~
~
J
TWT
ms
~ PLlOCt:NE -1'LEI~'TOCI::NJ:: SEQUt:~ct;S
Cadena, 2012
Modified from Duque-Caro, 1978.
Pliocene
Cadena, 2012
-:= ~b
'--', -
-j"1
"'"
J
~
-~
-:=
,
,-
""
-~
~~~
1
""
~
AGE EPOCHS
,
,,
-
-,r.:: r-:
r . . ., "i
-r
~
J
~
"'"
,
-j"!
~~
,/
,0
0·
"
EARLY
,
-~
~
""
, -
r
"'"
,
, ,
'" i
-- ,-
l'
0
0
0
0
0
,
,,
,-
'"
-
-~
ii
r -., "i
"'"
J
~
J
,. -J "'" 1 ", , /
-~
"'"
~
~
J
J
-~
-~
J
COASTAL ONLAP CHANGES
3rd Order C clicit
,.
<0
"
'"
'"
0
0
~-s
~
-
J
r -
, -
J
Transgression
LATE
MIDDLE
,
h , ""
"'" -'", -
0
0
0
W
0
0
0
TWT ms
~ stillstand Periods
SEALEVEL
4th Order C clicit
N
0
0
0
0
0
0
Regression
Sequence VIII
Rise
Fall
/'
TECTONO STRATIGRAPHIC
EVENTS
Caribbean plate subducion. Active deformation. Mud
vulcanism/plutonism. Romero ' s (2009) stages of
evolution.
- --- ---------------------------------- .
Romero, 2009
Reservoirs
Erosional: East: 4th order cycles within Sequences III, IV, V and VI.
Channel Elements
PBB: Sequences VII and VIII. Steep slopes.
Aggradational: Central Fan: Sequences V, VII and VIII.
PBB: Sequences VII and VIII. Wide PBB and gentle slope.
Levee-Overbank
Central Fan: Sequences VII and VIII.
PBB: Sequences VII and VIII. Wide PBB and gentle slope.
Lobe Sandstones
Central Fan: Sequence VIII. Toe of slope.
PBB: Sequences VIII. Point of sediment entrance into the mini-basin.
Traps
Traps and seal are mainly associated with shale deposition above and below the
potential reservoirs. Also, active structural deformation certainly has affected some
areas (east and west deformed wedges), promoting hydrocarbon trapping.
THERMAL MATURITY DIAGRAM
80
Exce/cnt
70
5u
60
~
~
:z:
..
....
50
E
01
40
+
g
...
'"
Maturity
Level
30
20
,
,,---------- 1------------------------------------- - ----------------------
10
o
2
6
4
10
8
12
%TOC
• San Jose-l I lI f\I1ero-l
I .. k uchara
• Ballena
Almeja-l
e Ephei n-l
A Pavon-l
.. Pto Est rella-l
.... Sierra-l
19 Tairona-11 WTIrka-l
Modified from ANH - Open Round, (2010).
M.a
San Jacinto Belt
C RETACEOUS
GEOLOGIC TIME
Sinu Accretionary
Prism
ELEME TS
& PROCESSES
PETROLEUM
PALEOGENE
Eoc
Oli
Mio
SO RCE ROCK
RESERVOfR
SEA L
OVERBUR DEN
T RA PS FORMATION
GE ERATION/ MIGR ATION
+
CRITICA L MOMENT
Modified from Nino, (2005).
Eight third order (1 to 5 m.y) seismic sequences were identified. Seismic Sequence I to V
were deposited in inner shelf to bathyal environments during Early Miocene to Late
Miocene time. Seismic Sequence VII and VIII correspond to Magdalena Submarine Fan
deposition.
Fourth order stratigraphic events are present within each third order cycle. Fourth order
cycles describe an increase in sea level from Early Miocene to middle Late Miocene
(Tortonian) followed by a lowstand event that is permanent until Holocene.
A third-order coastal onlap curve and fourth-order sea level curves have been constructed
for the Magdalena Submarine Fan area of influence from seismic and well data. These
curves can be utilized as a guide to predict the stratigraphic occurrence of reservoir, source,
and seal rock.
Coastal onlap changes marked by regressions and relative lowstand events will promote
possible reservoir rock to be deposited in basinward locations; transgressions will be
associated with source and seal deposition whereas stillstand coastal onlaps or highstand
system tract will place potential reservoirs in more proximal locations.
Deformation started during late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic time with the Farallon
plate (Nazca plate) subduction beneath the South America plate. During Early
Miocene time the Caribbean plate started its subduction against the South America
plate. Maximum tectonic deformation took place during Late Miocene time due to
the accretion of the Central American Arc in the southwest corner of the Caribbean
plate. This event corresponds to the Andrean Orogeny and formed the two deformed
wedges in the area of study.
The oldest geologic record of the Magdalena Submarine fan corresponds to Late
Miocene time in the Plato and Sucre canyons. The Magdalena Submarine fan was
deposited sequentially in Luruaco (Late Pliocene), Galerazamba (Middle Pleistocene),
north of Cartagena (Late Pleistocene), Cienaga de Santa Marta (Early Holocene) and
near Barranquilla (current position).
The area of study corresponds to a frontier basin where a petroleum system has not
been proven, although potential reservoir such as channel-fills, sheet sandstones and
levees are present in different third order sequences.
Roger Slatt
Conoco Phillips School of Geology and Geophysics.
Ecopetrol S.A.
PhD. Goria Romero and M.Sc. Carlos Escalante.
Marathon Oil.
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