the classroom management in improving students' speaking skill at

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i
THE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING
STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL AT IQRA BURU UNIVERSITY
MANAJEMEN RUANG KELAS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN
KETERAMPILAN BERBICARA MAHASISWA
DI UNIVERSITAS IQRA BURU
RIKI BUGIS
P0600213430
ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES PROGRAM
POST GRADUATE PROGRAM
HASANUDDIN UNIVERSITY
MAKASSAR
2015
ii
THE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING
STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL AT IQRA BURU UNIVERSITY
Thesis
as a partial fulfillment to achieve Master Degree
English Language Study
Submitted by
RIKI BUGIS
To
ENGLISH LANGUGAE STUDIES PROGRAM
POST GRADUATE PROGRAM
HASANUDDIN UNIVERSITY
MAKASSAR
2015
iii
iv
PRONOUNCEMENT
I would like to certify that the thesis entitled “The Classroom
Management in Improving Students’ Speaking Skill at Iqra Buru
University” is really my own work. It is not plagiarism or made by others.
Everything related to others‟ works is written in quotation, the sources of
which are listed on the bibliography.
If then, this pronouncement proves wrong; I am ready to receive any
academic punishment.
Makassar, 12 November 2015
Riki Bugis
v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Alhamdulillah I express to the Almighty God Allah SWT, lord of the
world whohas been giving blessings and mercies so I could finish my study.
I would have never been able to finish my thesis without the guidance
of my committee members, helps from my friends and support from my
family.
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to
my consultants, Dr. H. Mustafa Makka, M.S and Dr. Hj. Sukmawaty, M.Hum,
for their guidance throughout my thesis with their patience and knowledge
whilst allowing me space to work on my own.
The same gratitude I offer to my thesis committee members, Prof.
Abdul Hakim Yassi, Dipl. TESL, M.A, Dr. H. Fathu Rahman, M.Hum and Dra.
Herawaty Abbas, M.Hum., M.A, Ph.D for their encouragement, corrections,
and insights to the better result of my thesis composition.
Other sincere thanks goes to the lecturers of Iqra Buru University for
giving me opportunity to conduct my research on the place, and also thanks
to the students for willing to participate in my research and for their very good
cooperation. Thanks to my beloved parents Mr. Sundussin Bugis and
Sukainah, My beloved Sisters and Brothers, Nursanti Sundu, Nelda Sundu,
vi
Nana Sumiati, Rizal Bugis, Hamdan Bugis, and also my brothers in law
Husen Waliulu, Abd. Rahman Kabau and Maslihu Fadly. Thank you for
always encouraging me and supporting me spiritually and materially
throughout my life. Thanks for all your best wishes.
I also would like to thank to my friends, Andi Sudarmin Azis,
Syamsuddin, Zulkifli Akhmad, Khaerudin, Dian Resty, Nuzul Hijra Safitri,
Nasra, Ika Sastrawati, Sarniati Nuru, Ardhy, Umar and all my friends in ELS
program in academic years 2013/2014 for sharing the moments of
togetherness to the finishing process of my study, and for doing me lots of
favors and giving support. Thank you for sharing me another precious time in
my life.
Last but not least, I‟d like to express my gratitude to Mohammad
Saleh Tuharea. S.Hut.,MT, Rosnani. S.Ag, Saidna Zulfikar Bin Tahir,
Lc.,M.Pd, Bunda Tithy and her Husband, Mrs. Resa Bahta, S.Pd.,M.Pd,
A‟Laam Ul-Haq Manusamal, Riany Tasiana, Andika Julian Kalauw, Nena
Rahayaan, Musdalifah Nur Samsu, Irvan Ode Idi, Dewi Mahulete, Syamsudin
Niapele, Abu Novan Malawat, Mulyati Umasugi, Hamida Latuconsina, Dewi
Hukom, Nelma hatala, Hatmiati Bugis, Taken, Syekha Alhamid, Liana Moga,
Ifnu Ayu Riska Umaternate, S.IP, Wahyun kurniawati, Arman Tasalisa, Hasia
Fatsey and Indrih M. Sainun for giving me motivation, suggestion, and always
company me in every condition in my life.
vii
ABSTRAK
RIKI BUGIS. Manajemen Ruang Kelas untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan
Berbicara Siswa di Universitas Iqra Buru (Dibimbing oleh H. Mustafa Makka
dan Hj. Sukmawaty)
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pengaturan
tempat duduk dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara mahasiswa
semester 2 pada jurusan Bahasa Inggris di Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Iqra
Buru.
Partisipan dalam penelitian adalah mahasiswa semester 2 yang
berjumlah 30 orang di Universitas Iqra Buru. Penelitian ini menggunakan
bentuk penelitian kuasi experimental, dimana terdapat dua grup yaitu grup
control dan grup eksperimen. Pengaturan tempat duduk berbentuk Orderly
Rows diimplementasikan kepada grup kontrol sedangkan untuk eksperimen
berbentuk Circle.. Data di kumpulkan dengan menggunakan dua jenis
instrumen penelitian yakni tes dan rekaman. Data dianalisis dengan
menggunakan program SPSS versi 20.0
Hasil menunjukan bahwa pengimplementasian pengaturan tempat
duduk dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara siswa dalam hal ini
akurasi, fluensi dan komprehensi. Hal ini didukung oleh nilai rata-rata posttest
(74.48) siswa lebih besar dari hasil pretest (56.07). selain itu terdapat pula
korelasi yang signifikan antara akurasi, fluensi dan komprehensi pada
perkembangan keterampilan berbicara.
Kata kunci: Manajemen ruang kelas, pengaturan tempat duduk dan
kemampuan berbicara siswa.
viii
ABSTRACT
RIKI BUGIS. Classroom Management in Improving Students’ speaking skills
at Iqra Buru University (Supervised by H. Mustafa Makka and Hj.
Sukmawaty).
This research aimed to find out to what extent seating arrangement
improve students‟ speaking skills at the second semester students of English
Department of Letters Faculty at Iqra Buru University.
The participants of this research were 30 students of Iqra Buru
University. This research employed quasi experimental design, which consist
of two groups namely control group and experimental group. Control group
were treated by implementing orderly rows seating arrangement while for
experimental were treated by implementing circle seating arrangement. The
data were collected by using two kinds of research instruments namely test
and recorder. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis SPSS program,
version 20.0.
The result shows that the implementation of seating arrangement can
improve students‟ speaking skill in term of accuracy, fluency and
comprehensibility. It is supported by the mean score of the students‟ posttests
(74.48) was higher than pretests (56.07). In addition, there is also significant
correlation among accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility.
Keyword: Classroom Management, Seating Arrangement, Speaking Skill.
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE SHEET
i
APPROVAL FORM
ii
PRONOUNCEMENT
iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
v
ABSTRAK
vii
ABSTRACT
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ix
LIST OF TABLES
xi
LIST OF FIGURES
xiv
LIST OF APPENDICES
xv
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
a. Background
1
b. The Research Question
6
c. The Objective of the Research
6
d. Significance of the Research
7
e. Scope of the Research
7
CHAPTER II REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE
A. Previous Studies
8
B. Classroom Management
10
C. Seating Arrangement
14
D. The Concept of Speaking
18
E. Conceptual Framework
35
x
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Research Method
36
B. Population and Sample
37
C. The Instrument of the Research
38
D. Research Variable
39
E. Technique of Data Analysis
39
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
A. Findings
46
1. The Students‟ Speaking Achievement in Term of Accuracy,
Fluency and Comprehensibility
46
2. The Correlation among Accuracy, Fluency and
Comprehensibility
B. Discussion
1. The Improvement of Students‟ Speaking Skill
69
71
71
2. The Correlation among Accuracy, Fluency and
Comprehensibility in Speaking
CHAPTER V
78
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
80
B. Suggestion
81
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES
xi
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 3.1
Speaking Marking Scheme by Heaton
40
Table 3.2
The Score Criteria of Speaking Accuracy
41
Table 3.3
The Score Criteria of Speaking Fluency
42
Table 3.4
The Score Criteria of Speaking Comprehensibility
43
Table 3.5
The Scoring Classification of Students' Speaking Skill
44
Table 3.6
Interval Correlation based on Jonathan Sarwono
45
Table 4.1
Scoring Classification of Students' Pretest in term of
Accuraccy
47
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ score in Term of
Accuracy
48
Scoring Classification of Students' Pretest in term of
Fluency
49
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ score of Fluency in
Control Group and Experimental Group
50
Scoring Classification of Students' Pretest in term of
Comprehensibility
51
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ pretest in term of
Comprehensibility
52
Scoring Classification of Students' Posttest in term of
Accuraccy
53
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Accuracy
54
Table 4.2
Table 4.3
Table 4.4
Table 4.5
Table 4.6
Table 4.7
Table 4.8
xii
Table 4.9
Scoring Classification of Students' Posttest in term of
Fluency
Table 4.10 Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Fluency
Table 4.11 Scoring Classification of Students' Posttest in term of
Comprehensibility
55
56
57
Table 4.12
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Comprehensibility
58
Table 4.13
Scoring Classification of Students‟ Speaking skill in
Pretest
59
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Speaking Skill
between Control and Experimental Group in Pretest
60
Scoring Classification of Students‟ Speaking Skill in
Posttest
61
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Speaking Skill in
Posttest
62
Table 4.17
Normality Test of Students‟ Speaking Skill
64
Table 4.18
Homogeneity Variance
experimental group
Table 4.14
Table 4.15
Table 4.16
Table 4.19
Table 4.20
Paired Sample Statistics
Posttest in Control Group
between
Control
and
64
between
Pretest
and
65
Paired Sample Correlation between Pretest and
Posttest in Control group
65
Pair Sample T-Test between Pretest and Posttest in
Control Group
66
Table 4.22
Paired Sample Statistics in Experimental Group
66
Table 4.23
Paired Sample Correlation between Pretest and
Posttest in Control and experimental Group
67
Table 4.21
xiii
Table 4.24
Table 4.25
Table 4.26
Pair Sample T-Test between Pretest and Posttest in
Experimental Group
67
Independent sample T-Test
Experimental group in Pretest
in
68
Independent sample T-Test
Experimental group in Posttest
in
Control
Control
The Correlation between Accuracy and Fluency
Table 4.28
The
Correlation
Comprehensibility
Table 4.29
The
Correlation
Comprehensibility
and
69
Table 4.27
between
and
Accuracy
70
and
70
between
Fluency
and
71
xiv
LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.4
Figure 4.5
Figure 4.6
Figure 4.7
Figure 4.8
Mean Score Difference between Control and
experimental Group in term of Accuracy in Pretest
49
Mean Score Difference between Control
experimental Group in term of Fluency in Pretest
51
and
Mean Score Difference between Control and
experimental Group in term of Comprehensibility in
Pretest
53
Mean Score Difference between Control and
experimental Group in term of Accuracy in Posttest
55
Mean Score Difference between Control
experimental Group in term of Fluency in Posttest
57
and
Mean Score Difference between Control and
experimental Group in term of Comprehensibility in
Posttest
59
Mean Score Difference between Control and
Experimental Group in Term of Speaking in Pretest
61
Mean Score Difference between Control and
Experimental Group in Term of Speaking in Posttest
63
xv
LIST OF APPENDICES
page
Appendix 1
Speaking Marking Scheme by Heaton
86
Appendix 2
The Score Criteria of Speaking Accuracy
87
Appendix 3
The Score Criteria of Speaking Fluency
88
Appendix 4
The Score Criteria of Speaking Comprehensibility
89
Appendix 5
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy
(Pretest Control )
90
Appendix 6
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy
(Posttest Control )
91
Appendix 7
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy
(Pretest Experimental )
92
Appendix 8
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy
(Posttest Experimental )
93
Appendix 9
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency (Pretest
Control )
94
Appendix 10
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency
(Posttest Control )
95
Appendix 11
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency (Pretest
Experimental )
96
Appendix 12
Students‟ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency
(Posttest Experimental )
97
Appendix 13
Students‟
Speaking
Score
in
Comprehensibility (Pretest Control )
Term
Appendix 14
Students‟
Speaking
Score
in
Comprehensibility ( Posttest Control )
Term
of
Appendix 15
Students‟
Speaking
Score
in
Term
Comprehensibility ( Pretest Experimental )
of
of
98
99
100
xvi
Appendix 16
Students‟
Speaking
Score
in
Term
Comprehensibility ( Posttest Experimental )
of
101
Appendix 17
Students‟ Speaking Score in Pretest (Control group )
102
Appendix 18
Students‟ Speaking Score in Posttest (Control group )
103
Appendix 19
Students‟ Speaking Score in Pretest (Experimental
group )
104
Appendix 20
Students‟ Speaking Score in Posttest (Experimental
group)
105
Appendix 21
Descriptive Statistic of Students Accuracy in Pretest
and Posttest (Control and experimental group)
106
Appendix 22
Descriptive Statistic of Students Fluency in Pretest
and Posttest (Control and experimental group)
107
Appendix 23
Descriptive Statistic of Students Comprehensibility in
Pretest and Posttest (Control and experimental group) 108
Appendix 24
Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Speaking Score in
Pretest and Posttest (Control and experimental group) 109
Appendix 25
The Output of Normality Test in Students‟ Speaking
Appendix 26
The Output of Homogeneity Test in Students‟ 111
Speaking
Appendix 27
The Output of Pair T-Test for Control Group
112
Appendix 28
The Output of Pair T-Test for Experimental group
113
Appendix 29
The Output of Independent T-Test for Pretest
114
Appendix 30
The Output of Independent T-Test for Posttest
115
Appendix 31
The output of Correlation among Accuracy, Fluency
and comprehensibility
116
Appendix 32
The Sample of Speaking Text Script (Pretest and 117
Posttest)
110
1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with the background, problem statement, the
objectives of the research, significance of the research and Scope of the
research.
A. Background
English is an important language in the globalization era where
people from many countries used it as lingua franca to communicate each
other in daily activities. People will have an additional skill which can be used
to compete in the globalization era if they are able to communicate using this
language.
In Indonesia, the government realizes that English competency has
an impact on global development not only for education purpose but also for
carrier purpose. The importance of English cannot be denied and ignored.
English has been playing a major role in many sectors. There are some
reasons why learning English is important. The first, students can get highquality job. In business, language that commonly used is English. The
second, learners will be able to communicate with other people around the
world. The last, learners will be easy to get the data all over the world. (Tari,
et al. 2013).
2
Indonesia
had
implemented
school-based
curriculum
which
accommodates the actual needs and condition of the school. This curriculum
provides space to include the local needs as well as the national standard as
developed by the department of national education. Among a list of subjects,
English is considered as one of the most important subject.
In a university, English is a general course that should be taught in all
departments. The objective of teaching English is to provide the students with
communicative ability in order that the students are able to communicate.
There are four skills that should be mastered by the students in order to be
able to speak English well, those are listening, reading, writing and speaking.
Among of those, speaking skill perhaps the most important skill for success in
learning a language. However, in mastering speaking is not easy as we
thought. Mogrovejo and Ayabaca (2013) in Adnyani, et al (2013) revealed
that speaking is one of the skill which most difficult to be developed by the
students because of some factors such as pronunciation, grammar structure,
lack of vocabulary, or just because of the low motivation.
As happened at Iqra Buru University, the only one university which is
located in Buru Island, Maluku Province where English speaking subject is
presented into four semesters. Each level has description as follows:
a. Speaking 1, the students are taught basic speaking skill, starting from
greetings, introducing oneself and others, etc., to make them capable of
using simple sentences in daily conversation;
3
b. Speaking 2, the various functions/topics are introduced further to the
students in this subject to allow them speak English well in daily
conversation.
Relevant
vocabularies
and
intonation
will
also
be
incorporated in the subject through many kinds of practice;
c. Speaking 3, teaches students how to express their ideas while interacting
in English;
d. Speaking 4, emphasizes on various strategies used in speaking to allow
students to interact more advanced in English.
(Taken from functional syllabus of Iqra Buru University).
Even though English speaking subject are taught till fourth semester,
but the students at Iqra Buru University still have problem with speaking.
Based on the observation at English and Literature Department of University
of Iqra Buru (UNIQBU) in Buru Island, Maluku Province, the researcher gets
some problems that occur, such as: (1) many students cannot communicate
each other in English either in the classroom or outside the classroom. They
are frequently vacuum and passive in English communication; (2) many
students are not interested in joining the speaking class. The students‟ lack of
opportunity to practice, and some lecturers are hardly to choose and to create
teaching techniques and teaching activities.
Furthermore, Rasyid in Jabu (1995: 24) states that the factors that
cause the English teaching failure are: (1) the big number of students in each
class, more than 20, (2) the minimum of meeting frequency, (3) the
4
unavailability of learning source center, the library which prepares authentic
materials for the students, (4) the unavailability of multimedia, (5) the low
motivation of students, and (6) the unprofessional English teacher.
In solving those problems, teacher should provide effective plans or
strategies to fulfill students‟ needs, whose general purposes to communicate
using the language being learnt. It means teacher have responsible to make
students speak English by employing suitable teaching strategies. The means
of teaching strategies in this research is not only refers to teaching
methodology but also classroom management, or how the teachers manage
their classroom.
Generally, classroom management refers to the process where a
teacher organizes and controls students‟ movement, behavior and interaction
during a lesson. Teacher‟s job in the classroom is to create the conditions in
which effective learning can take place. In order to make a course effective, a
teacher should have the skill to manage the classroom, and it can be done
through teacher‟s positive attitude, intentions, personality and a good
relationship between teacher and the students. It also requires certain
organizational skills such as task organization, lesson organization and
techniques, Wright (1987:51)
Paramita (2013) states that when the teacher does not have any
sufficient knowledge about classroom management, they could not easy to
maintain their class and give a good model for students for their learning. She
5
also added, if the classroom is not managed properly, ineffectiveness of
learning will become disadvantage for the teacher‟s achievement.
Classroom management includes grouping and seating, setting up
activities, time management, teacher‟s control, proper start and end the
lesson, maintaining discipline, using proper tool and techniques, giving
instruction, monitoring, etc.
Ming-Tak and Wai-Shing (2008) suggested four major components of
classroom management. One of those is management of the physical
environment. According to them, to ensure students‟ comfort and provide
them with a pleasant atmosphere for learning, teacher need to create the best
possible physical environment. One of the most parts of physical environment
is seating arrangement. Seating arrangement is a very important factors in
the process of beginning a lesson smoothly and promptly. (Laslett and Smith,
2008:1). It also plays an important role to make the learners more involved in
the class and also can help students in interacting with different people.
Moreover, students who are weaker have less chance of hiding themselves
and the students who are stronger have less chance to dominate in the
classroom.
Seating arrangement can be associated with other aspect of
classroom management such as instruction, giving motivation, classroom
interaction, forming groups, monitoring, maintaining discipline, etc. if seating
arrangement of a classroom is not set up properly, it may affect the other
6
aspect of classroom as well. It also becomes difficult to grab learners‟
attention if the seating arrangement is not proper.
Considering those explanation above, the researcher thinks need to
conduct the research about classroom management in improving students‟
speaking skill at Iqra Buru University.
B. The Research Questions
In the light of the issues put forward in the background, two questions
will be addressed in this research as follows:
1. To what extent does seating arrangement improve students‟ speaking
skill?
2. How is the correlation between accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility in
speaking ?
C. The Objective of the Research
In relation to the research question above, the objectives of the
research are as follows:
1. To find out to what extent seating arrangement improve students‟
speaking skill.
2. To
find
out
the
correlation
comprehensibility in speaking
between
accuracy,
fluency
and
7
D. Significance of the Research
Generally, this study is significat to give theoritical description about
the importance of seating arrangement in improving students‟ speaking skills,
in term of accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility. Practically, this study is
expected to give an insight that the use of of seating arragement should be
taken into account by the lecturers in their teaching preparation.
E. Scope of the Research
This study focused on two kinds of seating arrangement, circle and
orderly rows seating arrangements which applied by English speaking
lecturer to improve students‟ speaking skill at the second semester students
of English Letters Faculty of Iqra Buru University, in Academic Year
2014/2015. The qualities of students‟ speaking skills would be measured in
terms of accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility by using Speaking marking
scheme by Heaton (1988; 98).
8
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter deals with previous studies, Classroom Management,
Seating arrangement, the concept of speaking, and conceptual framework.
A. Previous Studies
1. Bonus & Riordan (1998), conducted a research under the title “Increasing
Student on-Task Behavior Through the Use of Specific Seating
Arrangements” they concluded that the causes of students having trouble
staying on task were related to seating arrangement, seating proximity to
the teacher, ability levels, and lesson taught. The leading factor in off-task
behavior was noted to be the seating arrangements.
2. Wengel (1992) conducted his research under the title “Seating
Arrangements: Changing with the Times”. He investigated the factors
influencing teachers‟ choices of seating arrangement and what the best
seating arrangement to use. The study depended on observing four
teachers in the first to fourth grades and interviewing them. Teachers‟
participating in study used the horseshoes, rows and columns and cluster
setting for the first, second and third grades respectively. He stated that
9
there was no one seating arrangement that was better than the other. He
explained that choosing a seating arrangement should be based on the
class needs, the interaction patterns aimed at and the teaching styles.
3. In their study on “The Effect of Classroom Seating Arrangement on
Students’ Behavior”, Rosenfield et al. (1985) observed three experimental
classrooms of fifth and sixth grades during class discussions in rows,
clusters and circles. They observed certain behaviors like hand-raising,
listening, discussion comments, on-task out-of-order comments, oral
responses, as well as withdrawal and off-task behaviors. Major results of
their research showed that there were no significant differences in
listening, discussion comments and disruptive behaviors as related to the
different seating arrangements.
4. Hastings & Schwiesco (1995) “Tasks and Tables: The Effects of Seating
Arrangements on Task Engagement in Primary Classrooms”.
They
conducted a study in Great Britain investigating the effects of seating
arrangements on task engagement. The results showed an increase in the
quality and quantity of work and the behavior.
From some previous studies above, the researcher find the gaps that
makes this research different from the previous study, as follows :
10
1. Level of the Respondent
In the previous studies, the respondent were the the students at
secondary level where English become their first language. While the present
study, the respondents are English speaking lecturer and the students at
university level.
2. Aspect of the Research
The present study was conducted to improve students‟ speaking skills
while the previous study was conducted to find out students‟ behavior in
learning and also the effect of seating arrangement towards students‟ task.
B. Classroom Management
1. Definition Classroom Management
If the teacher wants to manage classrooms effectively, she/he has to
be able to handle a range of variables. These include how the classroom
space is organized whether the students are working on we appear to the
students, and how teacher uses their most valuable asset our voice.
Classroom management is about all the strategies used by the teacher inside
the classroom in order to reduce students‟ misbehavior, and to create a
suitable atmosphere that help students in developing their learning skills.
Oliver and Reshchly (2007:44) define classroom management as the
ability of teacher to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their
student to achieve positive educational outcomes. In addition, effective
11
teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom. In
contrast, well managed classroom provide an environment in which teaching
and learning can flourish. (Marzano and Pickering 2003:1)
Tsui (2003:138) assumed that classroom management is refer to
aspects of classroom organization, such as conducting individuals, pairs, or
group work , maintaining order; dealing with disruptive behavior, and handling
daily business, such as collecting assignment and taking roll class.
Based on the explanation above the researcher conclude that teachers
must have the abilities and experiences in managing their class in order to be
success in teaching process. Furthermore, having knowledge about the
teaching strategies is not enough to be good teachers, but also they should
have the ability to manage their class and improve it.
2. Typology of classroom management.
When managing the classroom, it is important for teacher to manage
all the aspects that refers to the right circumstances which will help them in
developing teaching and learning process. Bachar (2010: 3) outlined that
there are four aspects in managing classrooms. They are Physical
environment, managing learning, procedures and rules, and managing
discipline.
12
a) Managing Physical Environment
Managing physical environment where teaching and learning
process take place is very important because a good progression and
effective interaction of both students and teachers cannot take place
without appropriate atmosphere and well managed environment. Ming
Tak and Wai-Shing (2008:47) outlined that physical environment involves
the management of floor space, wall space, countertop space, shelf,
cupboard and closet space and the general ambience.
b) Managing Learning
Managing learning is the teachers‟ responsibility and it is the main
role can any teachers play. Teachers are required to prepare validity
lessons with the necessary materials and audio-visual aids in addition to
assessing both students‟ progression and material used as well as the
good planning for the sequences of the lessons‟ parts in the allotted time.
Managing learning can include managing activities which are the main
issues that make students involve and interact in the classroom.
c) Classroom Procedures and Rules
Teacher must set up their principle from the beginning to do not let
the students go out of their control and disturb the learning process.
Oliver and Reschly, (2007:07) claim that teacher should be aware of the
students‟ negative and positive behavior and must prepare the right
13
feedback for each behavior. These expectation deal with any kind of
behaviors allow teachers to get the respect of the students and to
decrease disruptive behavior that could have a bad impact on the
development of the students‟ learning.
Rules and procedure are very important to be applied. Brophy and
Evertson (1986:16) asserts that teachers‟ achievement could be reached
by the explanation of the objectives of the rules and the objectives behind
using them, so students will acknowledge and respect them. Maxom
(2009:30) set a group of procedures and rules that teacher can apply to
manage classroom:
- Students should not come late, but latecomers must not make
disruption.
- Each student must have his/her own material.
- Students must not misbehave in the classroom.
- Students are not allowed to smoke, to eat, nor to use mobiles.
- Students should not speak in the class unless they get the
permission from the teacher.
Source: Procedures and Rules adopted from Maxom.
d) Managing Discipline
Discipline is about the rules teachers apply in order to decrease
students‟ misbehavior and make the classroom environment suitable for
the smooth running of the teaching and learning process. Every teacher
has their own procedures and rules which they are not acceptable to be
14
broken by the students. However if the students did not obey the
teacher‟s rule, teachers may have them warm.
C. Seating arrangement
Seating arrangements are the main part in teaching plan for classroom
management. Baron (1992:13) believed that seating arrangement should be
treated as a priority when thinking of classroom with maximum on task
behavior.
Teacher‟s position in the classroom is very important factor of classroom
management. To communicate with all students in the classroom, teacher
sometimes need to move from one place to another place which requires
some free space in class. Jones (2000) in Ming-Tak and Wai-Shing,(2008:49)
stated that leaving sufficient space in the classroom is very important to give
teachers easy and efficient access to different groups of the students. He
added that movement areas of the classroom should be free from congestion
to avoid disruptive behavior.
Harmer (1998:31-32) suggest three types of seating arrangements.
Those are:
1. Orderly Rows
In orderly rows seating arrangement, both teacher and students can
see each other clearly and can have eye contacts. Maintaining discipline is
15
easier in this seating arrangement. Teacher can also walk up and down if
there is an aisle and can have personal interaction with the students. This
type of arrangement is suitable for watching a video, using the board,
explaining a grammar point, demonstrating text organization etc. where the
teacher can work with the whole class. Teacher needs to engage the whole
class while working with them in this arrangement and for this teacher must
move round. Orderly row is best suited for medium to large classrooms.
However, there are some disadvantages of this seating arrangement. In this
kind of seating arrangement, the teacher could not maintain the students‟
behavior. Besides, the teacher could not move easily from one place to one
place to watch the students‟ movement or attitude during the lesson given.
2. Circles and Horseshoes
In smaller classes, many teachers and students prefer circles or
horseshoes. In a horseshoe, the teacher will probably be at the open end of
the arrangement since that may well be where the board, overhead projector
and/or computer are situated. In a circle, the teacher‟s position - where the
board is situated - is less dominating. Classes which are arranged in a circle
make quite a strong statement about what the teacher and the students
believe in. The Round Table in the British and French legends about King
Arthur was specially designed so that there would not be arguments about
who was more important than who - and that included the king himself when
16
they were in a meeting. So it is in classrooms. With all the people in the room
sitting in a circle, there is a far greater feeling of equality than when the
teacher stays out at the front. This may not be quite so true of the horseshoe
shape where the teacher is often located in a commanding position but, even
here, the rigidity that comes with orderly rows, for example, is lessened. If,
therefore, teachers believe in lowering the barriers between themselves and
their students, this kind of seating arrangement will help. There are other
advantages too, chief among which is the fact that all the students can see
each other. In an „orderly row‟ classroom, you have to turn round - that is,
away from the teacher - if you want to make eye contact with someone
behind you. In a circle or a horseshoe, no such disruption is necessary. The
classroom is thus a more intimate place and the potential for students to
share feelings and information through talking, eye contact or expressive
body movements (eyebrow-raising, shoulder-shrugging, etc) is far greater.
3. Separate Tables.
Even circles and horseshoes seem rather formal compared to classes
where students are seated in small groups at individual tables. In such
classrooms, you might see the teacher walking around checking the students‟
work and helping out if they are having difficulties - prompting the students at
this table, or explaining something to the students at that table in the corner.
When students sit in small groups at individual tables, it is much easier for the
17
teacher to work at one table while the others get on with their own work. This
is especially useful in mixed-ability classes where different groups of students
can benefit from concentrating on managing the classroom different tasks
(designed for different ability levels). Separate table seating is also
appropriate if students are working around a computer screen, for example
where students are engaged in collaborative writing or where they are
listening to different audio tracks in a jigsaw listening exercise
However, this arrangement is not without its own problems. In the first
place, students may not always want to be with the same colleagues; indeed,
their preferences may change over time. Secondly, it makes „whole-class‟
teaching more difficult, since the students are more diffuse and separated.
Ramsden (1999:3), proposed five common types of seating
arrangement which can be used by the teachers. Those are:
1. Cluster
Clusters are scattered in different places of the classroom and there
is enough space between two clusters so that the chairs do not smack each
other and the teacher can easily move from one place to another. This
seating arrangement consist of four to five desk together facing each other.
2. Desk Rows
Desk rows are the traditional seating arrangement. In this seating
arrangement, desk are placed in several rows facing towards the front of the
18
classroom. There is a gap between each desk so the teacher can walk back
and forth without moving anything.
3. Table Rows
Long tables are placed in rows vertically from the front to back of the
room. Students sit next to each other. It is suitable for group work because
the purpose of this seating arrangement is collaborative learning.
4. Semi-Circle
Semi-circle seating arrangement consists of few desks touching each
other placed in semi-circle shape. All desks are faced in front of classroom. In
this arrangement, both teacher and students can see each other.
5. Pairs
Pairs consists of two desks are placed together. Each pair of desks is
away from other pairs. Students are faced towards the front of the class in
this seating. Teacher in this seating arrangement, can walk around the whole
class and monitor the students easily.
D. The Concept of Speaking
2. Nature of Speaking
Speaking is one of the language skill that most important in our daily
life. As stated by Nunan (1998:39) that mastering the art of speaking is the
19
most important aspect of learning the second or foreign language. People do
communicate and do social interaction in order to fulfill their needs. By
speaking, we can express our ideas, opinion, and our thought to the other
people.
We can speak English naturally because we have been able to
communicate since we were born. As the natural means of communication,
speaking is the process of transmitting a message from the people and it can
be done if there are two or more people involved.
According to harmer (2001:46-47) there are three reasons why people
communicate. First, because they want to say something. As he explained,
the word “want” refers to the desire of the speaker in order to communicate
with other people. Means, people do communicate because they did not want
to remain silent. Second, they have some communicative purposes. By
having communicative purposes it means that speaker expect there is
feedback as a result of what he/she said. For example, someone may
express a request if they need a help from the other people, or they
command if they want other to do something. Thus, two things are important
in communicating they are the message they wish to deliver and the feedback
that they expected to have. Third reason is the consequences of the desire to
say something and the purpose in conducting communicative activities. As
they have language storage, they will select language expression appropriate
to get message across to other people. He added that when two people
20
communicate, each of them normally has something that they need to know
from the other.
3. Definitions of Speaking
Finochiaro in Sukrianto (2005: 22) claimed that speaking is a real
language, which means that the capability to communicate in a language can
be shown through the skill of speaking. The skill of speaking refers to the
students‟ skill to express mind or feeling orally. One function of speaking is to
communicate ideas in situation where the other person is listening to words
and can be in front of the speaker, looking at the gesture and facial
expression. In other words, we can say that speaking is the skill or capability
to deliver messages directly.
Clark and Clark in Goga (2004: 27) stated that speaking is
fundamentally an instrument act. Speakers talk in order to have some effect
on their listeners. They assert things to change their state of knowledge. They
ask them questions to get them to provide information. They request thing to
get them to do thing for them.
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that
involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994,
Burn and Joyce, 1997: 63). Therefore, speaking involves speaker and hearer
for the communication occur. In short, speaking is an action to communicate
with other for shared thoughts, ideas to get the information.
21
Based on the explanation above, the researcher concluded that
speaking is the skill to use of language in ordinary way of speech. It is not
only matter of transferring some massages to another but also is
communication which needs more than one person to communicate with.
4. Components of Speaking Skills
There are three components of speaking skill introduced by Heaton
(1988: 100), they are:
a. Accuracy
Accuracy in speaking means when someone can produce correct
sentences in pronunciation, grammar and word choice so it can be
understood.
There
are
three
components
of
accuracy.
They
are
pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar
1) Pronunciation.
According to Alexander et al. (1998: 830) pronunciation is the way in
which a language or a word particular is pronounced. Teaching pronunciation
deals with recognition or understanding the flow of speech and production of
words. Teaching pronunciation is intended students can produce English
speech which is intelligible in the areas where they use it. When a teacher
teaches English, he makes sure that the students‟ utterances can be
understood. They need to be able to say what they want to say. This means
that students‟ pronunciation should be at least adequate for the purpose.
22
It is obviously, sending message orally without acceptable and good
pronunciation is impossible. Certainly, pronunciation cannot be separated
from intonation and stress. Pronunciation, intonation and stress are largely
learnt successfully by imitating and repetition. Therefore, the teacher should
have good standard of pronunciation in order that the students can imitate the
teacher in teaching and learning process.
According to Carter and Nunan (1993: 147), pronunciation plays a
central role in both personal and social intercourse. Correct pronunciation is
the pronunciation that almost same with the native speaker and correct based
on the phonological. When the students have good pronunciation, it will be
easy to make sense what they say.
2) Vocabulary.
When speaking the language, the speaker conveys words based on
his mind. Words are the means of communication. Literally, word has a
meaning that is used in a certain proper context. Word is known as
vocabulary used in structural sentence.
Simon and Schuster in Amin (2006: 38) defined vocabulary as (1) a list
of words and sometimes phrases, usually arranged in alphabetical order and
defined; a dictionary; glossary or lexicon, (2) all the words of a language, and
(3) all the words used by a particular person, class, profession, etc.,
sometimes all the words recognized and understood by a particular person,
although not necessarily used by that person.
23
Vocabulary is total number of words which (with rules for combining
them) make up a language. It consists of content words; noun, verb, adjective
and function words such as preposition, conjunction, article and pronoun.
3) Grammar
Grammar is one of the major language components. It pertains to
sentence and word. It figures the categories such as noun, subject,
imperative clause, and so on. One often presupposes that speaking
communicatively does not have to use grammar. However, we sometimes do
not realize that by ignoring grammar, we can misunderstanding which maybe
it is not bad in relax conversation but it can really bring about serious bad
effect in formal conversation.
Simon and Schuster in Amin (2006: 20) defined grammar as the part of
the study of language which deals with the forms and structure of words
(morphology) and with their customary arrangement in phrases and
sentences (syntax), formerly used to denote all phrases of language study
(except that of the detailed meaning of words), as centered on morphology
and syntax, and now often distinguished from the study of pronunciation
(phonology) and that of word meanings (semantics). It can be said that a
grammar is the system of word structures and word arrangements of a given
language at a given time.
24
b. Fluency
Speaking performance does not lie totally only on accuracy as
mastering the language system but it also lays on the fluency as using the
language system communicatively, and without too much hesitation.
In Longman dictionary (1998), fluency is defined as the features that
give speech the qualities of being natural and normal.
Richard and Rodgers (2001: 90) stated that fluency is the skill to
produce written or spoken language easily. This indicates that spoken
language is produced naturally with hurtles. They also added fluency is the
skill to speak with a good but not necessarily perfect command of intonation,
vocabulary and grammar.
Based on the above description, the researcher argues that fluency is
the skill to produce communicative language even though it is not in perfect
utterances but in continuous speech and smooth. It asks students to perform
it naturally as long as understandable and communicable.
c. Comprehensibility
Comprehensibility is the process of understanding of the utterances
sent by the speaker done by the listener. Also comprehensibility in speaking
means that people can understand what we say and we can understand what
they say. Harmer (1998: 107) says that if two people want to make
communication to each other, they have to speak because they have different
25
information. If there is a „gap‟ between them, it is not a good communication if
the people still confuse with what they say.
Clark and Clark in Amina (2008: 25) stated that comprehensibility has
two common senses. In its narrow sense it denotes the building of meaning
and utilizes the speech act conveyed. For example, a question, listener
extracts the importation then tries to search the answer for it.
5. Problem in Speaking and the Way to Solve it
Ur (1996: 121) describes several problems facing in speaking activities
and the way to solve the problem as follows:
a. Problem in Speaking
1) Inhibition.
Unlike reading, writing and listening activities, speaking requires some
degree of real-time exposure to an audience. Learners are often
inhibited about trying to say things in a foreign language in the
classroom: worried about making mistakes, fearful or criticism or losing
face, or simply shy of the attention that their speech attracts.
2) Nothing to say.
Even if they are not inhibited, you often hear learners complain that
they cannot think of anything to say: they have no motive to express
themselves beyond the guilty feeling that they should be speaking.
26
3) Low or uneven participation.
Only one participant can talk at the time if he or she is to be heard; and
in a large group this means that each one will have only very little
talking time. This problem is compounded by the tendency of some
learners to dominate, while others speak very little or not at all.
4) Mother tongue use.
In classes where all, or a number of, the learners share the same
mother tongue, they may tend to use it: because it is easier, because it
feels unnatural to speak to one another in a foreign language, and
because they feel less „exposed‟ if they are speaking their mother
tongue. If they are talking in small group it can be quite difficult to get
some classes-particularly the less disciplined or motivated one-to keep
to the target language.
b. The problem solving of speaking
1) Use group work.
This increases the sheer amount of learner talk going on in a limited
period of time and also lowers the inhibitions of learners who are
unwilling to speak in front of the full class.
2) Base the activity on easy language
In general, the level of language needed for a discussion should be
lower than used in intensive language-learning activities in the same
27
class: it should be easily recalled and produced by the participants, so
they can speak fluently with the minimum of hesitation. It is a good
idea to teach or review essential vocabulary before the activity starts.
3) Make a careful choice of topic and task to stimulate interest.
On the whole, the clearer the purpose of the discussion the more
motivated participant will be.
4) Give some instruction or training in discussion skills.
If the task is based on group discussion then include instructions about
participation when introducing it. For example, tell learners to make
sure that everyone in the group contributes to the discussion; appoint a
chairperson to each group who will regulate participation.
5) Keep students speaking the target language
You might appoint one of the groups as monitor, whose job it is to
remind participants to use the target language, and perhaps report
later to the teacher how well the group managed to keep to it. Even if
there is no actual penalty attached, the very awareness that someone
is monitoring such lapses help participants to be more careful.
However, the best way to keep students speaking the target language
is simply to be there yourself as much as possible, reminding them and
modeling the language use yourself: there is no substitute for nagging.
28
Related to mother tongue use Harmer (1996: 132) suggests several
actions to promote the use of the target language. Firstly, the teacher needs
to „set clear guidelines‟, making it straightforward when mother tongue is
permissible and when it is not. Secondly, it is important to „choose appropriate
tasks‟, i.e. tasks which the students, at their level, are capable of doing in the
target language. Harmer points out that it is not wrong to „stretch‟ students
„with
challenging
activities
which
engage
them,
but
it
is
clearly
counterproductive to set them tasks they are unable to perform‟. Furthermore,
it is advisable to create an English atmosphere. Harmer suggests giving
students names in the target language and making English the classroom
language as well as the language to be learnt. Using friendly encouragement
persuasion might also play its role, such as going around to students and
saying things like: „Please, speak English! Stop using Turkish/Arabic, etc.‟ In
case these strategies do not work, Harmer suggests stopping the activity and
telling students there is a problem, which might change the atmosphere so
that students go back to the activity with a new determination.
Those
generally ensure that most students are speaking English most of the time.
Therefore, before conducting the class it is necessary that teacher do
and know things dealt with preparation. As Pollard (2008: 33-34) says there
are three key elements to remember when planning and setting up speaking
activities;Language used, Preparation, and Why are the students speaking?
29
a. Language
When planning any speaking activity with students, analyze carefully
the language they will be using to carry out the activity. If you use an activity
from an EFL book, you will probably find comments on the language. If not,
think about what you would say yourself when doing the activity and consider
whether your students have learnt the language items yet. Don‟t make any
assumptions about students‟ knowledge. Spend some time in class reviewing
the language that will be used. If students don‟t have the language required to
carry out the task, the results will be de-motivation and frustration. Students
might even resort to doing the task in their own language. Of course, you can
work on the language in one lesson and review it very quickly in the following
lesson before doing the speaking work.
b. Preparation
Preparation is vital as it will help students to speak more easily. One
aspect of preparation is warming students up to the subject matter. If they are
to communicate well, it‟s important to engage them in the topic. This can be
done by checking their prior knowledge and experience of the topic; e.g. if the
speaking task is based on driving in big cities, ask them about their
experiences of driving in big cities, what they think about it, do they have any
anecdotes or unpleasant experiences they could share with the class?, and
so on. This phase can also be used to introduce vocabulary. It‟s also
important to give students time to prepare what they are going to say and
30
how they‟re going to say it. This preparation can be done in pairs or groups.
Give them time to consider their ideas and think about the language they will
use. They can also do mini-rehearsals, which will build up their confidence
and improve the end result.
c.
Reason for Speaking
Students need to feel that there is a real reason for speaking. This is
often referred to as the communicative element. Make sure there is a reason
for speaking; i.e. that the students are communicating something the others
don‟t know or that the others would like to hear about. Examples of tasks
involving real communication include: information gap, tasks involving an
element of persuasion, problem solving and role play. Finally, as with all
aspects of teaching, it is important to introduce variety and to choose topics
that you think will interest your students.
6. Principles and Approaches for Teaching English
Brown (2007: 331-332) on his book Teaching by Principles wrote
principles for teaching speaking skill, they are;
a. Focus on both fluency and accuracy depending on your objective.
b. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques.
Try at all times to appeal to students‟ ultimate goals and interests, to
their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and
autonomy, and for being all that they can be”. Helping them to see how
31
the activity will benefit for them. Often students don‟t know why we ask
them to do certain things; it usually pays to tell them.
c. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.
d. Provide appropriate feedback and correction.
In most EFL situations, students are totally dependent on the
teacher for useful linguistic feedback. In ESL situations, they may get
such feedback “out there” beyond the classroom, but even then you are in
a position to be a great benefit. It is important that you take advantage of
your knowledge of English to inject the kinds of correction feedback that
are appropriate for the moment.
e. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening.
Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course
include listening. Don‟t lose out on opportunities to integrate these two
skills. As you are perhaps focusing on speaking goals, listening goals may
naturally coincide, and the two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in
producing language are often initiated through comprehension.
f. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication
A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by
teacher initiation of language. We ask questions, give directions, and
provide information, and students have been conditioned only to “speak
when spoken to”. Part of oral communication competence is the skill to
32
initiate conversations, to nominate topics, task questions, to control
conversations, and to change the subject. As you design and use
speaking techniques, ask yourself if you have allowed students to initiate
language.
g. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
The students need encouraging to develop their own personal
strategies for accomplishing oral communicative purposes, such strategies
as :
1) Asking for clarification (What?)
2) Asking someone to repeat something (Huh? Excuse me?)
3) Using fillers (Uh, I mean, Well) in order to gain time to process
4) Using conversation maintenance cues (Uh-huh, Right, Yeah, Okay,
Hm)
5) Using paraphrases for structures one can‟t produce
6) Appealing for assistance from the interlocutor (to get a word or phrase,
for example)
7) Using formulaic expression (at the survival stage) (how much
does____cost? How do you get to the ____?)
8) Using mime and nonverbal expression to convey meaning.
33
7. Classroom Speaking Activities
Harmer (1998: 271-275) presents the most widely-used activities in
classroom speaking;
a. Acting from a Script
The students act out scenes from plays and/or their course books,
sometimes filming the results or act out dialogue they have written
themselves.
b. Communication Games
Games which are designed to provoke communication between
students frequently depend on an information gap in which one students has
to talk to a partner in order to solve a puzzle, draw a picture (describe and
draw), put things in the right order (describe and arrange), or find similarities
and differences between pictures. „twenty questions‟, „just a minute‟, „call my
bluff‟, and „fishbowl‟ are some of game names.
c.
Prepared Talks
In which students make a presentation on a topic of their own choice
and are not designed for informal spontaneous conversation.
d. Questionnaires
Students can design questionnaires on any topic that is appropriate.
As they do so the teacher can act as a resource, helping them in the design
process. The results obtained from questionnaires can then form the basis for
written work, discussions, or prepared talks.
34
e. Simulation and Role-play
Students simulate a real-life encounter (such as a business meeting,
an encounter in an aero plane cabin, or an interview) as if they were doing so
in the real world, either as themselves in that meeting or aero plane, or taking
on the role of a character different from themselves or with thoughts and
feelings they do not necessary share. Simulation and role-play can be used to
encourage general oral fluency, or to train students for specific situations
especially where they are studying ESP.
8. Characteristics of a Successful Speaking Activity
Ur (1996: 120), proposes some characteristics of successful speaking
activity, namely:
a. Learners talk a lot. As much as possible of the period of time allotted to
the activity is in fact occupied by learner talk.
b. Participation is even. Classroom discussion is not dominated by a
minority of talkative participations: all get a chance to speak, and
contributions are fairly evenly distributed.
c.
Motivation is high. Learners are eager to speak: because they are
interested in the topic and have something new to say about it, or
because they want to contributed to achieving a task objective.
35
Language is of an acceptable level. Learners express themselves in
utterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other, and of an
acceptable level of language accuracy.
E. Conceptual Framework
Teaching Speaking
Classroom Management
Seating Arrangement
Experimental
Group
Circle
Control Group
Treatmen
Students’ Speaking Skills
Orderly Rows
36
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter covers with research method, subject of the research,
instrument of the research and technique of data analysis
A. Research Method
This research was aimed to determine existence of casual relationship
between two research variables.
The research was designed in quasi-
experimental type in which there were a control and an experimental group.
Gay and Alrasian (2006:159) state that sometimes it is just not possible to
randomly assign individual participants to groups. For example, to receive
permission to use school children in a study, a researcher often has to agree
to keep existing classrooms intact. Thus, entire classrooms, not individual
students are assigned to treatments.
When randomly assignment is not
possible, a researcher still may choose from a number of quasi experimental
designs that provide adequate control of sources of in-validity.
As in this research, the circle seating arrangement was treated to the
experimental group, while the control group had orderly rows seating
arrangement of teaching. At the end, the result of pre-test and post-test from
37
control and experimental groups were compared to seek the significant
difference.
B. Population and sample
Population is any group of individuals who have single or more
common characteristics in certain areas (Best, 1981:8). Silalahi (2012: 253)
states that population is units of selected sample that can be organism,
individuals or group society, organization, things, objects, phenomena, or
reports which have unambiguous definition of its characteristics. The
population of the research were English Speaking lecturer and English
department students of Letters faculty in Iqra Buru University, Buru Island,
Maluku Province. The students consisted of one class and the number of the
students was 30 students. In this case, the researcher chose the sample by
using purpossive technique sampling in which one class acted as the control
group, while the other class was the experimental group, and each class
consisted of 15 students. The reason for choosing the sample was due to the
consideration that those students were taking speaking course in the second
semester.
To ensure that the sample of this research was in the same level of
competence, the researcher did small talk with a lecturer who taught speaking
subject and the lecturer gave information about the students‟ level of ability.
38
Furthermore, in choosing sample, the researcher took from the
students pre-test‟ score. Here the researcher steps in choosing the sample:
1. The first step, the researcher scored the students‟ writing narrative text from
pre-test score and put them from the highest to the lowest score.
2. After that, the researcher chose the students who had odd number as a
sample.
C. The Instrument of the Research
Kerlinger (1965:118) states an instrument plays important role in a
study in which reliability of instrument will influence on the reliability of
obtained data. In collecting the data, the researcher employed two kinds of
research instrument, as follows:
1. Speaking test
Speaking test was used to assess the students‟ speaking skills in term
of accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility. It was applied in pre-test and
post-test. The pre-test was intended to find out the prior level of the students‟
speaking skills before giving treatment, while post-test was aimed to find out
the improvement of the students‟ speaking skills after giving treatment.
39
2. Recorder
Recorder was used to record the students‟ speaking. In this case,
according to Heaton (1988: 88), recorder functions to provide accurate
analysis based on information that is expressed by the speaker.
D. Research Variable
This research applied quasi-experimental design in which its aim was
to seek the casual effect between two variables, namely independent and
dependent variables. Independent variable was the variable that causes a
change, and in this research it referred to the kinds of seating arrangement.
While dependent variable was the variable that changes as the effect from
independent variable itself.
Students‟ achievement in speaking was the
dependent variable of this research.
E. Technique of Data Analysis
1. Speaking Test
a. Scoring
In avoiding the subjectivity in assessing students‟ speaking score, the
researcher used three inter-raters to score the students‟ speaking. The
scoring of the tests (pretest-posttest) can range from an impression mark to a
mark arrived at on the basis of a fairly detailed marking schemes in present
day use.
40
Table 3.1 Speaking marking scheme by Heaton (1988; 98)
Rating
Ability to communicate orally
6
Excellent: on a par with an educated native speaker. Completely
at ease in his use of English on all topics discussed.
5
Very good: although he cannot be mistaken for a native
speaker, he expresses himself quite clearly. He experiences
little difficulty in understanding English, and there is no strain at
all in communicating with him
4
Satisfactory verbal communication causing little difficulty for
native speaker. He makes a limited number of errors of
grammar, lexis, and pronunciation but he is still at ease in
communicating on everyday subjects.
3
Although verbal communication is usually fairly satisfactory, the
native speaker may occasionally experience some difficulty in
communicating with him. Repetition, re-phrasing and repatterning are sometimes necessary
2
Much difficulty experienced by native speakers unaccustomed
to „foreign‟ English. His own understanding is severely limited,
but communication in everyday topics is possible. Large number
of errors of phonology, grammar, and lexis
1
Extreme difficulty in communication on any subject. Failure to
understand adequately and to make himself understood
The students‟ speaking on several pretests and posttests will be
recorded, transcribed, and rated them. The transcription and score are
subject to analyze using the following criteria level introduced by Heaton
(1988: 100).
41
1) Accuracy
Students‟ scores on accuracy were classified based on the criteria in
the following tables:
Table 3.2 the Score Criteria of Speaking Accuracy (Heaton: 1988)
Classification Score
Criteria
Excellent
6
Pronunciation is only slightly influenced by the
mother tongue. Two or three minor grammatical
and lexical errors
Very Good
5
Pronunciation is only slightly influenced by the
mother tongue. A few minor grammatical and
lexical errors but most utterances are correct.
Good
4
Pronunciation is still moderately influenced by
mother tongue but not serious phonological
errors. A few grammatical and lexical errors but
not only one or two major errors causing
confusion.
Average
3
Pronunciation is influenced by mother tongue
only a few phonologies errors. Several
grammatical and lexical errors some of which
cause confusion.
Poor
2
Pronunciation is seriously influenced by mother
tongue with errors causing a breakdown in a
communication. Many grammatical and lexical
errors
Very Poor
1
Serious pronunciation errors as many basic
grammatical and lexical errors. No evidence of
having mastered any of the language skills and
areas practiced in the course.
42
2) Fluency
Table 3.3 the Score Criteria of Speaking Fluency (Heaton: 1988)
Classification Score
Criteria
Excellent
6
Speaks without too great an effort with fairly wide
range of expression. Searches for words
occasionally by only one or two unnatural pauses
Very Good
5
Has to make an effort at time to search for words.
Nevertheless, smooth delivery on the whole and
only a few unnatural pauses
Good
4
Although he has to make an effort and search for
words, there are not too many unnatural pauses.
Fairly smooth delivery. Occasionally fragmentary
but succeed in conveying the general meaning.
Fair range of expression
Average
3
Has to make an effort for much of the time. Often
has to search for the desired meaning. Rather
halting delivery and fragmentary. Range of
expression often limited.
Poor
2
Long pauses while he searches for the desired
meaning. Frequently fragmentary and halting
delivery. Almost give up making the effort at times
limited range of expression.
Very Poor
1
Full of long unnatural pauses. Very halting and
fragmentary delivery. At times gives up making
the effort, very limited range of expression.
43
3) Comprehensibility
Table 3.4 the Score Criteria of Speaking Comprehensibility (Heaton: 1988)
Classification Score
Criteria
Excellent
6
Easy for the listener to understand the speaker‟s
intention and general meaning. Very few
interruptions or clarification required
Very Good
5
The speaker‟s intention and general meaning are
fairly clear. A few interruptions by the listener for
the sake of clarification are necessary
Good
4
Most of what the speaker says is easy to follow.
His intention is always clear but several
interruptions are necessary to help him to convey
the message or to seek clarification.
Average
3
The listener can understand a lot of what is said,
but he must constantly seek classification. He
cannot understand many of the speaker‟s more
complex or longer sentences.
Poor
2
Only small bits (usually short sentence and
phrases) can be understood and then with
considerable effort by someone who is listening to
the speaker.
Very Poor
1
Hardly anything of what is said can be
understood. Even when the listener makes great
effort or interrupts, the speaker is unable to clarify
anything he seems to have said.
Then the obtained scores were analyzed using descriptive and
inferential statistics.
44
b. Converting the Scores
The final scores of the students‟ speaking skill convert by using the
score from Heaton score 1 up to 6 and the Depdiknas score of students
divided by the top of Heaton‟s band score (6) multiplied by the two of
depdiknas‟s score (100). Converting the scores was used the following
formula:
The gain score
A student‟s score =
The maximal score
X 100
(Adopted from conventional scoring formula by Depdiknas, 2005)
c. Classifying the Score
After converting the students‟ scores using the formula above, the
score can be classified into six levels as follows:
Table 3.5 The Scoring Classification of the Students Speaking Skill
Score
Classification
Criteria
80 – 100
A
Very Good to Excellent
66 – 79
B
Good
56 – 69
C
Average
41 – 55
D
Poor
≤ 40
E
Very Poor
(Adapted from Panduan Penilaian di Universitas Iqra Buru, 2008).
45
d. Calculating the Mean Score and Standard Deviation
In calculating the mean score and standard deviation of the students
speaking skill (accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility), the researcher used
SPSS program version 20.0.
e. Correlation Score
In calculating the correlation score, the researcher used Jonathan‟s
interval correlation to find out whether the data are correlated each other or
not. it can be seen in the table below.
Table 3.6 interval correlation based on Jonathan Sarwono
46
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter particularly presented the findings of the research and the
discussion of findings. The result of the data analysis was presented in
findings part, and further explanation was presented in discussion part.
A. Findings
1. The Students’ Speaking Achievement in Term of Accuracy, Fluency
and comprehensibility
This part explains about the result description of the research
through the scoring classification of pretests and posttests on components of
speaking skills i.e. accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility.
a. Scoring Classification of Students’ Pretest and Posttest
In this part, researcher presented the students‟ pretest and posttest
scores in term of accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility to see it frequency
and percentage both of control group and experimental group.
47
1) Students’
Pretest
in
Term
of
Accuracy,
Fluency
and
Comprehensibility
a) The Students’ Pretest in Term of Accuracy
Before giving treatment, pre-test was carried out to both control and
experimental group. The students‟ score (see appendix 5-16) then was
analyzed and classified into six levels of speaking test based on Heaton
(1998).
Table 4.1 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Pretest in Term of Accuracy
Control Group
Experimental group
Students
score Classification
‟ Initial
RAA
78
Good
1
Students‟
Initial
ARM
2
AT
67
Good
AA
67
Good
3
AUM
67
Good
IKW
67
Good
4
AJK
61
Average
ASL
61
Average
5
LLS
61
Average
DW
61
Average
6
RT
61
Average
FW
61
Average
7
SB
61
Average
HU
61
Average
8
ADR
56
Average
NT
61
Average
9
ESP
56
Average
UW
61
Average
10
SYH
56
Average
MLD
56
Average
11
FB
50
Poor
RW
56
Average
No
Score
Classification
72
Good
48
12
FS
50
Poor
UJS
56
Average
13
RM
50
Poor
EP
50
Poor
14
RB
44
Poor
Y
44
Poor
15
SYS
39
Poor
IW
39
Poor
56.73
Average
Mean
58.6
Average
Mean
4.2. Descriptive Statistics of students‟ score in term of Accuracy
Accuracy
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Error
Std.
Deviation
Variance
Control
15
33
39
72
851
56.73
2.321
8.988
80.781
Experimental
15
39
39
78
879
58.60
2.433
9.425
88.829
Valid N (listwise)
15
From the tables above show that the lowest score gain in both
groups were 39 and the highest score for control group was 72, while in the
highest score for experimental group was 78. Furthermore, the data also
show that the mean score of control group was 56.73 with standard deviation
was 8.988 and experimental group was 58.60 with standard deviation was
9.425. The mean score difference between control group and experimental
group in term of accuracy can be seen in the following figure.
49
Figure 4.1 Mean Score Difference between Control Group and Experimental
Group in Term of Accuracy
Mean Score Difference in Term of Accuracy
59
58.5
58
57.5
58.6
57
56.5
56.73
56
55.5
Control Group
Experimental Group
b) Students’ Pretest Score in Term of Fluency
Table 4.3 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Pretest in Term of Fluency
No
1
Control Group
Students score Classification
‟ Initial
AUM
67
Good
Experimental group
Students‟ score Classification
Initial
RAA
72
Good
2
ADR
61
Average
DW
67
Good
3
ARM
61
Average
AA
61
Average
4
ESP
61
Average
EP
61
Average
5
FB
61
Average
MLD
61
Average
6
AJK
56
Average
NT
61
Average
7
AT
56
Average
ASL
56
Average
8
LLS
56
Average
HU
56
Average
9
RB
56
Average
IKW
56
Average
50
10
RT
56
Average
UJS
56
Average
11
SB
56
Average
Y
56
Average
12
FS
50
Poor
IW
50
Poor
13
RM
44
Poor
RW
50
Poor
14
SYH
44
Poor
FW
44
Poor
15
SYS
39
Poor
UW
44
Poor
54.93
Poor
Mean
56.73
Average
Mean
Table 4.4 Descriptive Statistic of Students‟ Score on Fluency in Control Group
and Experimental Group
Fluency
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Variance
Control
15
28
39
67
824
54.93
1.972
7.639
58.352
Experimental
15
28
44
72
851
56.73
1.987
7.695
59.210
Valid N (listwise)
15
The tables above show that the lowest score for control group was
39 and experimental was 44, and the highest score for control group was 67
and experimental group was 72. While the mean score for control group was
54.93 and standard deviation was 7.639. While in experimental group, the
mean score was 56.73 and the standard deviation was 7.695. The mean
score difference between control group and experimental group can be seen
in the following figure.
51
Figure 4.2 Mean Score Difference Between Control Group and Experimental
Group in Term of Fluency.
Mean Score Difference in Term of Fluency
57
56.5
56
56.73
55.5
55
54.93
54.5
54
Control Group
Experimental Group
c) Students’ Pretest Score in Term of Comprehensibility
Table
No
1
4.5
Scoring Classification
Comprehensibility
of
Control Group
Students‟
score Classification
Initial
AUM
67
Good
Students‟
Pretest
in
Term
of
Experimental group
Students‟ score Classification
Initial
RAA
67
Good
2
AJK
61
Average
DW
61
Average
3
FB
61
Average
HU
61
Average
4
LLS
61
Average
AA
56
Average
5
RM
61
Average
ASL
56
Average
6
ARM
56
Average
EP
56
Average
7
SYH
56
Average
FW
56
Average
52
8
ADR
50
Poor
NT
56
Average
9
AT
50
Poor
IKW
50
Poor
10
ESP
50
Poor
MLD
50
Poor
11
RT
50
Poor
UJS
50
Poor
12
FS
44
Poor
UW
50
Poor
13
SB
44
Poor
RW
44
Poor
14
RB
39
Poor
Y
44
Poor
15
SYS
39
Poor
IW
39
Poor
52.6
Poor
Mean
53.07
Poor
Mean
Table 4.6 Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Pretest in term of
Comprehensibility
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Mean
Variance
Control
15
15
28
39
67
789
52.60
2.244
8.692
Experimental
15
15
28
39
67
796
53.07
1.906
7.382
Valid N (listwise)
15
It can be seen from the tables above, the lowest and the highest
score gain both control group and experimental group were equal, that was
39 and 67. While the mean score gain for control group was 52.60 with
standard deviation was 2.244 and the mean score gain for experimental
group was 53.07 and standard deviation was 1.906. The following figure
show the mean score difference between control group and experimental
group.
53
Figure 4.3 Mean score difference between control and experimental group.
Mean Score Difference in Term of Comprehensibility
53.1
53
52.9
52.8
53.07
52.7
52.6
52.6
52.5
52.4
52.3
Control Group
2) Students’
Posttest
Experimental group
in
Term
of
Accuracy,
Fluency
and
Comprehensibility
a) Students’ Posttest in Term of Accuracy
Table 4.7 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Posttest in Term of Accuracy
No
1
Control Group
Students‟ Score Classification
Initial
AT
83
Excellent
Experimental group
Students‟ score Classification
Initial
RAA
83
Excellent
2
AUM
78
Good
AA
78
Good
3
AJK
78
Good
ASL
78
Good
4
ARM
78
Good
DW
78
Good
5
LLS
78
Good
Y
78
Good
6
RT
78
Good
EP
78
Good
54
7
ESP
72
Good
FW
78
Good
8
FS
72
Good
HU
78
Good
9
RB
72
Good
NT
78
Good
10
SB
72
Good
UJS
72
Good
11
ADR
67
Good
IKW
67
Good
12
FB
67
Good
IW
67
Good
13
RM
67
Good
MLD
67
Good
14
SYH
61
Average
RW
67
Good
15
SYS
56
Average
UW
67
Good
71.93
Good
Mean
74.27
Good
Mean
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Accuracy
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Control
15
27
56
83
Experimental
15
16
67
83
Valid N (listwise)
15
Sum
Mean
Std.
Error
Std.
Deviation
Variance
1079
71.93
1.894
7.334
53.781
1114
74.27
1.475
5.713
32.638
The tables above show that for the highest score, both control group
and experimental groups were equal that was 83. The lowest score gain for
control group was 56 and experimental group was 67. The mean score of
control group was 71.93 with standard deviation score was 7.334. While the
mean score gain for experimental group was 74.27 with the standard
deviation score 5.713. The mean score difference from both control group
and experimental group can be seen in the following figure.
55
Figure. 4.4. Mean score difference in term of accuracy in posttest
Mean Score Difference in Term of Accuracy
74.5
74
73.5
73
74.27
72.5
72
71.93
71.5
71
70.5
control group
experimental group
b) Students’ Posttest Score in Term of Fluency
Table 4.9 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Posttest in Term of Fluency
No
1
Control Group
Students‟ score Classification
Initial
AJK
83
Excellent
ARM
83
Excellent
RW
83
Excellent
AUM
83
Excellent
AA
83
Excellent
AT
78
Good
MLD
83
Excellent
ESP
78
Good
ASL
78
Good
FS
78
Good
EP
72
Good
FB
72
Good
FW
72
Good
RB
72
Good
HU
72
Good
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Experimental group
Students‟
Initial
RAA
83
Excellent
56
RT
72
Good
IW
72
Good
SYS
72
Good
NT
72
Good
LLS
67
Good
UJS
72
Good
SB
67
Good
UW
72
Good
SYH
67
Good
Y
67
Good
ADR
61
Average
DW
67
Good
RM
61
Average
IKW
67
Good
72.93
Good
Mean
74.73
Good
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Mean
Table. 4.10. Descriptive statistics of Students‟ Fluency in Control Group
N
15
Control
experimental
Valid N (listwise)
15
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Variance
22
61
83
1094
72.93
1.921
7.440
55.352
22
67
89
1121
74.73
1.761
6.819
46.495
15
From the tables above show that the highest score gain for control
group was 83 and experimental group was 89. The lowest score for control
group was 61, while in experimental group the lowest score gain was 67.
Furthermore, the data also show that the mean score of control group was
72.93 with standard deviation was 7.440 and experimental group was 74.73
with standard deviation was 6.819. The mean score difference between
control group and experimental group can be seen in the following figure.
57
Figure 4.5 The Mean Score Difference in Term of Fluency.
The Mean Score Difference in Term of Fluency.
75
74.5
74
74.73
73.5
73
72.93
72.5
72
control group
experimental group
c) Students’ Posttest Score in Term of Comprehensibility
Table 4.11 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Posttest in Term of
Comprehensibility
No
1
Control Group
Students‟
score Classification
Initial
ARM
94
Excellent
AJK
89
Excellent
AA
94
Excellent
AUM
78
Good
RW
89
Excellent
RT
78
Good
UJS
83
Excellent
SB
78
Good
Y
83
Excellent
AT
72
Good
DW
78
Good
FS
72
Good
HU
78
Good
2
3
4
5
6
7
Experimental group
Students‟ Score Classification
Initial
RAA
94
Excellent
58
ADR
67
Good
EP
72
Good
FB
67
Good
ASL
67
Good
LLS
67
Good
IKW
67
Good
RM
67
Good
IW
67
Good
SYH
67
Good
NT
67
Good
ESP
61
Average
UW
67
Good
SYS
61
Average
FW
61
Average
RB
56
Average
MLD
61
Average
71.60
Good
Mean
75.20
Good
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Mean
Table. 4.12. Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Comprehensibility
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Variance
Control
15
38
56
94
1074
71.60
2.674
10.357
107.257
Experimental
15
33
61
94
1128
75.20
2.915
11.290
127.457
Valid N (listwise)
15
The table above shows that the highest score gain for control group
and experimental group were 94. While the lowest score gain for control
group was 56 and experimental group was 61. The data also show that the
mean score for control group was 71.60 and standard deviation was 10.357.
While the mean score for experimental group was 75.20 and standard
deviation was 11.290. The following figure show the mean score difference
between control group and experimental group in term of comprehensibility.
59
Figure 4.6 Mean Score Difference in Term of Comprehensibility.
Mean Score Difference in Term of Comprehensibility
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
75.2
71.6
control group
experimental group
3) Students’ Speaking Score in Pretest and Posttest
a) Students’ Speaking Score in Pretest
Table 4.13 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Speaking Skills in Pretest.
No
1
Experimental group
Control Group
Students‟
Score Classification Students‟ score Classification
Initial
Initial
AUM
67
RAA
68
Good
Average
ARM
63
Average
AA
65
Average
AJK
59
Average
DW
61
Average
LLS
59
Average
IKW
61
Average
FB
58
Average
EP
58
Average
AT
57
Average
NT
58
Average
ADR
56
Average
ASL
57
Average
2
3
4
5
6
7
60
ESP
56
Average
HU
57
Average
RT
56
Average
FW
54
Poor
SB
54
Poor
UJS
53
Poor
RM
52
Poor
UW
52
Poor
SYH
52
Poor
MLD
52
Poor
FS
48
Poor
RW
50
Poor
RB
46
Poor
Y
48
Poor
SYS
38
Poor
IW
46
Poor
54.70
Poor
Mean
56.07
Average
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Mean
.
Table 4.14 Descriptive Statistics of Students‟ Speaking Score Between Control
and Experimental Group
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Variance
control
15
29
38
67
821
54.73
1.817
7.035
49.495
experimental
15
22
46
68
840
56.00
1.589
6.153
37.857
Valid N (listwise)
15
Table 4.14 shows that the highest score for control group was 67 and
experimental group 68. While the lower score for control group was 38 and for
the experimental group was 46. The mean score for control group was 54.73
and standard deviation was 7.035. While the mean score for experimental
group was 56.00 and standard deviation was 6.153. The mean score
difference between control group and experimental group can be seen in the
following figure.
61
Figure 4.7 The Mean Score Difference between Control Group and
Experimental Group in Term of Speaking Score in Pretest
Speaking Score
56
55.5
55
56
54.5
54.73
54
Control Group
Experimental Group
b) Students’ Speaking Score of Posttest
Table 4.15 Scoring Classification of Students‟ Speaking Skills in Posttest
No
1
Control Group
Students‟ Score Classification
Initial
AUM
86
Excellent
Experimental group
Students‟ score Classification
Initial
RAA
89
Excellent
2
AJK
80
Excellent
AA
86
Excellent
3
ARM
80
Excellent
ASL
82
Excellent
4
AT
80
Excellent
RW
78
Good
5
ESP
74
Good
Y
78
Good
6
ADR
72
Good
EP
78
Good
7
FS
72
Good
HU
76
Good
8
RT
72
Good
UJS
72
Good
9
LLS
71
Good
DW
71
Good
62
10
FB
70
Good
FW
72
Good
11
RB
70
Good
NT
70
Good
12
SB
67
Good
IW
68
Good
13
RM
65
Average
UW
68
Good
14
SYH
63
Average
IKW
65
Average
15
SYS
61
Average
MLD
65
Average
72.15
Good
74.48
Good
Table 4.16. Descriptive statistics of students‟ speaking score between control
and experimental group in posttest
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Variance
control
15
25
61
86
1083
72.20
1.795
6.951
48.314
experimental
15
24
65
89
1118
74.53
1.887
7.308
53.410
Valid N (listwise)
15
It can be seen from the tables above, there was significant
improvement either in control group or experimental group. In control group,
the lowest score was 38 and the highest score was 67 in pretest. It raised into
61 for the lowest score and 86 for the highest score in posttest. While for
experimental group, the lowest score gained by the students was 46 and the
highest score was 68 in pretest, and it raised into 65 for the lowest score and
89 for the highest score in posttest. It indicate that after giving treatment, the
students‟ score whether in control or experimental group was significant
improve. Even though the score from both group were improved. However, if
63
we see the result from the tables above, it tells us that the students‟ speaking
score in experimental group is higher than the students‟ speaking score in
control group. The mean score difference between control group and
experimental group can be seen in the following figure.
Figure 4.8 The Mean Score Difference Between Control Group and
Experimental Group in Term of Speaking Score
Means Score Difference Between Control and
Experimental Grooup
75
74.5
74
73.5
73
72.5
72
71.5
71
74.53
72.2
Control Group
Experimental group
b. Normality Test
Before the hypothesis was tested, the normality test should be tested
in order to determine whether the data is analyzed by using parametric test or
nonparametric test. If the data is distributed normally, thus it would be
analyzed by using parametric test (pair t-test and independent t-test). In
contrast, if the data is not distributed normally then it would be analyzed by
using non parametric test (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon).
The data is
64
distributed normally if the observed significance is greater than 5% at the
level of significance (p > α, α = 0. 05), and it is not normal if the observed
significance is less than 5% at the level of significance (p < α, α = 0. 05). The
result of normality test both control group and experimental group can be
seen in the table below.
Table 417 Normality Test of Students‟ Speaking Skill
Tests of Normality
Kolmogorov-Smirnova
Shapiro-Wilk
Speaking
Score
Statistic
Df
Sig.
Statistic
df
Sig.
*
.171
15
.200
.953
15
.565
Control
*
experimental
.106
15
.200
.978
15
.955
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
Table 4.17 Shows that either Shapiro-Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the
score for both control and experimental group were higher than 0.05
(P>0.05), It indicated that the data was distributed normally. Thus,
homogeneity test should be tested to know whether it would be used
parametric or nonparametric test. The result of homogeneity test can be seen
in the table below.
Table 4.18 Homogeneity Variance Between Control and Experimental
Group
Levene Statistic
.016
df1
1
df2
28
Sig.
.901
65
Table 4.18 Shows that significance score between control group and
experimental group were higher than probability value ( P > 0.05). it indicated
that the data was homogeneous. Since the data distributed normally and
homogeneous, then the data would be tested by using parametric test (Pair
T-Test and Independent T-Test).
c. The Data of Pair T-Test
1. The Result of Pair T-Test for Control Group
Table 4.19 Paired Samples Statistics Between Pretest and Posttest in
Control Group
Mean
N
Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pretest
54.73
15
7.035
1.817
Pair 1
Posttest
72.20
15
6.951
1.795
From the results of the analysis showed that the mean score of
pretest was 54.73 and posttest was 72.20 with a standard deviation was
7.035 and posttest was 6.951. The results score of students‟ speaking skills
after the treatment showed the presence of a strong enough relationship
where the probability value was 0.937 with the significance score was 0.000
is smaller than the value used 0.05. It can be seen in the table below.
Table 4.20 Paired Samples Correlations Between Pretest and Posttest in
Control Group
Pair 1
Pretest & Posttest
N
Correlation
Sig.
15
.937
.000
66
Table 4.21 Paired Samples Test Between Pretest and Posttest for Control
Group
Paired Differences
95% Confidence
Std.
Interval of the
Std.
Error
Difference
Deviation
Mean
Lower
Upper
Mean
Pair 1
Pretest Posttest
-17.467
2.475
.639
-18.837
-16.096
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
-27.337
14
.000
The results of different tests using paired samples t test value was 27.337 or probabilities was 0.000 is smaller than the value probability used
(P<0.05). Thus it can be said that there was a difference between the test
results before and after treatment
2. The Result of Pair T-Test for Experimental Group
Table 4.22 Paired Samples Statistics for Experimental Group
Pair 1
Pretest
Posttest
Mean
56.00
74.53
N
15
15
Std. Deviation
6.153
7.308
Std. Error Mean
1.589
1.887
The results of the analysis from the table above show that the mean
score of pretest was 56.00 and posttest was 74.53 with a standard deviation
of pretest were 6.153 and posttest was 7.308. The results score of students‟
speaking skills after the treatment showed the presence of a strong enough
relationship where the probability value was 0.956 with the significance score
was 0.000 is smaller than the value used 0.05. It can be seen in the table
below.
67
Table 4.23 Paired Samples Correlations Between Pretest and Posttest
for Experimental Group
Pair 1
N
15
Pretest & Posttest
Correlation
.896
Sig.
.000
Table 4.24 Paired Samples Test Between Pretest and Posttest
Mean
Pair 1
Pretest –
Posttest
-18.533
Paired Differences
Std.
Std.
95% Confidence
Deviation
Error
Interval of the
Mean
Difference
Lower
Upper
2.295
.593
-19.804
-17.262
t
df
Sig. (2tailed)
-31.277
14
.000
The results of different tests using paired samples t test value was 31.277 or probabilities was 0.000 is smaller than the value probabilities used
(P<0.05). Thus it can be said that there was a difference between the test
results before and after treatment.
d. The Data of Independent T-Test
1. The Result of Independent T-Test for Pretest
Table 4.25 Independent Samples Test for Pretest Between Control and
Experimental Group
Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances
Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances not
assumed
t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
F
Sig.
T
Df
Sig.
(2tailed)
Mean
Difference
Std. Error
Difference
.016
.901
-.525
28
.604
-1.267
2.413
-6.210
3.677
-.525
27.512
.604
-1.267
2.413
-6.214
3.680
68
Based on the result of the data analysis as summarized in table 4.25
above on pretest of control and experimental group, the researcher found that
the p-value (0.604) is greater than the level of significance at t-table (0.05)
and the degree of freedom 28. It means that H0 was accepted and H1 was
rejected. In other words, there was no significant difference between the
students‟ speaking score of both group, experimental and control group,
before the treatment.
2. The Result of Independent T-Test for Posttest.
Table 4.26 Independent Samples Test for Posttest Between Control and
Experimental Group
Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances
Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances not
assumed
t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
F
Sig.
T
Df
Sig.
(2tailed)
Mean
Difference
Std. Error
Difference
.311
.582
-.896
28
.000
-2.333
2.604
-7.668
3.001
-.896
27.930
.000
-2.333
2.604
-7.668
3.002
Based on the result of the data analysis as summarized in table 4.26
above on posttest of control and experimental group, the researcher found
that the p-value (0.000) is lower than the level of significance at t-table (0.05)
and the degree of freedom 28. It means that H0 was rejected and H1 was
accepted. In other words, there was significant difference between the
students‟ speaking score of both group, experimental and control group, after
the treatment.
69
2. The Correlation Among Accuracy, Fluency and Comprehensibility
b) The Correlation among Accuracy and Fluency
Table 4.27 The Output of Correlations between Accuracy and Fluency
Accuracy
Fluency
Pearson Correlation
Accuracy
Sig. (2-tailed)
.002
N
Fluency
.739**
1
15
15
**
Pearson Correlation
.739
Sig. (2-tailed)
.002
N
1
15
15
The table 4.27 above shows that the correlation score between
accuracy and fluency was 0.739 with the significance value was 0.02. The
interval correlation was 1. It indicates that there was strong relation between
accuracy and fluency.
c) The correlation among Accuracy, Comprehensibility
Table
4.28
The Output of
comprehensibility
Accuracy
Comprehensibility
Correlations
between
Accuracy
and
Accuracy
1
Comprehensibility
.804**
.000
N
Pearson Correlation
15
.804**
15
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
.000
15
15
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
70
From the table 4.28 above shows that the correlation score between
accuracy and Comprehensibility was 0.804 with the significant level was
0.000. The interval correlation between accuracy and comprehensibility was
1, it indicate that there were strong relation between accuracy and
comprehensibility
d) The Correlation among Fluency, Comprehensibility
Table 4.29 The Output of Correlations between Fluency and comprehensibility
Fluency
Comprehensibility
Pearson Correlation
1
.922**
Fluency
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
15
15
**
Pearson Correlation
.922
1
Comprehensibility Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
15
15
From the table 4.29 above shows that the correlation score between
Fluency and Comprehensibility was 0.922 with the significant level was 0.000.
The interval correlation between accuracy and comprehensibility was 1, it
indicate
that
there
comprehensibility
were
strong
relation
between
fluency
and
71
B. Discussion
1. The Improvement of Students’ Speaking Skills
The finding showed that there was significance improvement of the
students‟ speaking skills at English and Literature Department of University of
Iqra Buru in aspect of accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility through
seating arrangement. It is proved by α (0.05) value of the students‟ posttests
are higher than P-value (0.00), it supported by Gay (2006: 358) stated that
there is significant between pretests and posttests if the P-value or sig. (2tailed) is less than or equal to α (0.05).
The description of the data collected through the test as explained in
the previous section shows the students who are treated by circle seating
arrangement perform better than the students who are treated by orderly
rows. It is supported by the mean score of the students‟ pretest in orderly
rows was 54.70 and posttest was 72.15. While the mean score of students‟
pretest in circle was 56.07 and posttest was 77.73.
In this research, there are three items that researcher try to find out,
they are accuracy (74.47), fluency (75.60), and comprehensibility (82.53). The
highest score was comprehensibility. Comprehensibility in speaking means
that people can understand what we say and we can understand what they
say. Harmer (1998: 107) says that if two people want to make communication
to each other, they have to speak because they have different information. If
72
there is a „gap‟ between them, it is not a good communication if the people
still confuse with what they say. To avoid from the gap, the speaker should
pay attention to the process of constructing meaning.
An interactive process of constructing meaning involves producing,
receiving and processing information (Burn and Joyce, 1997: 63). Its form
and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the
participants
themselves,
their
collective
experiences,
the
physical
environment, an acceptable level of language, and the purposes for speaking.
Even though comprehensibility was the highest score but most
students get problems in speaking to express their ideas so that the speaker
can understand their intention and those caused of inhabitation, lack of
vocabularies or nothing to say, and the influence of mother tongue or first
language (Ur, 1996). Therefore, to solve students‟ inhabitation, lack of
vocabularies, and mother tongue, the teacher should pay much attention in
teaching and learning activities such as monologue, dialogue, question and
answer, and speaking game.
Another problem faced by the students in expressing their ideas was
pronunciation. Pronunciation is one of the important components that a good
English speaker uses when he/she expresses his/her ideas in an interaction
in order to have a good communication. In fact, the students made some
mistakes in pronouncing some English words. They found it hard to
pronounce some English words because mostly they were influenced by the
73
use of their mother tongue. This is in line also with Wenden (1987) said that
to be successful language leaner, one should use the language as often as
possible, think with the target language, and live and study in an environment
here the target language is spoken. Therefore, to get students‟ good
pronunciation, the teacher should pay much attention in teaching and learning
process.
Students‟ score in term of comprehensibility were higher than fluency
and accuracy because fluency and accuracy did not lie totally only on
mastering the language system but it also lays on the vocabularies as using
the language system communicatively, and without too much hesitation. As
Richard and Rodgers (2001: 90) stated that fluency is the ability to produce
written or spoken language easily. This indicates that spoken language is
produced naturally with hurtles. They also added fluency is the ability to
speak with a good but necessarily perfect command of intonation, vocabulary
and grammar. So the lack of vocabularies and grammar or mastering
language system has become hindrances and obstacles for the students to
speak fluently and accuratively. That caused of the students have low
achievement in fluency and accuracy.
Although the students got high score in posttests in term of accuracy,
fluency, and comprehensibility then in pretests, it did not mean that they are
good to communicate in English or it did not show that they were perfect
without any deficiencies and mistakes they have done especially in term of
74
accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility. So below are the explanations of
each indicator of speaking and the students‟ deficiencies or mistakes made
by the students in speaking.
a. The Students’ Speaking Skills in Term of Accuracy
1) Mispronunciation
Pronunciation is one of the important components that a good English
speaker uses when he/she expresses his/her ideas in an interaction in order
to have a good communication. In fact, the students made some mistakes in
pronouncing some English words. They found it hard to pronounce some
English words because mostly they were influenced by the use of their
mother tongue. This is in line with Wenden (1987) said that to be successful
language leaner, one should use the language as often as possible, think
with the target language, and live and study in an environment where the
target language is spoken. Therefore, to get students‟ good pronunciation, the
teacher should pay much attention in the teaching and learning process.
Some mistake that the students made when pronouncing English
words are as below:
a) The substitution of phonemes, as below:
-
/θ/ becomes /t/
Example: Thank /θæηk/ becomes /teηk/
Think /θiηk/ becomes /tink/
75
With /wiθ/ becomes /wit/
Nothing /noθiη/ becomes /notiη/
Through /θru:gh/ becomes /trough/
b) /ð/ becomes /d/
Example:
Then /ðen/ becomes /den/
That /ðæt/ becomes /dæt/
This /ðis/ becomes /dis/
They /ðei/ becomes /dei/
2) The Omission of Consonant Cluster
Examples:
a) Next /nekst/ becomes /neks/
b) World /wЗ:ld/ becomes /word/.
It can be concluded that the most difficult of pronunciation problems
that the students faced were the difficulty to pronounce the phonemes /ð, ø/
either in initial, middle and final position of the words, the consonant cluster
/ght, rld/ in the final position.
3) Grammatical Error
Most of the grammatical errors the students made were patterns of
syntax, such as: concord, word order, and incomplete sentences. In fact, the
researcher found that the students lacked of grammar mastery. In making
English sentences, they used the Indonesian (L1) system to get the
76
understanding so that they could communicate in English. The grammatical
errors that the students made can be seen below:
a) The misuse of singular and plural nouns.
For example;
“I have many hobby, one of them is singing.” It should be “I have many
hobbies, one of them is singing.”
b) The misuse of auxiliary verb form.
For example:
“I am like fried rice so much.” It should be “I like fried rice so much.”
b. The Students’ Speaking Skills in Term of Fluency
The researcher found that the lack of students‟ English vocabulary and
the non-mastery of grammar hindered them to speak fluently. They made too
many pauses, halting, and repeated words several times. This condition
automatically influenced the rhythm of their speaking. They looked
stammering so that it fell down their speaking performance. The students‟
inhibition in speaking fluency is as below;
1) Unnatural pauses.
It is a pause the speaker makes when he wants to say something but he
loses of words or of the though he wants to express. Example:
77
a) I like ee.. I like ee.. western music because with western music we can
ee…know about character of foreigner.
b) In Jikumarasa beach..we can..ee..we can diving and there we can
found ee.. find traditional food.
2) Deliberate halting.
It is a stop talking and it is because the speaker does not know what to
say.
Example: The place here still nature and…the best view.....I think so sir.
The examples above show that the students‟ inhibition to speak
smoothly, easily, and expressively. And the fact that they tried to look for
meaningful expressions always occurred naturally.
c. The Students’ Speaking Skills in Term of Comprehensibility
The researcher found that the lack of students‟ English vocabulary
and the non-mastery of grammar hindered them to speak fluently and the lack
of phrases and idiom mastering that made them misunderstand and
misinterpret about the phrases in a sentence. As the result, they did not
understand the speakers‟ intention and on the contrary the speaker did not
understand what the students‟ intention. Some reasons back to the influences
of first language (L1) system when they are talking. The lack of students‟
mastering vocabulary and phrase as follows :
78
R
RM
R
R
: So what should I call you?
: Ya?
: What should I call you?
: Could you tell me your reason for me why have you chosen this
department
RM : What?
R
: Explain for me why you choose English department
2. The correlation Among Accuracy, Fluency and Comprehensibility in
speaking
Heaton (1988 :88) asserted that speaking ability is the expressing of
languages directly from speakers' mouths. He continued that when the
students or language users use language in conversation activities, they
try to express sentences by their mouths. Thus, speaking and oral abilities
are dealing with the language expression between mouths and ears. It
focuses on what is said and what is heard.
He also revealed that there are some elements involved in speaking
skill they are accuracy, fluency, and comprehensibility. Accuracy is achieved
to some extent by allowing students to focus on elements of phonology,
grammar, and discourse in their spoken output. In teaching English speaking,
teachers have to explain to students how to speak accurately (clear,
articulate, grammatically, and phonologically correct) language and of course
fluent language. Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that
delivers information quickly and with expertise. Fluency indicates a very good
information processing speed, very low average time between successively
generated messages. Meanwhile comprehensibility has two common senses.
79
In its narrow sense it denotes the mental processes by which listener take in
the sounds uttered by a speakers and use them to construct an interpretation
of what they think the speaker intended to convey. In its broader sense
extracts information it conveys and stores that information in memory.
The result of finding shows that there are strong correlation among of
accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility in speaking. It is proved by the
probability value from these three elements were higher than 0.05 with the
interval score was 1.
Even
though
the
result
shows
that
accuracy,
fluency
and
comprehensibility are correlated. However, the probability value between
fluency and comprehensibility (0.000) was higher than accuracy and
comprehensibility (0.002). It is caused of the accuracy related to students‟
competence. Meanwhile fluency and comprehensibility is related to students‟
speaking performance.
According to Hemerka (2009:15) in Astuti (2009:19), speaking
competence refers to the knowledge of a language cognitive aspect in
learning a language. Competence is used to describe the learners‟ capacity
to produce language. While speaking performance denotes the production of
actual utterances as a result of certain physiological processes.
80
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
The present research has explored the implementation of classroom
seating arrangement in improving the students‟ speaking skill. Based on the
findings discussed in Chapter IV, several conclusions and suggestions can be
drawn.
A. Conclusion
Based on the research findings and discussion in the previous chapter,
the researcher comes to the following conclusions:
1. The implementation of seating arrangement can improve students‟
speaking skill in term of accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility. It is
supported by the mean score of the students‟ posttests (74.48) was higher
than pretests (56.07).
2. The result of finding shows that there are strong correlation among of
accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility in speaking. It is proved by the
probability value from these three elements were higher than 0.05 with the
interval score was 1.
81
B. Suggestion
There are many kinds of seating arrangement that can be used to
improve language skills. The researcher hopes that other researchers in the
future to use other seating arrangement to improve language learning. In
addition, actually there are many language components that can be observed
in observing speaking ability. But to make the research more specific and
detail, the researcher only choose three components of speaking, which are
accuracy, fluency and comprehensibility. In fact, there are other components
of speaking that can be used in testing speaking ability. For instance,
pronunciations, vocabulary, interactive communication, phonological control,
so forth.
82
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APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Speaking marking scheme by Heaton
Rating
Ability to communicate orally
6
Excellent: on a par with an educated native speaker. Completely
at ease in his use of English on all topics discussed.
5
Very good: although he cannot be mistaken for a native
speaker, he expresses himself quite clearly. He experiences
little difficulty in understanding English, and there is no strain at
all in communicating with him
4
Satisfactory verbal communication causing little difficulty for
native speaker. He makes a limited number of errors of
grammar, lexis, and pronunciation but he is still at ease in
communicating on everyday subjects.
3
Although verbal communication is usually fairly satisfactory, the
native speaker may occasionally experience some difficulty in
communicating with him. Repetition, re-phrasing and repatterning are sometimes necessary
2
Much difficulty experienced by native speakers unaccustomed
to „foreign‟ English. His own understanding is severely limited,
but communication in everyday topics is possible. Large number
of errors of phonology, grammar, and lexis
1
Extreme difficulty in communication on any subject. Failure to
understand adequately and to make himself understood
87
Appendix 2. The Score Criteria of Speaking Accuracy
Classification Score
Criteria
Excellent
6
Pronunciation is only slightly influenced by the
mother tongue. Two or three minor grammatical
and lexical errors
Very Good
5
Pronunciation is only slightly influenced by the
mother tongue. A few minor grammatical and
lexical errors but most utterances are correct.
Good
4
Pronunciation is still moderately influenced by
mother tongue but not serious phonological
errors. A few grammatical and lexical errors but
not only one or two major errors causing
confusion.
Average
3
Pronunciation is influenced by mother tongue
only a few phonologies errors. Several
grammatical and lexical errors some of which
cause confusion.
Poor
2
Pronunciation is seriously influenced by mother
tongue with errors causing a breakdown in a
communication. Many grammatical and lexical
errors
Very Poor
1
Serious pronunciation errors as many basic
grammatical and lexical errors. No evidence of
having mastered any of the language skills and
areas practiced in the course.
88
Appendix 3. The Score Criteria of Speaking Fluency
Classification Score
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Average
Poor
Very Poor
Criteria
6
Speaks without too great an effort with fairly wide
range of expression. Searches for words
occasionally by only one or two unnatural pauses
5
Has to make an effort at time to search for words.
Nevertheless, smooth delivery on the whole and
only a few unnatural pauses
4
Although he has to make an effort and search for
words, there are not too many unnatural pauses.
Fairly smooth delivery. Occasionally fragmentary
but succeed in conveying the general meaning.
Fair range of expression
3
Has to make an effort for much of the time. Often
has to search for the desired meaning. Rather
halting delivery and fragmentary. Range of
expression often limited.
2
Long pauses while he searches for the desired
meaning. Frequently fragmentary and halting
delivery. Almost give up making the effort at times
limited range of expression.
1
Full of long unnatural pauses. Very halting and
fragmentary delivery. At times gives up making
the effort, very limited range of expression.
89
Appendix 4. The Score Criteria of Speaking Comprehensibility
Classification Score
Criteria
Excellent
6
Easy for the listener to understand the speaker‟s
intention and general meaning. Very few
interruptions or clarification required
Very Good
5
The speaker‟s intention and general meaning are
fairly clear. A few interruptions by the listener for
the sake of clarification are necessary
Good
4
Most of what the speaker says is easy to follow.
His intention is always clear but several
interruptions are necessary to help him to convey
the message or to seek clarification.
Average
3
The listener can understand a lot of what is said,
but he must constantly seek classification. He
cannot understand many of the speaker‟s more
complex or longer sentences.
Poor
2
Only small bits (usually short sentence and
phrases) can be understood and then with
considerable effort by someone who is listening to
the speaker.
Very Poor
1
Hardly anything of what is said can be understood.
Even when the listener makes great effort or
interrupts, the speaker is unable to clarify anything
he seems to have said.
90
Appendix 5. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy (Pretest
Control)
No
Students’
Initials
Students' Accuracy
R1
R2
R3
Mean
Conversion
1
ARM
4
5
4
4.3
72
2
AT
4
4
4
4
67
3
AUM
4
4
4
4
67
4
AJK
3
4
4
3.7
61
5
LLS
4
4
3
3.7
61
6
RT
4
3
4
3.7
61
7
SB
4
3
4
3.7
61
8
ADR
4
3
3
3.3
56
9
ESP
3
3
4
3.3
56
10
SYH
4
3
3
3.3
56
11
FB
3
3
3
3
50
12
FS
3
3
3
3
50
13
RM
3
3
3
3
50
14
RB
3
2
3
2.7
44
15
SYS
2
2
3
2.3
39
Note :
R = Rater
Classification
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
91
Appendix 6. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy (Posttest
Control)
No
Students’
Initials
Students' Accuracy
R1
R2
R3
Mean
Conversion
1
AT
5
5
5
5
83
2
AUM
5
5
4
4.7
78
3
AJK
4
5
5
4.7
78
4
ARM
5
5
4
4.7
78
5
LLS
5
4
5
4.7
78
6
RT
5
4
5
4.7
78
7
ESP
5
4
4
4.3
72
8
FS
4
4
5
4.3
72
9
RB
4
5
4
4.3
72
10
SB
5
4
4
4.3
72
11
ADR
4
4
4
4
67
12
FB
4
4
4
4
67
13
RM
4
4
4
4
67
14
SYH
4
3
4
3.7
61
15
SYS
4
3
3
3.3
56
Note :
R = Rater
Classification
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
92
Appendix 7. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy (Pretest
Experimental)
No
Students’
Initials
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Students'
Accuracy
Mean
Conversion
4
4.7
78
4
4
4
67
4
4
4
4
67
ASL
4
3
4
3.7
61
DW
3
4
4
3.7
61
FW
4
4
3
3.7
61
HU
4
3
4
3.7
61
NT
4
4
3
3.7
61
UW
4
4
3
3.7
61
MLD
3
4
3
3.3
56
RW
3
3
4
3.3
56
UJS
3
3
4
3.3
56
EP
3
3
3
3
50
Y
3
2
3
2.7
44
IW
2
2
3
2.3
39
R1
R2
R3
RAA
5
5
AA
4
IKW
Classification
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Poor
Poor
93
Appendix 8. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Accuracy (Posttest
Experimental)
No
1
Students’
Initials
R3
RAA
5
5
5
5
83
AA
5
5
4
4.7
78
ASL
5
4
5
4.7
78
DW
4
5
5
4.7
78
Y
5
4
5
4.7
78
EP
5
5
4
4.7
78
FW
4
5
5
4.7
78
HU
5
5
4
4.7
78
NT
4
4
5
4.3
78
UJS
5
4
4
4.3
72
IKW
4
4
4
4
67
IW
4
4
4
4
67
MLD
4
4
4
4
67
RW
4
4
4
4
67
UW
4
4
4
4
67
5
6
7
8
9
11
12
13
Conversion
R2
4
10
Mean
R1
2
3
Students' Accuracy
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Classification
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
94
Appendix 9. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency (Pretest
Control)
No
Students’
Initials
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Students' Fluency
Mean
Conversion
4
4
67
3
4
3.7
61
4
4
3
3.7
61
ESP
4
3
4
3.7
61
FB
4
4
3
3.7
61
AJK
3
4
3
3.3
56
AT
4
3
3
3.3
56
LLS
4
3
3
3.3
56
RB
3
3
4
3.3
56
RT
3
3
4
3.3
56
SB
4
3
3
3.3
56
FS
3
3
3
3
50
RM
3
2
3
2.7
44
SYH
3
3
2
2.7
44
SYS
2
2
3
2.3
39
R1
R2
R3
AUM
4
4
ADR
4
ARM
Classification
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
95
Appendix 10. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency (Posttest
Control)
No
Students’
Initials
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Students' Fluency
Mean
Conversion
R1
R2
R3
AJK
5
5
5
5
83
ARM
5
5
5
5
83
AUM
5
5
5
5
83
AT
4
5
5
4.7
78
ESP
5
4
5
4.7
78
FS
5
4
5
4.7
78
FB
4
4
5
4.3
72
RB
4
4
5
4.3
72
RT
4
4
5
4.3
72
SYS
4
4
5
4.3
72
LLS
4
4
4
4
67
SB
4
4
4
4
67
SYH
4
4
4
4
67
ADR
4
3
4
3.7
61
RM
3
4
4
3.7
61
Classification
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
96
Appendix 11. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency (Pretest
Experimental)
No
1
Students’
Initials
R3
RAA
4
5
4
4.3
72
DW
4
4
4
4
67
AA
4
4
3
3.7
61
EP
4
3
4
3.7
61
MLD
4
4
3
3.7
61
NT
4
4
3
3.7
61
ASL
4
3
3
3.3
56
HU
3
4
3
3.3
56
IKW
3
4
3
3.3
56
UJS
4
3
3
3.3
56
Y
3
4
3
3.3
56
IW
3
3
3
3
50
RW
3
3
3
3
50
FW
3
3
2
2.7
44
UW
3
3
2
2.7
44
4
6
8
9
10
Conversion Classification
R2
3
7
Mean
R1
2
5
Students' Fluency
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Good
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
97
Appendix 12. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Fluency (Posttest
Experimental)
No
Students’
Initials
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Students' Fluency
Mean
Conversion Classification
R1
R2
R3
RAA
5
5
6
5.3
89
RW
5
5
5
5
83
AA
5
5
5
5
83
ASL
5
5
5
5
83
EP
5
4
5
4.7
78
FW
5
4
4
4.3
72
HU
4
4
5
4.3
72
IW
4
4
5
4.3
72
NT
4
5
4
4.3
72
UJS
4
4
5
4.3
72
UW
5
4
4
4.3
72
Y
4
5
4
4.3
72
DW
4
4
4
4
67
IKW
4
4
4
4
67
MLD
4
4
4
4
67
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
98
Appendix 13. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Comprehensibility
(Pretest Control)
No
Students'
Initial
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
AUM
Students'
Comprehensibility
R1
R2
R3
4
4
4
Mean
Conversion Classification
4
67
AJK
4
4
3
3.7
61
FB
4
3
4
3.7
61
LLS
4
4
3
3.7
61
RM
4
3
4
3.7
61
ARM
4
3
3
3.3
56
SYH
3
4
3
3.3
56
ADR
3
3
3
3
50
AT
3
3
3
3
50
ESP
3
3
3
3
50
RT
3
3
3
3
50
FS
3
2
3
2.7
44
SB
3
2
3
2.7
44
RB
2
2
3
2.3
39
SYS
2
2
3
2.3
39
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
99
Appendix 14. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Comprehensibility
(Posttest Control)
No
1
2
3
Students'
Initial
R3
ARM
6
6
5
5.7
94
AJK
5
6
5
5.3
89
AUM
5
4
5
4.7
78
RT
5
4
5
4.7
78
SB
5
5
4
4.7
78
AT
4
5
4
4.3
72
FS
4
5
4
4.3
72
ADR
4
4
4
4
67
FB
4
4
4
4
67
LLS
4
4
4
4
67
RM
4
4
4
4
67
SYH
4
4
4
4
67
ESP
4
3
4
3.7
61
SYS
4
3
4
3.7
61
RB
4
3
3
3.3
56
6
7
9
10
11
13
14
Conversion
R2
5
12
Mean
R1
4
8
Students'
Comprehensibility
15
Note :
R = Rater
Classification
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
Average
100
Appendix 15. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Comprehensibility
(Pretest Experimental)
No
Students'
Initial
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
RAA
Students'
Comprehensibility
R1
R2
R3
4
4
4
Mean
Conversion
4
67
DW
4
4
3
3.7
61
HU
4
4
3
3.7
61
AA
4
3
3
3.3
56
ASL
3
2
3
3.3
56
EP
4
3
3
3.3
56
FW
3
4
3
3.3
56
NT
3
4
3
3.3
56
IKW
3
3
3
3
50
MLD
3
3
3
3
50
UJS
3
3
3
3
50
UW
3
3
3
3
50
RW
3
2
3
2.7
44
Y
3
2
3
2.7
44
IW
2
2
3
2.3
39
Classification
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
101
Appendix 16. Students’ Speaking Score in Term of Comprehensibility
(Posttest Experimental)
No
Students'
Initial
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
R = Rater
Students'
Comprehensibility
Mean Conversion
R1
R2
R3
RAA
6
5
6
5.7
94
AA
6
5
6
5.7
94
RW
5
6
5
5
89
UJS
5
5
5
5
83
Y
5
5
5
5
83
DW
5
5
4
4.7
78
HU
5
4
5
4.7
78
EP
5
4
4
4.3
72
ASL
4
4
4
4
67
IKW
4
5
4
4
67
IW
4
4
4
4
67
NT
4
4
5
4
67
UW
4
3
4
4
67
FW
4
4
4
3.7
61
MLD
4
4
4
3.7
61
Classification
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
102
Appendix 17. Students’ Speaking Score in Pretest (Control Group)
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
AUM
Students' Speaking
score
A
F
C
4
4
4
ARM
4.3
3.7
AJK
3.7
LLS
Initial
Students
Mean Conversion Classification
4.0
67
3.3
3.8
63
3.3
3.7
3.6
59
3.7
3.3
3.7
3.6
59
FB
3
3.7
3.7
3.5
58
AT
4
3.3
3
3.4
57
ADR
3.3
3.7
3
3.3
56
ESP
3.3
3.7
3
3.3
56
RT
3.7
3.3
3
3.3
56
SB
3.7
3.3
2.7
3.2
54
RM
3
2.7
3.7
3.1
52
SYH
3.3
2.7
3.3
3.1
52
FS
3
3
2.7
2.9
48
RB
2.7
3.3
2.3
2.8
46
SYS
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
38
Total
51
49.3
47.4
49.2
821
Means
3.4
3.3
3.16
3.3
54.70
Note :
A = Accuracy
F = Fluency
C = Comprehensibility
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
103
Appendix 18. Students’ Speaking Score in Posttest (Control Group)
AUM
Students' Speaking
score
A
F
C
4.7
5
5.7
AJK
4.7
5
ARM
4.7
AT
Initial
Students
No
Mean
Conversion Classification
5.1
86
4.7
4.8
80
5
4.7
4.8
80
5
4.7
4.7
4.8
80
ESP
4.3
4.7
4.3
4.4
74
ADR
4
3.7
5.3
4.3
72
FS
4.3
4.7
4
4.3
72
RT
4.7
4.3
4
4.3
72
LLS
4.7
4
4
4.2
71
FB
4
4.3
4.3
4.2
70
RB
4.3
4.3
4
4.2
70
SB
4.3
4
3.7
4.0
67
RM
4
3.7
4
3.9
65
SYH
3.7
4
3.7
3.8
63
SYS
3.3
4.3
3.3
3.6
61
Total
64.7
65.7
64.4
64.9
1082
Mean
4.3
4.38
4.3
4.3
72.15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Note :
A = Accuracy
F = Fluency
C = Comprehensibility
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
Good
104
Appendix 19. Students’ Speaking Score in Pretest ( Experimental Group)
Initial
Students
No
Students' Speaking
score
Mean
Conversion
RAA
A
4.7
F
4.3
C
3.3
4.1
68
AA
4
3.7
4
3.9
65
DW
3.7
4
3.3
3.7
61
IKW
4
3.3
3.7
3.7
61
EP
3
3.7
3.7
3.5
58
NT
3.7
3.7
3
3.5
58
ASL
3.7
3.3
3.3
3.4
57
HU
3.7
3.3
3.3
3.4
57
FW
3.7
2.7
3.3
3.2
54
UJS
3.3
3.3
3
3.2
53
UW
3.7
2.7
3
3.1
52
MLD
3.3
3.7
2.3
3.1
52
RW
3.3
3
2.7
3.0
50
Y
2.7
3.3
2.7
2.9
48
IW
2.3
3
3
2.8
46
Total
52.8
51
47.6
50.5
841
Mean
3.52
3.4
3.2
3.4
56.07
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Classification
Good
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Average
Note :
A = Accuracy
F = Fluency
C = Comprehensibility
105
Appendix 20. Students’ Speaking Score in Posttest (Experimental
Group)
Initial
Students
No
Students' Speaking
score
Mean
Conversion Classification
RAA
A
5
F
5.3
C
5.7
5.3
89
Excellent
AA
4.7
5
5.3
5.1
86
Excellent
ASL
4.7
5
4
4.9
82
Excellent
Y
4.7
4.3
5
4.7
78
Good
RW
4
5
5
4.7
78
Good
EP
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.7
78
Good
HU
4.7
4.3
4.7
4.6
76
Good
UJS
4.3
4.3
5
4.3
72
Good
DW
4.7
4
4.7
4.2
71
Good
FW
4.7
4.3
3.7
4.3
72
Good
NT
4.3
4.3
4
4.2
70
Good
IW
4
4.3
4
4.1
68
Good
UW
4
4.3
4
4.1
68
Good
IKW
4
4
4
3.9
65
Good
MLD
4
4
3.7
3.9
65
Good
Total
66.5
67.1
67.5
67.0
1117
Average
4.43
4.47
4.5
4.5
74.48
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Good
Note :
A = Accuracy
F = Fluency
C = Comprehensibility
106
Appendix 21. Descriptive Statistics of students’ Accuracy in Pretest and
posttest (Control and Experimental group)
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Accuracy in Control Group
Accuracy
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std. Error
Std.
Variance
Deviation
pretest
15
33
39
72
851
56.73
2.321
8.988
80.781
posttest
15
27
56
83
1079
71.93
1.894
7.334
53.781
Valid N (listwise)
15
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Accuracy in Experimental Group
Accuracy
Std.
N
Range
Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std. Error
Variance
Deviation
pretest
15
39
39
78
879
58.60
2.433
9.425
88.829
posttest
15
16
67
83
1114
74.27
1.475
5.713
32.638
Valid N (listwise)
15
107
Appendix 22. Descriptive Statistics of students’ Fluency in Pretest and
posttest (Control and Experimental group)
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Fluency in Control group
Fluency
N
Range Minimum
pretest
15
28
posttest
15
22
Valid N (listwise)
15
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std. Error
Std. Deviation
Variance
39
67
824
54.93
1.972
7.639
58.352
61
83
1094
72.93
1.921
7.440
55.352
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Fluency in Experimental group
Fluency
N
Range Minimum
pretest
15
28
posttest
15
22
Valid N (listwise)
15
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std. Error
Std. Deviation
Variance
44
72
851
56.73
1.987
7.695
59.210
67
89
1121
74.73
1.761
6.819
46.495
108
Appendix 23. Descriptive Statistics of students’ Comprehensibility in
Pretest and posttest (Control and Experimental group)
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Comprehensibility in Control Group
Comprehensibility
N
Range Minimum
Pretest
15
28
Posttest
15
38
Valid N (listwise)
15
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std. Error
Std. Deviation
Variance
39
67
789
52.60
2.244
8.692
75.543
56
94
1074
71.60
2.674
10.357
107.257
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Comprehensibility in Experimental Group
Comprehensibility
N
Range Minimum
pretest
15
28
posttest
15
33
Valid N (listwise)
15
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std. Error
Std. Deviation
Variance
39
67
796
53.07
1.906
7.382
54.495
61
94
1128
75.20
2.915
11.290
127.457
109
Appendix 24. Descriptive Statistics of students’ Speaking Score in
Pretest and posttest (Control and Experimental group)
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Speaking in Control Group
Speaking
N
Range Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Mean
Variance
pretest
15
29
38
67
821
54.73
1.817
7.035
49.495
posttest
15
25
61
86
1083
72.20
1.795
6.951
48.314
Valid N (listwise)
15
Descriptive Statistics of Students’ Speaking in Experimental Group
Speaking
N
Range Minimum
Maximum
Sum
Mean
Std.
Std.
Error
Deviation
Variance
pretest
15
22
46
68
840
56.00
1.589
6.153
37.857
posttest
15
24
65
89
1118
74.53
1.887
7.308
53.410
Valid N (listwise)
15
110
Appendix 25. The Output of Normality Test in students’ Speaking
Tests of Normality
a
Kolmogorov-Smirnov
Shapiro-Wilk
Speaking Score
Statistic
.171
control
experimental
.106
df
15
15
Sig.
Statistic
df
Sig.
.200
*
.953
15
.565
.200
*
.978
15
.955
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
Descriptives
Speaking Score
Mean
95% Confidence Interval for
Mean
Lower Bound
50.84
Upper Bound
58.63
5% Trimmed Mean
54.98
Median
56.00
Variance
control
Std. Deviation
7.035
Minimum
38
Maximum
67
Range
29
7
Skewness
Kurtosis
Mean
95% Confidence Interval for
Mean
-.729
1.367
56.00
Lower Bound
52.59
Upper Bound
59.41
5% Trimmed Mean
55.89
Median
57.00
Variance
Std. Deviation
6.153
46
Maximum
68
Range
22
Skewness
Kurtosis
.580
1.121
1.589
37.857
Minimum
Interquartile Range
Std. Error
1.817
49.495
Interquartile Range
experimental
Statistic
54.73
9
.295
-.351
.580
1.121
111
Appendix 26. The Output of Homogeneity Test in Students’ Speaking
Test of Homogeneity of Variances
Speaking
Levene Statistic
df1
df2
Sig.
.016
1
28
.901
ANOVA
Speaking
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
12.033
1
12.033
.276
.604
Within Groups
1222.933
28
43.676
Total
1234.967
29
Between Groups
112
Appendix 27. The Output of Pair T-Test for Control Group
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Pretest
54.73
15
7.035
1.817
Posttest
72.20
15
6.951
1.795
Pair 1
Paired Samples Correlations
Pair 1
Pretest & Posttest
N
Correlation
Sig.
15
.937
.000
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences
95% Confidence
Std.
Std.
Mean
Error
Deviation
Sig. (2Interval of the
t
df
tailed)
Difference
Mean
Pair 1
Pretest - Posttest
-17.467
2.475
.639
Lower
Upper
-18.837
-16.096
-27.337
14
.000
113
Appendix 28. The Output of Pair T-Test for Experimental Group
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Pretest
56.00
15
6.153
1.589
posttest
74.53
15
7.308
1.887
Pair 1
Paired Samples Correlations
N
Pair 1
Pretest & posttest
Correlation
15
Sig.
.956
.000
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences
Mean
t
Pretest - posttest
-18.533
Sig.
Std.
Std.
95% Confidence
(2-
Deviation
Error
Interval of the
tailed)
Mean
Difference
Lower
Pair 1
df
2.295
.593
-19.804
Upper
-17.262
-31.277
14
.000
114
Appendix 29. The Output of Independent T-Test for Pretest
Group Statistics
Speaking Score
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
control
15
54.73
7.035
1.817
experimental
15
56.00
6.153
1.589
Speaking
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test
t-test for Equality of Means
for Equality of
Variances
95%
Confidence
Sig.
F
Sig.
t
df
Mean
Std. Error
Difference
Difference
(2tailed)
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances
.016
.901
-.525
28
.604
-1.267
2.413
-6.210
3.677
.604
-1.267
2.413
-6.214
3.680
assumed
Speaking
Equal variances
-.525 27.512
not assumed
115
Appendix 30. The Output of Independent T-Test for Posttest
Group Statistics
Speaking Score
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
control
15
72.20
6.951
1.795
Experimental
15
74.53
7.308
1.887
postest
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
t-test for Equality of Means
Equality of
Variances
95%
Confidence
Sig.
F
Sig.
t
df
Mean
Std. Error
Difference
Difference
(2tailed)
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
Equal variances
.311
.582
-.896
28
.000
-2.333
2.604
-7.668
3.001
.000
-2.333
2.604
-7.668
3.002
assumed
postest
Equal variances
-.896 27.930
not assumed
116
Appendix 31. the output of Correlation among Accuracy, Fluency and
Comprehensibility in speaking
Correlations
Pearson Correlation
Accuracy
Students'
Students'
Accuracy
Fluency
Comprehensibility
Speaking
1
.739**
.804**
.840**
.002
.000
.000
15
15
15
15
**
Pearson Correlation
.739
Sig. (2-tailed)
.002
N
Pearson Correlation
Comprehensibility Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Speaking
Students'
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Fluency
Students'
15
**
1
15
**
**
.804
.922
.000
.000
15
15
**
.922
.890**
.000
.000
15
15
1
.959**
.000
15
**
15
**
Pearson Correlation
.840
.890
.959
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
.000
15
15
15
N
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
1
15
117
Appendix 32. The Sample of Speaking Text Script (Pretest and Posttest)
PRETEST
Sample 1. ABDUL RAZAK MASBAIT
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ARM
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ARM
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This is the first time I meet you. How do you do Could you introduce
your name please ?
Yes of course why not my name is..my full name is Abdul Razak
Masbait Mm..you can call [kel] me..Jack or ..Rozak because..all my
friends.. always call me by the name. Now I am about..twenty one
ye.. years old. Now..aa..I live with my brothers because..I have
studied here in Namlea city..and..finish ee..because my parents in
my village..my place so far from here so it is impossible.. if I..I live
with my parents.
OK. Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I have a hobby..and my special hobbies is reading book
What kind of book do you like to read?
I like..History books so much..because ee…with read this
book..I‟lll..I..I can [kan] understand a book..I able to
understand..what have happened in the past..and..I can
understand about the..the biography of..the..of the..the hero..the
past..and I can [kan] understand so many..so many story that [det]
happen in the past.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I like travelling so much..because with traveling..I can see so
many people I can...I can see so many people..of course I can visit
so many place and I want to visit
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like visit Jikumarasa beach..and..batabuang mountain..Rana
lake..so..so..and I think [tink] all of those people I called before..are
here..so may you come to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course ee..you can if we..if you come here you can visit
Jikumarasa beach..it has..it is still natural the water [weater] [is] still
natural and…they are..and there are..there are beautiful view and
land..there are water that..people around there call it..Air bomb you
can visit it it is very interested to visit..and then..Batabual mountain
it is still natural..so many tree grow there..so..we can get..fresh air
118
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ARM :
[ier] there when I..when you visit it..and then [den] Rana lake
is..very exotic to visit
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like mountain [mounten]..Batabual mountain..because..when I was
there [der]..I feel so..fine [faait]..calm..and then I can..get fresh air
[air] fresh air there.
Sample 2. AFAN DWI RAKA
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ADR :
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ADR :
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ADR
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How do you do ? This is the first time we meet yeah ! Could you
introduce your name please ?
My full name is..Afan Dwi Raka. Aa..you can call me..Raka
or..Rara..its off (up) to you. I am Eighteen years old . Now live [I
live] with my parents.. buts [but] ee..one day.. ee.I got.. of my
parents..hope and I..live alone..and I..get jobs [job] so..I can do
anything..ee by my self without my parents.
OK. Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Ee of course I have a hobby and ee.. special ee..I like..climbing
mountain
Ya because ee..climbing mountain is ee..very..nice and ee..I like it
ee..and..ee when I.. climbing mountain I can ee..see anything..I can
see the beach..the e the..trees and ee..etc..and ee…I can..forget
e..when I climbing mountain I can forget my problem and..other
..problem to with my parents ee..my friends..and others.
Do you like travelling?
Yeah of course I like travelling
What kind of places do like to visit?
I like visit ee..beach wood and ee mountain [maintain] so..because
ee..ee..for me beach is ee..beach here is so beautiful and
mountain...so beautiful too..so have ee..has ee..many many tree
and ee..beautiful science…e..could [could] you come to visit my
hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Eee…the landscapes..ee..in my hometown is ee….very beautiful
exactly..so ee..they [dey]..they..they are ee..many many ee..such
thing and ee..beautiful land..scape because ee..is ee..has a many
trees and….
could you give the example of the landscapes name please?
Ee..the name of the places is ee….oh actually beach..because
beach is ee..ee….has ee..water white stone and..many many
tourist came to visit there [der]..to visit it
119
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So What kind of those places do you like best?
Ee..actually if I boring..ee..I always go to the warnet and..other side
I..walk round Namlea city..just that [det]
Sample 3. ANDIKA JK
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AJK
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AJK
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AJK
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AJK
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AJK
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AJK
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AJK
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AJK
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Take a seat please! How are you ?
Thank you. I‟m fine sir.
Could you introduce your self please ?
My full name is Andika Julian Kalau. You can call me..Dika or Dian.
I am..Eighteen [eightie] years old. I live at Jiku Besar with my
parents and with all my family.
Well Andika, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes of course I have a hobby and I chose to ee…singing..ee pick
up
I like ee.. kind ee.. music of pop..because ee..I think [tink] ee kind of
music of pop ee can make me ee..feel better [beedee]..and make
me calm..and..the last ee…easy to listening.
Do you like travelling?
Yes of course sir I am very like it travelling
What kind of place do like to visit?
Ee..I like to visit ee..all the place such as mountain [mauntain]
beach and the waterfall ee..and the other interesting place because
is very..interesting to visit it [et]…ee..would you like to visit [visit]
my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes sir of course if you [are] ee..interest to visit to my home town I
can ee…describe for you..for the best place in my hometown
[hamtawan]..em..I think [tink]..in my hometown have the best
ee….place ee..such as Jikumarasa beach ee..Waprea waterfall and
the last ee.. I think [cink] ee….Rana lake ee..because ee…this is
the very famous [femies] place in my hometown..and ee..I think
[cink] ee.. the place is still natural
What kind of those places do you like best?
Mm…the place..e the best place ee..in my hometown to your visit
ee..Jikumarasa beach..sir because I think [tink] ee..this place is
ee..very ee..can make me..can make me..and you [yau] of
course..get have feel better and ee…and the place have a still
nature and…the best view..sir..I think so
120
Sample 4. ARMAN TASALISA
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OK seat down please!
OK Thank you
How are you doing?
I am fine thanks and you?
I am fine thank you, mmm....could you introduce your self please?
OK e.. my full name is ee the first Arman ee the second ee
Tasalisa. You can call me Man or Mances. eee now I am twenty
three years old.
Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes my hobby is singing..ee..and then [den] I always [always] my
item to..ee..sing a song with..my friend in ee..paparisa café..ee..we
always [always] spent ee..our [ouwr] time in Saturday night..ee
maybe ee..ee..four..four hours [awers]
What kind of music do you like?
Ee….I like ee…..I like ee western [wersten] music because with
western music we can ee…know about character [karakter] of
foreigner and then [den]…with western music we can more..learn
more ee..English and we can find we will found..we will find ee…the
new vocabulary [vokebleri].
Do you like travelling?
Yes of course I like travelling because [biikos] ee..with travelling we
can ee…find a new friend..we can get ee..new experience
[eksperien] and then for me the exper..because [bikoos] an
experience is the best teacher for me
What kind of place do like to visit?
Mm..I like [to] ee..visit mountain [monten] and lake..beach and
waterfall [wotcerfal]..and then [den] we have to know that [det]..all
of them [dem] there are in my hometown and for exiting
[eksaisting]..ee if you visit it and then [den] e..would you like to visit
my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Oh Yes ee..before you come in my home [haumt] I will tell you
about the..little about my hometown [haumtawn] my hometown is
ee..interesting..ee..like ee..there [der] are..Jikumarasa beach
Jikumarasa beach ee..have a goods panorama [panorama] and
then [den] there [der] we can find ee…traditional food like that [det]
and then [den] there are Rana lake..Rana lake is the one tourism
place in my hometown and then [den]..Rana lake is ee..midle of the
Buru island
121
R
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:
What kind of those places do you like best?
Ee..in my hometown [hamtawn] I like ee..visit ee..Jikumarasa
beach because [bikos] Jikumarasa beach ee..we can..we can
diving and there [der] we can ee..find found ee..in traditional food
and then [den]..there are..so many people there as spent their time
in Jikumarasa beach
Sample 5. AZZAM ABDULLAH
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OK come in please and have a seat please!
How are you doing?
ee.very well thanks
OK could introduce yourself ?
Ya my full name is.. Azzam Abdullah. I am the first child in my
family. Ee..twenty three.
Well, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I like ee..playing music [musik]..playing guitar
What kind of music do you like to play with your guitar?
Ee..I like dangdut..music.. because ya dangdut is..a music of my
country
So why do you like this hobby or why you have chosen this kind of
song to sing and play?
Ee..because this music ee must make us enjoyable when we herd
ee..this music and our finger sometimes ee..join to be ee..fun.
Do you like travelling?
Oh yes I really like travel
W hat kind of place do like to visit?
I like visiting beach and mountain [mauncen] a case ee..waterfall
and..all the place I mean interested places also there are in my..in
my hometown..so would you like to come to visit my hometown
please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Oh Yes ee…we have a higher mountain ee..and there are some
tourism ee..climb the mountain and also..we have Jikumarasa
beach and there ares some tourism always come there [der]
What kind of those places do you like best?
Ya I really like ee..beach Jikumarasa beach..because we can meet
ee..some tourism there
122
Sample 6. EKO PURWANTO
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This is the first time we meet introduction. So, could you introduce
your name please ?
Ee..my full name is Eko Purwanto. Mm..you can call me Eko sir.
OK I‟ll call you Eko.
OK so how old are you and where do you live?
I am twenty
I live…in..rent house coz I want in..dependent and responsibility for
my life.
Well Eko, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Ee..I like sport..and..especially I can play football
Ee..I like football coz..football make me health [helt]..and.. also I
think [tink] ..anyone..like it
Do you like travelling?
Yes I like travelling so much..because with traveling..I can see so
many people I can...of course I can visit so many place that [det] I
want to visit
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like visit Jikumarasa beach..and..batabuang mountain..Rana
lake..so..so..and I think [tink] all of those place..are here..so may
you come to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course ee..you come here you can visit Jikumarasa beach..it
has..it is still natural the water [weater] [is] still natural and…they
[dey] are..and..there [der] are beautiful view and land...and then
Rana lake is..very exotic to visit
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like mountain [mounten]..Batabual mountain..because..when I was
there..I feel so..calm..and then I can..get fresh air [air] fresh there
Sample 7. FARIDA BUGIS
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FB
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Come in and have a seat please!
Thank you Sir
So how are you today?
I am good..so how about you sir?
I am fine thanks thank you for the nice question. You know this is
the first I meet you. So, I‟d like you to introduce yourself to me.
My full name is Farida Bugis
123
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So what should I call you?
You can call me Ida or Dede
so how old are you now?
I am..eighteen years old
Where do you live now? Do you live with your parents or do you
live by your own in the cost?
Oh no I live with my parents in Jiku Besar but ee..be honest [honist]
I wanna..as one day I will knows by alone with live alone cause I
will more be..e responsible with my..alone and the other..especially
for my parents.
Well, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yea..I have so many [maini] hobby and..whole of them is listen to
music and also cooking
OK what kind of food do you like to cook?
Ee..I always like in my ee..in my hobby is a rice fried [rais fierd] in
the morning I always do that [det] for my parents [pharens] and my
family in my home and also ee..I like to [cu]..cooking sambal goring
you know that? [laught]
Is that your favorite kind of food?
Ah ya..ee..mmy my kind of favorite food is gado-gado and also..mie
ayam
Why‟ve you chosen this hobby?
Ee..I chose this hobby because I think [tink] cooking is so important
[impoden] for to a women coz one day ee..we as ee..women will be
a wife and also must be responsible with her children.. and also
your husband and also..I think for cooking is so ..so unique coz
[kaus] when I..I cook something as make me..its make me..be
happy..and..its the..its make me proud [proud] it my parents.
OK. Do you like travelling?
Yes I like travelling
What kind of place do like to visit?
Ee..generally I like to visit ee..such as [sases] mountain [mountain]
forest [pores] ee..waterfall and also beach but..ee overall I like ee..I
prefer [priifert] beach then [den] the other sir so would you like to
visit my hometown sir?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
OK with pleasure I would to describe for you about my hometown
so far ee..in our hometown there are some ee..you can found some
recreation place such as [sases] beach forest mountain [mountain]
and also waterfall [woderfol] but [it] is so famous [fomas] in here
ee..Jikumarasa beach and also..just information to you ee..so far
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there are so much [mas] tourist come for our country oh..not..for
our island to [cu] visit our ee..recreation [rekresien] place so..what
do you think [tink]?
What kind of those places do you like best?
I am so like beach sir
Why?
cause [kaus] when ee..I go in the beach I more best feeling and so
when I..see the..the condition [konisyen] of the beach..I think
[tink]..is so nice and it make me ee…feel good
Sample 8. FATMI WAMNEBO
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This is the first time we meet each other. And I‟d like you to
introduce yourself to me. Is it Ok ?
it‟s Ok sir. Well, my full name is Fatmi Wamnebo. Mm..you can call
me just Fat
Well Fat does your name have a special meaning for you?
OK, how old are you now?
eem..I am twenty years old
Where do you live now?
Oh I live with my parents and my uncle and aunt..ee I hope one day
I can live alone and be success.
Well, Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I have a hobby and one special for me is..listening [listening] to
music [musik]
What kind of music do you like to listen to?
Yes I like just pop music…because pop music to make me happy
and interest [interes] for me and ee.. I enjoy for pop music.
OK. Do you like travelling?
Yes I like because [bikaus] [through] travelling ee..I can get..spirit
and..relationship [redasyenship] and experience
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like mountain [mountain] I like forest I like beach ee..because the
place there are in my hometown and very beauty if..you to visit my
hometown ee..would you like to visit my hometown?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Oh..my hometown [homtaim] ee..I like the beach [bitch] because
[bikaus] beach [bic] ee..the place for recreation in ee..Buru island
and the..Jikumarasa beach there are..inhospitally and..tourist [turis]
yes I like..I like it
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What kind of those places do you like best?
Ee…I like just ee..Jikumarasa beach
Sample 9. ISWAN WALY
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OK you may come in and have a seat please!
Thank you
You know this is the first time we meet, so I hope you to be
ee..relax and don‟t be nervous ok, How are you today?
I am fine so how [how] about you?
I am fine thank you, thank you for your nice question, could you
introduce yourself ?
My full name is Iswan Waly
Iswan Waly what about your family name? you call me e…Call me
ee …I am years [uncomplete] old. I am twenty years old..and
ninety…I was born in nineteen..nineteen three. Ee..I live..I live in
ee..I live with me..with my parents and my cousin [Kajen]
here..and..ee..I have…I have a small..house and I always enjoy
ee….the computer and a guitar.
Well, Now, I‟d like to ask you about your hobby. Could you tell ?
Yes ee..mys hobby is playing guitar..and ee..I always sespent..our
[owr] time and the my friends..and ee..my family [familie]
So what kind of music do you used to play with your guitar?
Ee…I chose the…ee..rock music [musik] because ee..we can
forget [forget] ee the problem and..ee..we can ee..move the
language [lingwij] – body language.
Do you like travelling, Is ?
Yes I like travelling because travelling is very..very ee..good for me
and then [den] because [bikos] e..ee..with [wit] traveling ee..I can
get ee..experiance and then [den] ee..very of..e..much of defend
What kind of place do like to visit?
Yes ee..I like to visit in Jikumarasa beach..and then [den]
Jikumarasa beach is ee..ee..the people always to visit ee..ee..kayu
puti oil because ee..according to they ee..minyak kayu puti ee..kayu
puti oil ee..is very very ee..good for ee..health..so would you like to
visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes ee..I can explain ee..my hometown..ee..I like my hometown
ee..for example jikumarasa beach ee..the people always ee….kayu
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puti oil and then [den] ee..I can ee..ee..always to ee..mountain
[mountain]
What kind of those places do you like best?
Ee..I like ee..best ee..Jikumarasa beach…for example
ee...Jikumarasa ee..the place is very..very beautiful
Sample 10. RIZAL WAMNEBO
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Come in please...take a seat please!
Thanks Sir
How are you doing?
I am fine thanks and how about you Sir?
I am fine thank you. Emmm.... could you introduce yourself please
?
My full name is Rizal Wamnebo. You can call me Rija. I am twenty
fours years old. I live with my family now but..I hope some day..I will
get..my own house.
Well, now, i want you to talk about your hobby. Do you have a
hobby or special one you used to?
Yes of course..I like music. because ee..every Saturday night me
and my friends we always..visit..star café and ee..singing together
and we always ee..we always a sing together and ee..it has be our
routine activity every satur..every on Saturday night
What kind of music do you like?
I like..I like pop music and dangdut
So why have you chosen this hobby?
Because I want to be..I want to be..a singer and..sing in every café
in my city and then [den] singing can make me enjoy.
Do you like travelling?
Yes of course ee..I I like travelling very much because ee..I am a
lover..challenge..ee and adventure and also wit..with [wit] travelling
ee...I can know everything [evriting] from the..traditional
culture..ee..traditional dancer..and traditional song and then [den]
ee…I am a lover culinarity and..I wanna try to ee..traditional food
from the…the country and then [den] ee..not to be but another
people ee..come and..making travelling [trepeling] …just other
for..making travelling..they also..ee..they also learn ee..about
ee..the..about the cul…culture for ee…from every country because
[bikos] ee..its the important [important]…for them knowledge
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit ee..beach jungle and waterfall because ee..I like to
diving I like to make a diving ee..under round of the sea and ee…to
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find ee…,the different ee..the different ee..and other to find..ee..so
could you like to..visit my hometown?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
It‟s Ok ee…..my country..my country is the..it‟s a nice country
and..it has a good scenery….. and..we have a different tourist spot
and it has e…the interest [intres] for..the visitor to come to my
country
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like to visit Simpang 5..because is it place for hung up the young
man and the young women..they always come..the place…just for
application..ee..the internet program..that [det] has ee.. the place
provide..the place provide ee..and also..ee….just like that
Sample 11. RIZKI AZZAM ABDULLAH
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OK take a seat please!
OK sir
How are you doing?
I am doing well Sir
Could you tell me your full name please!
Of course my full name is Rizki Azam Abdulah
How old are you now?
By the fifth September 2012 I will be twele.... twenty years old
because I was born on 5 September nineteen ninety
OK where do you live now?
Ee..for a while I „ve I live with my parents but someday I believe
that [det] e..i will have my own house because I wanna be.. I want
to be independence.
Well, Rizki. Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Absolutely [obsolutlie] sir I..ee my hobby is ee..reading a novel or
short story..I always spent my hour..spent much my time to read a
novel and ee..I always ee..invite my friends and invite my
sister..brother and sister to read novel together
Ee..with read novel or short story we can enlarge our knowledge
and we will know about it some of characteristic are talking about
being and of course ee..we..we can check the message in the
novel or short story.
Do you like travelling?
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Yes sir certainly sir because with travelling we can find new friend
we can find new experience [iksprens] and of..and of course we
know the characteristic of human being there
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit ee..mountain I like to visit beach and I like to visit
ee..waterfall and all of them are in my place so would you like to
visit my hometown?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course sir my hometown is a beautiful places that you can
visit and there are so many interesting places and there are so
many historical places for example ee.. in Maco..in Maco Maco
famous with the political prisoner places
What kind of those places do you like best?
The place that I like best to visit is Jikumarasa beach because it
has a good scenery natural view and there are sand white beaches
Sample 12. ROSVITA MUKADAR
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OK come in please and have a seat please! How are you today?
ee very well thanks
This is the first time we meet each other, so I‟d like you to introduce
yourself. Please
Ee.. my full name is Rosvita Mukadar
Rosvita Mukadar, what about your family name. Just call me..vivi.
Ee..I am….nineteen years old ee..ee..last week ee.. I ee..I I was
ee..celebrate my birthday
Ok where do you live now? Do you live with your parents or do you
live by your own in the cost?
Ee..I live in BTN SMA with my parents..but I hope ee….one day I
can..e stay in my own [awen]..house..and ee..so..from now I have
to work hard to..get it yes.
Well, Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yea I have so many hobby but..one of them [dem] or..one special
for me..I like reading
What kind of book do you like to read?
I like read a novel
Why have you chosen this kind of hobby?
Ee..I didn‟t know exactly but..since..i was in..junior high school..I
used to read all of the book because I think [tink] that when I
ee..often [owen] read the book I can get more information of it.
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Do you like travelling?
Of course I like travelling
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit beach mountain [mountiin] mm..waterfall and also
forest..would you like to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
In my hometown [hamtawn] you can visit ee..Rana lake [lek] Rana
lake forest beach and also mountain [monten]
What kind of those places do you like best?
Ee..I like to visit Jikumarasa beach because [bikos] over there [ofer
der] I I can meet [met] many people there and….there are tourist
local and also international and I like to…..ee..I more like with [wit]
ee…the..international tourist [turis]..because I can practice my
speaking there
Sample 13. ULFA WAEL
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: OK you may come in and have a seat please!
: Thank you sir
:
How are you today?
: I am good what about you?
: I am fine thank you. Could you introduce yourself please !
: My full name is Ulfa Wael. You could [kuch] call me with Ulfa
: How old are you now?
: I am nineteen years old ee..and I was born on September 9 nineteen
ninety two
: Where do you live now?
: I live in Bandar Angin and I live with my parents..but I hope some
day.. I‟ll have ..ee..my..own house [hos].
: Well, Ulfa. I do beleieve that every single people have their own
hobby. So, Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
: Yes I have many hobbies one of them is singing
: What kind of music do you like to sing?
: Mm..I like jazz music and..pop but foreign [foren] music because
ee..it increase ee vocab ee..and through this music..ee..we can
learn ee..the propriety [proper] pronunciation.
: Do you like travelling?
: Yes I like it ee..I belive that [det]ee..travelling is always
educational..educational and..it can be..interesting [intresting]
experience
: What kind of place do like to visit?
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Many places like ee..mountain [mountain] ee..lake beach waterfall
and all the places were here..so could you like to..ee..visit my
hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes ee..of course ee..in my hometown ee..have e some good place
ee….there [der] are Jikumarasa beach ee..Waiura waterfall Rana
lake and etc.
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like Jikumarasa beach because ee..view of nature is so beautiful
where..we can relax by the beach milk meal and..also we can
swimming over there
Sample 14. UMI JAMILATUS SALEHA
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Hi, How are you ?
I am fine thank you how about you?
I am fine thank you, Could you introduce yourself ?
My full name is..Umi Jamilatu Saleha Ee..the people can call
me..with ee Eka or Umi but I like if the people call me Eka
OK so how old are you now?
Twenty years old
Where do you live now?
Oh I live in Jalan Kampus ee..in ee front of..al akbar mosque
[moskio] I live with my parents ee.. I have.. two sisters and then
[den] one brother
Well Eka, Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes ee..I have many hobby ee..they are ee..many hobby in my life
ee..I like ee..reading book and then ee..watching TV and I like
ee..fishing..but ee….its ee..watching TV because I think [tink] with
ee..watching TV I can relax [rilaeks] and then [den]..I can get some
information..from watching TV
What about sport?
Ee..I like badminton..because..ee..it is [idis] ee..cheaper sport..just
stick a racket and then [den] ee..a ball.
Do you like travelling? Why?
Yes of course I like ee..because through [trough] travelling I
can..get new information from my ee..from my travelling and then
[den] get a new friend get new experience [eksperinch] and get..I
can get ee..the history of the…village or the place I..ee..I visit..go to
mountain [mountain] I like ee..go to beach I like ee..go to forest
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[forist] waterfall lake etcetera I like ee..over all the place..ee..the
interest place
What kind of place do like to visit?
Ee..I like over all of my travelling ee..I like mountain [mountain] I
like ee..visit so would you like to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course [of kers] ee..my hometown is Namlea Namlea is one
ee..of the..of the small..of the small village in Buru regency
[regensi] but there are many place ee..there..there are many
interest place in there ee..such as..dan..Rana lake Jikumarasa
beach ee..waterfall and etc
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like Jikumarasa beach because ee..its very interest for me and
then [den] ee..the water is very..clean the sand is very clean too
ee..there are..beautiful..there are beautiful kind…and then [den]
many visitor come in Jikumarasa beach ee…such as..local visitor
and maybe..international visitor
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POSTTEST
Sample 1. ABDUL RAZAK MASBAIT
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Hi, we meet again. This is my posttest about introduction so I‟ll ask
you some questions about yourself OK. Could you tell me your full
name please!
My full name is Abdul Razak Masbait
so what should I call you?
You may call me Jack or Rozak the name is always used by my
friend and peoples around me to call me
OK so how old are you now?
Now I am twenty one years old
Where do you live now?
Now I live with my brothers in Bandar Angin because I am still
studying in Iqra Buru Univers so I don‟t live with my parents
because my parents still in village.
Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I have many hobby they are swimming singing climbing and
special one is reading book
What kind of book do you like to read?
Nowadays reading book is very important for us we can know many
things in the world like science and technology through reading
book we will be very clever
So what about sport, what sport do you play it best?
I like playing football best beside my home there is a small field
every afternoon I with my friend assemble in the field for playing
football together all of us have fun we spent all afternoon in the field
so that I like football best.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I like travelling I can go anywhere and visit many place
So what kind of places do you like to visit?
I like visit Jikumarasa beach, Batabual mountain and Rana lake all
the places are here so would you come to visit my hometown
please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes in my hometown there are many beautiful places to visit all the
places still natural the air still fresh and you will not find pollution in
my hometown
What kind of those places do you like best?
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I like to visit Batabual mountain there..the forest in Batabual
mountain still natural many trees growth rapidly the air still fresh
there are many birds its cheip very sweet and I get quite when I am
there.
Sample 2. AFAN DWI RAKA
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Hi, We meet again. Could you tell me your full name please!
Of course my full name is Afan Dwi Raka
You can call me Raka or Rara its off to you
OK so how old are you now?
I am Eighteen years old now
Where do you live now?
I live in front of BTN SMA 1 and I live with my parents and my
nephew but..one day I grow up and live without my parents
because I..I must get a job so I live alone.
Well Raka, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes of course I like climbing mountain playing guitar and singing
but the best is climbing mountin for me
Why have you chosen this hobby while you are a woman?
I ve chosen climbing mountin because climbing mountain is very
interested and I can feel freewhen I climb mountain
What about sport. What sport do you like to play best?
I like..playing basketball very much I like to play because when I
play basketball I can forget all the problem and it can be healthy
beside that basketball is…basketball field is near from my house so
I can play it every time I want.
Do you like travelling?
Yeah I like travelling very much because through travelling it can
make me spirit and give some experiences
What kind of places do like to visit?
I like visit beach mountain [maintain] and wood I think [tink] and the
beautiful landscape I visited when I get bored could would you like
to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes sir of course in my hometown has many many landscape to
visit especially for beach beach in my hometown is very beautiful it
has good water white stone so I like it very much
So What kind of those places do you like best?
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Actually I don‟t like visit beach very much I visit it sometimes when I
want but actually I just like walking around my hometown especially
Namlea city like warnet
Sample 3. ANDIKA JK
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Take a seat please!
Thank you
How are you doing?
Oh…I am fine..How about you?
Fine, thanks for your nice question
Yes..You are welcome
Could you introduce yourself ?
Yes my full name is Andika Julian Kalau
So What should I call you?
You can call me Dika or Dian
OK Dika, how old are you now?
I am Eighteen years old
Where do you live?
I live at Jiku Besar sir with my parents my brothers and my sisters
but one day I hope I have my own haouse and I live alone there.
Well Andika, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes of course I have a hobby and a special one is ee..reading a
book
So what kind of book do you like to read?
La Tahzan from Dr Aid Al-qarni
Why have you chosen reading this book?
Because reading is the window of the world [word] and with reading
I can…expose my knowledge about everything in the world [wold].
Do you like travelling?
Yes sir of course I am very like it travelling because from travelling I
can get new experience in the new places and the and the mowst I
know about that [det] historical places and historical people that I
ever visit
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit some interesting places such as mountain [mauntain]
waterfall beach and etc but overall I am very interested to visit
beach because every time when I go to the beach I feel good and
the situation make me good would you like to visit [visit] my
hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
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Yes sir if you want to visit my hometown I can tell you about the
situation in my hometown in my hometown has a famous place is
Jikumarasa beach because the landscape of the beach still nature
and original but not only that still the other places like waprea
waterfall rana lake
What kind of those places do you like best?
The best place in my hometown is Jikumarasa beach because
every weekend many people visit to this place and make it crauded
and I like it of course
Sample 4. ARMAN TASALISA
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OK seat down please!
OK Thank you
How are you doing?
I am fine thanks and you?
I am fine thank you, thanks for your nice question..could you
introduce yourself please?
Yes of course my full name is Arman Tasalisa. Maybe you can call
me Man or Mances Now I live in old harbor with my adopts mother
not with my parents becase my parents will live in my village but I
hope oneday I will have my own house and I ask my parents to live
with [wit] me.
Try to relax OK. Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes of course actually [esualy] I have many hobbies the most one
is singing I always spent my weekend to go to Paparisa café with
my frind and we can sing for three hours
Why have you chosen this kind of hobby?
I chose this..eee…hobby because if we singing we can feel free to
express anything we can forget our problem for a while and with
singing we can happy and enjoy the music.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I like it so much because [biikos] with travelling we can get new
experience [eksperien] we know defference between our culture
and others and then [den] the main point of travelling is educational
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit mountain [montain] beach waterfall and everything that
has a beauty nature all of them are in my hometown so would you
like to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
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Of course well Buru is one of the best the located [loket] in Maluku
there are many interesting place that can visit by tourism there for
example Lala beach taniwel beach and rana lake and any others
Buru is famous [famous] with ecaliptus oil or the people of buru say
kayu puti oil
What kind of those places do you like best?
Ee..the place that I like to visit is Rana lake because it is icon for
buru island for tourism and it is located in the midlle of buru regency
its provide good scenery
Sample 5. AZZAM ABDULLAH
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OK come in please and have a seat please!
How are you doing?
ee.very well thanks
OK could you introduce yourself please !
Ya my full name is Azzam Abdullah
You can call me Azwan only
OK so how old are you and where do you live now?
I was born in..nineteen eighty nine so right now I „ve been twenty
three years old. I live in rent house in Jl Pilar Namlea I live alone
and perhaps one day I can buy a house a .big house if I have been
a successman.
Well, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Oh Yes I have many hobbies and special one is go fishing
Why have you chosen this kind of hobby?
Ya because fishing makes me patient so maybe oneday I will be a
success man
what about music? What kind of music do you like to play with your
guitar?
I like dangdut music because dangdut is a music of my country and
my finger sometimes enjoy to follow the music when I listening to
the music.
Do you like travelling?
Oh yes I like travelling very much because travelling makes me
know more about the world and I can get much experience about
the whole people around me and directly makes me to be adult
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit beach and mountain [mauncen] forest waterfall and
castle so would you like to come to visit my hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
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Ya we have a long beautiful beach and it has..white sand and also
we have higher mountain with the green trees and we have a big
grave
What kind of those places do you like best?
Ya I like to visit the beach because it has white sand and beautiful
scenery and there are many tourism come there.
Sample 6. EKO PURWANTO
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How are you today?
I am fine what about you?
I am fine thank you, thanks for your nice question..OK could you
introduce yourself please!
My full name is Eko Purwanto
so what should I call you?
You can call me Eko
OK I‟ll call you Eko, how old are you and where do you live now?
I am twenty years old. I live in a rent house coz I wanna be free and
I also want to [be] responsibility with my life.
Well Eko, Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
I like sport and I like to a play football
So why have you chosen this kind of sport?
I like football coz football is international sport football also make
me health and I can find my news frind
What about music, what kind of music do you like to listen to?
I „d like to slow pop coz when I hear it I fell relax and easy for me to
get sleep
Do you like travelling?
Not really but sometime if I have spare time I usually go travelling
What kind of place do like to visit?
Usually I‟d like to go to the beac..because beach in my hometown
have a beautiful landscape so may you come to visit my hometown
please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Actually my hometown is small city but it has a much beautiful
palce to visit it like Rana lake waterfall in wamlana and also
jikumarasa beach
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like the Jiku marasa beach because it has a beautiful landscape
white sand and a clean water and you will find much tourism such
as local or international
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Sample 7. FARIDA BUGIS
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Come in and have a seat please!
Thank you Sir
So how are you today?
I am good..so how about you sir? could you introduce yourself
please!
My full name is Farida Bugis sir
So what should I call you?
You can call me Ida or Dede
so how old are you now?
I am eighteen years old now sir
Where do you live now? Do you live with your parents or do you
live by your own in the cost?
Mm..now I live in Jiku besar with my parents and also my family but
I hope oneday I can be stay alone and moreless responsible with
my life.
Well, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I have so many hobby such as [sases] listen to music and also
cooking sir
OK what kind of food do you like to cook?
Because I think cooking is so fun and also I think cooking is very
important [impoden] fo a woman then oneday I will be a house wife
and I must cook for my children and also my family.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I do cause [kaus] I can get more experience and meet the new
friends then..I can know that Buru island have a beautiful
landscape that unexposed sir
What kind of place do like to visit?
Ee..so many places I like to visit such as [sases] mountain beach
and also waterfall sir so would you like to visit my hometown sir?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
OK sir with pleasure we would to describe for you about my
hometown exactly about Buru island, buru island is a part from
Maluku province that you can find some recreation places among
other mountain beach waterfall and so what is original and full of
the history sir
What kind of those places do you like best?
I am like Jikumarasa beach because it is conditition still original and
in there we can find traditional food like rujak and we can met many
tourist at the moment [mumen] you can direct interact with them
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and to examine our ability in English exactly jikumarasa beach was
famous [fomas] landscape in Maluku sir
Sample 8. FATMI WAMNEBO
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How are you today?
I am fine how about you?
I am fine thank you. Well, could you introduce yourself please !
My full name is Fatmi Wamnebo. You can call [kal] me Fat. I am
twenty years old
I live [in] Derfas with my uncle I hope one day I can live alone in my
own house when I get success.
OK Fatmi, do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I have many hobbies and the special one is listening [listening]
to music [musik]
Why have you chosen this kind of hobby?
I like pop music because pop music is support to listen easy to
understand and effecdtive for feeling I always enjoy and having fun
also I can forget all my problem.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I do because I can get new experience [eksperiens] new
friends and also many information about the historical places
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit so many place among others forest mountain
[mountain] beach and lake all of them you can find in my hometown
would you like to visit my hometown?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course because the landscape in my hometown is very
beauty and there are so many… reacreation place such as Rana
lake Jikumarasa beach and waterfall in waiura
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like just Jikumarasa beach because jikumarasa beach is very
beauty and beside that [det] its place for recreation and usually
people..to visit every sunday
Sample 9. ISWAN WALY
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OK you may come in and have a seat please!
Thank you
I hope you to be ee..relax and don‟t be nervous ok, How are you
today?
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I am fine so how about you?
I am fine thank you, could you introduce yourself ?
Yes My full name is Iswan my parents and my friends always call
[kal] me Riswan
: OK how old are you now?
: I am twenty years old I was [wos] born on March [march] nineteen
three
: Ok where do you live now? Do you live with your parent or you live
with your own in a rent house or
: I live in Jl Baru with my cousin [kazin] here in and we live in a small
house and I have …. [unclear] and I was [wos] a singer [singger].
:. Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
: Yes ee..my hobby is playing guitar and I always spent my time with
my parents and my friends
: So why have you chosen this hobby?
: I chosen this hobby because we can the forget the problem.
: Do you like travelling?
: Yes of course I like travelling because with travelling we can get
new experience and much friend
: What kind of place do like to visit?
: I like to visit in lake beach mountain [mountain] and all of them are
in my hometown so would you like to visit my hometown please?
: Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
: OK I am going to tell you about something in my hometown that
you will visit it … the landscape is very beautiful and there are high
mountain [monten]
: What kind of those places do you like best?
: Yes I like the best is mountain and jikumarasa beach is very
beautiful and then [den] the people always visit jikumarasa beach
because [bikous] in jikumarasa beach ee..they are kayu puti oil.
Sample 10. RIZAL WAMNEBO
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Come in please...take a seat please!
Thanks Sir
How are you doing?
I am fine thanks and how about you Sir?
I am fine thank you, thank you for your nice question. So could you
introduce yourself, please !
Yes of course My full name is Rizal Wamnebo. You can call me
Rijal
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Well Rijal does your name have any special meaning?
How old are you now?
I am twenty four years old
Where do you live? Do you live with your parents or you live in the
cost?
I live with my family but I hope oneday I will get my own house
Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes of course I like music very much coz me and my friends we
always go to café to singing our favorite song every Saturday night
and also I wanna be a singer local and intertain every people in the
cafe
What kind of sport do you like to play best?
I like to palying badminton its can make me enjoy its can dep..its
can implement for the routine if I play best and also badminton can
make me helath.
This is the third part of my posttest about invitation, so I‟ll ask you
some questions related to this topic OK. Do you like travelling?
Yes of course because I am a lover challenge and also with
travelling I can know everything from the traditional culture in every
place as like traditional dance song and traditional house
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit mountain [mountain] beach forest and waterfall and all
of them [dem] … were here [her] in my hometown could you like
to..visit my hometown?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
I like Jikumarasa beach kapalaram mountain and taniwel lake the
place is so beautiful there is western beach coconut trees along the
beach side under water garden is still natural kapalamaran
mountain the weather is so cool there and there is many kind of
bird in the different color you can enjoy there if you visit my
hometown
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like rana lake very much because the place is very natural is a
large lake in my hometown the weather there is so cool you can
find the native people of my place there the special name of them is
Alifuru people
OK I think that‟s all for today thank you very much for your
cooperation .
OK you are welcome
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Sample 11. RIZKI AZZAM ABDULLAH
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OK take a seat please!
OK sir
How are you doing?
I am doing well Sir
Could you introduce yourself ?
Yes sir my full name is Rizki Azzam Abdullah
So what should I call you?
Actually you can call me Rizki, Azzam or Abdullah
OK . Anyway, how old are you now?
By the fifth September 2012 I will be twenty years old because I
was born on 5 September nineteen ninety. I live with my parents
and my brothers and sisters in.. Jl Pendidikan.
Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Absolutely [obsolutlie] sir I have so many hobbies one of them is
reading a novel or short story I always spent two hours to do that
So why have you chosen this hobby?
Because with reading novel we can enlarge our knowledge and we
will know something happened in the world and we can know other
characteristic of the people of the human being
Do you like music? What kind of music do you like to listen to?
Yes I like music I like dangdut music because dangdut is the music
of my country and I believe that when we hear dangdut song it can
attractive to shake your thumb and body.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I like it very much with travelling we can find new frien new
experience [eksprenc] in our life and we will know the difference of
the characteristic of the people in one and other places
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit all of the interesting places in my hometown such as
mountain beach waterfall lake and others so would you like to visit
my hometown?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Well Buru is one of the places that located in Maluku Buru is
famous with elcaliptus oil not only that in rezim of Suharto Buru is
known as excile island there were so many political prisioner who
sent from Java to here beside that there are many historical places
that can visit by tourist
What kind of those places do you like best?
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The places that I like best is Jikumarasa beach because it has a
good scenery as the nature untouchable by the policy
OK I think that‟s all for today thank you very much for your
cooperation.
OK you are welcome
Sample 12. ROSVITA MUKADAR
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OK come in please and have a seat please! How are you today?
ee very well thanks
Could you introduce yourself ?
My full name is Rosvita Mukadar. Just call me Vita.I am nineteen
years old. I live in BTN SMA with my parents but I hope one day I
can live in my own house
Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
I have so many hobby the special one is reading
What kind of book do you like to read?
I like all the book because I think [tink] that [det] when I often read
the book I can get more information of it.
Do you like travelling?
Yes of course I like travelling because its make me more
experience
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit forest beach waterfall and also mountain [mountiin]
usually I visit that [det] when boring would you like to visit my
hometown please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yeah in my hometown you have visit some place such as rana lake
beach forest waterfall and mountain
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like to visit Jikumarasa beach there are many people visit this
place such as tourist local and international ee…I very [am]
interested when I met tourist international because I can practice
my speak in English with them [dem]
OK I think that‟s all for today thank you very much for your
cooperation.
OK you are welcome
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Sample 13. ULFA WAEL
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OK you may come in and have a seat please!
Thank you sir
How are you today?
I am good what about you?
I am fine thank you, thank you for your nice question, I hope you to
be relax and don‟t be nervous ok, Could you introduce yourself ?
Yes of course my full name is Ulfa Wael. You can call me Ulfa
How old are you now?
I am nineteen years old I was born on Larike September 9 nineteen
ninety two
Where do you live now?
I live in Bandar Angin and I live with my parents but I hope some
day I‟ll have my own house because I wanna be independent girl.
Well, Do you have a hobby or special one you used to?
Yes I have many hobbies one of them is singing
What kind of music do you like to sing?
I like pop and jazz music but western music because it can
increase our vocab and through western music we can improve our
pronunciation.
Do you like travelling?
Yes I like it I belive that [det] travelling is always educational it can
be interesting experience
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like to visit Jikumarasa beach waiura waterfall and rana lake and
all the places were here so could you like to visit my hometown
please?
Yes of course I will, but before I came to visit your hometown, could
you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course in my hometown has some good places they are
Jikumarasa beach Waiura waterfall Rana lake like I explained
before and the place is very interesting so its won‟t disappointed
you when you come to visit
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like Jikumarasa beach because we opften enjoy its beautiful
where we can relax by the beach and great meal and also we can
swimming overthere
OK I think that‟s all for today thank you very much for your
cooperation
OK you are welcome
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Sample 14. UMI JAMILATUS SALEHA
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How are you today?
I am fine thank you how about you?
I am fine thank you, thanks for your nice question. OK Could you
introduce yourself
My full name is Umi Jamilatu Saleha
so what should I call you?
You can call me Eka or Umi but I like if you call me Eka
OK so how old are you now?
Nineteen years old
Where do you live now?
I live at Jalan Kampus I live with my parents I have two sisters and
one brother. L : OK Umi, do you have a hobby or special one you
used to?
Yes I have many hobby such as reading book watching TV fishing
and etc but one of the special of my hobby is listening music
listening to the music [musik]
What kind if music do you like to listen to?
I like dangdut music
Why have you chosen this kind of song as your hobby?
Because [bikaus] dangdut music is very familiar [familiar] and
dangdut music can make people dance.
Do you like travelling? Why?
Yes of course it is interesting experience [eksperiench] for me
because with travelling I can get new friends and get new
experience [ekperiench] then [den] I believe that travelling is an
educational because trough travelling I can get new information
What kind of place do like to visit?
I like so many places to visit such as beach forest mountain lake
and market
could you explain or describe for me a little about the places or the
landscapes in your hometown please?
Yes of course [of kers] my hometown is a small city but I like it
because [bikos] the nature [is] still original and also there are many
landscape in my hometown among others Jikumarasa beach Rana
lake and waterfall in Waiura and etc
What kind of those places do you like best?
I like Jikumarasa beach because the place is so beautiful and also I
can do some activity in there such as swimming fishing playing
football and etc and Jikumarasa beach was a recreation place that
famous [famous] in Maluku
OK, Thank you !
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