NAME ________________________________________ DATE _____________ CLASS ______ The Road to Revolution Lesson 2: First Conflicts ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why does conflict develop? Terms to Know commerce the buying and selling of goods and services enforce to apply a rule or law; to carry out by force import to bring in goods from foreign countries skirmish a minor fight, usually during wartime resolution a formal statement of an opinion made by an official group delegate a representative of a group attending a formal meeting decline to turn down What do you know? Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission is granted to reproduce for classroom use. For each statement, write a T for true or an F for false. When you finish reading the lesson, review your answers and correct any, if necessary. 1. General Santa Anna fought against Mexico for Texas. 2. The Turtle Bayou Resolutions declared independence for Texas. 3. Texans won a victory at the Battle of Velasco. 4. At the Convention of 1832, Texans asked that Texas become a separate state. 5. At the Convention of 1833, Stephen F. Austin wrote a constitution for a new state of Texas. Trouble at Anahuac Guiding Question What events brought about the Turtle Bayou Resolutions? A tax collector and Mexican soldiers were assigned to control commerce at the port of Anahuac. Commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services. The garrison was commanded by Colonel John (Juan) Davis Bradburn. Soon after Bradburn arrived, colonists at Anahuac accused him of refusing to hand over escaped enslaved people. They also accused his troops of stealing supplies. However, the colonists’ main issue was that Bradburn tried to enforce the duty on goods that were being imported, or brought by ship from foreign countries, into Texas. Marking the Text 1. Underline the definition of the word commerce. Reading Essentials and Study Guide 121 NAME ________________________________________ DATE _____________ CLASS ______ The Road to Revolution Lesson 2: First Conflicts, continued Finding the Main Idea 2. Why did Bradburn arrest Travis and Jack? Explaining 3. Why did John Austin go back to Brazoria? On Bradburn’s orders, a tax collector at Anahuac tried to collect duties on goods as far away as the Brazos River. Mexican troops were stationed at the mouth of the Brazos River, but there was no tax collector. To pay duties, ship captains on the Brazos were expected to dock and travel overland to Anahuac. This angered the ship captains, and some of them took their ships up the Brazos without stopping for clearance. This resulted in an exchange of gunfire between Texans and Mexican troops. In May of 1832, Bradburn arrested two lawyers, William B. Travis and Patrick C. Jack. Bradburn claimed that they had interfered with his efforts to enforce the laws. Two different groups of angry settlers, totaling about 200 people, marched to Anahuac. Frank W. Johnson and William H. Jack, Patrick’s brother, led one group from San Felipe. John Austin, a friend and possibly a relative of Stephen F. Austin, led the other party from Brazoria. Marking the Text Meanwhile, General Antonio López de Santa Anna, a Federalist, was leading a revolt against Centralist president Anastacio Bustamante (uh•nuhs•TAH•see•oh boos•tah•MAHN•tay). Bustamante was unpopular with Texans. They believed his Centralist rule went against the Mexican Constitution of 1824. Santa Anna promised to follow the constitution, and most Texans supported him. Defining 5. Highlight the contents of the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. News reached Turtle Bayou that Santa Anna had won a battle in Mexico against Centralist forces. On June 13, 1832, the Texans adopted the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. Turtle Bayou Resolutions declared loyalty to Mexico, but not to Mexican government 122 Reading Essentials and Study Guide stated support for Santa Anna and Mexico’s Federalists Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission is granted to reproduce for classroom use. 4. What is the meaning of the word skirmish? A small skirmish, or fight, occurred between the Texans and the Mexican troops. The Texans captured some of Bradburn’s soldiers. They hoped to exchange them for Travis and Jack. Bradburn agreed to the exchange if the Texans retreated. The Texans released the soldiers, but some of the Texans would not withdraw. Therefore, Bradburn did not release Travis and Jack and called in more forces. The Texans made camp at nearby Turtle Bayou. They realized they needed more firepower, so John Austin went back to Brazoria to get a cannon. NAME ________________________________________ DATE _____________ CLASS ______ The Road to Revolution Lesson 2: First Conflicts, continued Back at Anahuac, Colonel José de las Piedras, who controlled the Mexican garrison at Nacogdoches, arrived. Piedras believed that the Texans outnumbered his soldiers, so he gave in to their demands. He removed Bradburn from command and released Travis and Jack. Bradburn fled from Texas, and Piedras returned to Nacogdoches. A Federalist officer took charge at Anahuac. He declared support for Santa Anna, closed the fort, and moved his troops to Mexico to join the fight against the Centralists. Reading Progress Check 6. Why did the Turtle Bayou Resolutions support the Federalists of Mexico? Texans Seek Change Guiding Question What were the goals of the conventions of 1832 and 1833? As the situation in Anahuac calmed, violence flared at Velasco, near the mouth of the Brazos River, on June 26, 1832. John Austin and his group had gotten the cannon at Brazoria and loaded it onto a ship. However, the Mexican commander, Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea (oo•gahr•teh•CHAY•ah), would not let them pass at Velasco. The Texans and Mexicans began fighting. Identifying Cause and Effect 7. What caused the Battle of Velasco? Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission is granted to reproduce for classroom use. The Battle of Velasco was short but bloody. When the Mexicans ran out of ammunition, Ugartechea surrendered. Austin’s group then sailed on to Anahuac. By the time they arrived, Travis and Jack had already been freed. Meanwhile, those supporting Santa Anna were winning. In the late summer of 1832, Bustamante resigned as president of Mexico. The next year Santa Anna took power. Most Texans were pleased. They believed he would treat Texas well, since he was a Federalist. Fifty-five delegates, or representatives, from Anglo American settlements met at a convention in San Felipe in October 1832. Stephen F. Austin presided over the convention. They agreed to send proposals to the Mexican government and chose William H. Wharton and Rafael Manchola to present them. The proposals of the Convention of 1832 were mainly ideas long favored by Texans. They wanted: • to resume immigration from the United States • to exempt Texas from import duties for three years Defining 8. What is a delegate? Marking the Text 9. Highlight the proposals made at the Convention of 1832. • to make Texas a separate state of Mexico Not one of these proposals was ever presented. Some leaders thought that the fact that most of the delegates were Anglo Americans weakened their position. Reading Essentials and Study Guide 123 NAME ________________________________________ DATE _____________ CLASS ______ The Road to Revolution Lesson 2: First Conflicts, continued Reading Progress Check 10. What role did Sam Houston play at the Convention of 1833? In April 1833, Anglo Americans called a second convention at San Felipe. Most of the delegates at this convention had not attended the first one. Among the new delegates was Sam Houston, representing Nacogdoches. The Convention of 1833 adopted resolutions similar to those adopted in 1832. However, this meeting went further. It drew up a constitution for the proposed state. Sam Houston served as chairman of the committee that wrote the constitution. Stephen F. Austin, Dr. James B. Miller, and Erasmo Seguín were chosen to take the Convention’s resolutions to Mexico City. However, Dr. Miller stayed in Texas to treat many people suffering with a serious illness. Seguín declined to go. As a result, Austin went to Mexico alone. Writing Check for Understanding 1. Expository What were the Turtle Bayou Resolutions? 124 Reading Essentials and Study Guide Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission is granted to reproduce for classroom use. 2. Expository How did the Convention of 1833 take further action than the Convention of 1832 had taken?