Napoleon's Buttons: Seventeen Molecules that Changed History

Summer Assignments for AP Biology 2013-2014
North Gwinnett High School
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
If you have any questions/problems concerning the summer assignments, please contact Coach Johnson.
Books required:
1. Napoleon’s Buttons: Seventeen Molecules that Changed History, by Penny LeCouteur and Jay Burreson
(You may want to order the other two books you will read during the school year at the same time - (All 3 books sell for
less than $10 each on
2. Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters (P.S.) (Paperback) by Matt Ridley
3. Your Inner Fish, A Journey into the 3.5 Billion-year History of the Human Body, by Neil Shubin.
Access to your Online Textbook:
AP BIOLOGY - Biology AP* Edition, 8th Edition Campbell, Reece et al., ©2008
Go to:
Enter code: SSNAST
Click: Covered Titles
Click: Science
Click: Campbell, Biology 8e AP* Edition
Click: Student Registration
Follow the on-screen instructions to register your code and create your personal login and password.
Student subscriptions will provide access to student resources only on the site.
To access the Textbook
Click: NEW Chapter-by-Chapter Reading Guides
Open and Print Reading Guides for Chapters 1-4 (I recommend printing two-sided)
Go Back
In the drop-down menu at the top where it says welcome, select: chapter (1, 2, 3 or 4).
On the left hand side menu, select: myeBook
Click on the link: Campbell Biology Eighth Edition myeBook
Select: Chapter One or Unit Two and complete the Reading guides for Chapters 1-4
Napoleon’s Buttons: Seventeen Molecules that Changed History:
Read and Study = read, highlight, outline, take notes, etc…. so that you are prepared to correctly answer the questions. You
will have a test on these questions from Napoleon’s Buttons: Seventeen Molecules that Changed History when you return to
school in the fall.
All Reading Guide assignments need to be completed and turned in at orientation on
Monday, August 5th or the first day of school Wednesday, August 7th.
If you have any questions or problems, please e-mail Coach Johnson
([email protected]).
Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules that Changed History
What metal might have been the downfall of Napoleon’s army?
What city was deemed less valuable than the spice nutmeg?
What is the belief that there is something mystical about compounds derived from plants and animals?
What element defines a compound as organic?
What about a compound determines what it does (its function)?
Which atom is represented by the intersection of lines in the simplest structural diagrams/formulas?
What does an aromatic compound contain?
Chapter 1
What city had the world’s spice kings?
Controlling the trade of what molecule began the Portuguese empire?
Why do we feel the “heat” of piperine? Its _____________ fits onto a protein of our pain nerve endings.
What relatively insignificant compound was responsible for beginning today’s complex economic structure
of the world stock markets?
Who was the first person that was credited with circumnavigating the world, that was really just trying to
get faster access to spices?
What disease, did Europeans believe they were protected from by wearing nutmeg around their neck?
What is the common drug name of 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), derived from
safrole of the Sassafras tree?
Chapter 2
What is Ascorbic Acid known as?
What disease was a result of a deficiency of ascorbic acid?
Which of the following did Cook not accomplish?
What element was originally thought to be in all vitamins?
Which animals can synthesize ascorbic acid in their liver?
Ascorbic acid is vital in the production of what protein?
What lethal toxin does Vitamin C help prevent as a preservative?h
Chapter 3
What amount did the per capita (per person) consumption of sugar reach in the 1900s?
What percentage of African slaves labored on sugar plantations in the new world?
What molecule is removed when one glucose molecule is joined to one fructose molecule to form a sucrose
Which of the following is not an isomer of the others?
Which artificial sweetener replaces hydroxyl groups (-OH) with chlorine atoms to keep the body from
metabolizing it?
What was the first artificial sweetener?
Chapter 4
What greatly impacted the cotton industry in England?
What greatly impacted the cotton industry in the United States?
What is a glucose molecule with the hydroxyl (-OH) at the first carbon above the ring?
What is a glucose molecule with the hydroxyl (-OH) at the first carbon below the ring?
Which organism cannot digest and absorb cellulose?
Which of the following is not an adaptation that allows animals to digest and absorb cellulose?
What kind of linkages do storage polysaccharides have?
What kind of linkages do structural polysaccharides have?
Which storage polysaccharide can provide more quick energy because it is branched?
Which modified cellulose product was used in the motion pictures?
Which of the following is not a component of gunpowder?
Chapter 5
What propels the projectiles when using gunpowder?
How are explosive reactions classified because they give off heat?
Which of the following is most explosive?
How can the explosive nitroglycerine be useful in the human body?
Who invented dynamite?
Which explosive became the explosive of choice for heavy artillery during World War I?
What chemical, important as a fertilizer in food production, is also needed for producing Nitric Acid which
is necessary for making explosives?
Chapter 6
Where did the silk industry get started?
Which of the following is not one of the most common amino acids making up silk?
What is the name of the bond holding adjacent amino acids together?
What type of bonds hold adjacent parallel chains of silk together?
What is the level of protein structure for Pleated Sheets (you may have to look in Chapter 5 of Campbell’s
Chapter 7
Whose paper on Germ Theory influenced what Lister did as a doctor?
What naturally occurring phenol compound has hallucinogenic properties and is considered illegal?
Who initiated the Age of Plastics?
What animals were saved by making billiard balls out of Bakelite?
What food flavoring agent do we get from lignin in wood?
Chapter 8
Rubber is a polymer of what molecule (C5H8)?
The _____ form occurs when similar atoms are on the same side of the double bond, and the _____ form
occurs when similar atoms are not on the same side of the double bond.
What sport benefitted from the trans isoprene polymers in the 1840s?
What process forms disulfur cross-links in rubber?
The production of large quantities of rubber by the U.S. in World War II has been described as the second
greatest feat of engineering of the 20th century. What is considered the first?
Chapter 9
What color was reserved for kings or emperors?
What color does the molecule Alizarin produce?
What color does the molecule Indigo produce?
What color does the molecule Saffron produce?
What color does the molecule Tyrian produce?
Mauve dye was discovered while trying to chemically synthesize quinine to resist what disease?
Chapter 10
Who successfully demonstrated producing immunity to smallpox?
What form of Salicylic Acid turned out to be effective without some of the negative side effects?
How did they treat Syphilis for hundreds of years?
What do Sulfa drugs not allow bacteria to produce?
What unstable structure allows penicillin to work?
Chapter 11
How many fused rings are found in steroids?
What as the first sex hormone isolated?
What hormone supresses ovulation during pregnancy?
What chemical was synthesized as a hormone treatment to support pregnancy or to relieve menstral
irregularity, but became “the pill.”
Has there ever been an attempt to develop an oral contraceptive for men even though they don’t have a
hormone cycle?
Chapter 12
What percentage of accused witches were women, and their accusers were just as likely also to be women as
What were many of the women accused of witchcraft called because of their skills in the use of local plants
to cure disease and provide relief from pain?
What animal, after the cat, is most commonly attributed to witchcraft?
Alkaloids have one or more _____ atoms, usually as a part of a ring of carbon atoms.
What was considered to be a wonder drug when it was isolated in the 1880s?
What organism produced the alkaloid that caused ergotism, which may have been responsible for
“witchcraft” without actually effecting the accused?
What popular drug was the result of the 25th derivative of lysergic acid, by Albert Hofmann?
Chapter 13
In what century did opium shift from being used as a medicinal herb to being used to achieve a dream-like
state for enhancing creativity?
What colony, recently given back to China, was obtained by Britain after the 1st Opium War?
What narcotic was made from acetylating morphine?
\What chemical helps authorities find heroin manufacturers?
What ruler said tobacco smoking was “dangerous to the lungs” in 1604?
Nicotine initially acts as a _____ but in large doses becomes a _____.
Which chemical is a natural insecticide?
Does Caffeine keep you awake? Explain.
What compound in chocolate is responsible for the “feel good” appeal that is associated with THC in
Which Alkaloid is encouraged in children and has not been shown to have any significant medical side
What is the usual source of the following alkaloids? Caffeine, Theophylline, Theobromine
Chapter 14
How long has the olive tree been grown for fruit?
What molecule is found in the olive leaves that helped reduce fevers?
Who are given wreaths of olive leaves for victories?
Why does the olive tree not grow inland?
What are fats and oils called (because they contain a glycerol and three fatty acid)?
How are triglycerides formed?
What is a fatty acid that contains carbon to carbon double bonds?
How are trans-fats formed by humans?
Was the decline of Greece due to the olive oil trade?
Was bathing in Europe considered dangerous, unfashionable and sinful?
Soap molecules clean because one end of the molecule is hydrophobic and one end of the molecule is
Chapter 15
What was salt known as due to its value?
Which city is cited as being one of the first examples of the impact of human industrial activity on the
What fish was driven to near extinction because salt was used to preserve it, allowing fisherman to travel
greater distances to catch it?
What type of charge do electrons have?
What is the difference in charge (due to salt) of the cytoplasm compared to outside the cell call?
What is the process for separating salt (sodium from chlorine) using an electrical current?
Chapter 16
What year marked the era of refrigeration?
Which ship completed the first successful voyage of a refrigerator ship?
Why don’t ammonia, ether, methyl chloride or sulfur dioxide make good refrigerants?
When were refrigerators considered a standard home appliance in the developed world?
How many tons of CFCs were being produced annually by the early 1970s?\Where is the ozone layer
How many ozone molecules can one chlorine atom reaching the upper atmosphere via a CFC molecule
When was the manufacturing of PCBs in the United States outlawed?
Why were the “bug bombs” used in World War II a double blow to the environment?
DDT and its breakdown products being fat soluble led to them working their way up the food chain/web.
What is the movement of molecules up the food chain/web into greater quantities at the top of the chain/web
know as?
What does DDT do to hurt birds of prey?
What is considered to be the most lethal man-made compound?
Chapter 17
How many people die each year from malaria?
What is the most lethal malaria species that infects humans?
What is in the bark of the Chinchona trees that makes it counteract malaria?
When was quinine finally isolated and purified?
What chemical was found to interfere with the nerve control process of insects but not other animals?
In what year did the World Health Organization (WHO) begin a DDT campaign to eliminate malaria world
What genetic disorder is the natural defense to malaria if you are a “carrier” but don’t actually have the
What is the difference in amino acids from a hemoglobin molecule with that of one that has sickle cell?
Changing one amino acid, Glutamic Acid to Valine, results in sickle cell. Glutamic Acid is an acidic or
electrically charged amino acid. What is Valine (Refer to Chapter 5 in Campbell’s Biology)?