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ENS LYON – L3 – P ROBABILITY 2015–2016 HW II: Independence and random variables (due Feb 9th, before tutorials) 1. Show that the events {Ai}1≤i≤n are mutually independent if and only if n Y n P {∩i=1Bi} = P {Bi} i=1 where for every i, either Bi = Ai or Bi = Aci. We use the notation Ac for the complement of A in Ω. For random variables X1, . . . , Xn, recall that we defined independence by asking that P {X1 ≤ t1, . . . , Xn ≤ tn} = P {X1 ≤ t1} · · · P {Xn ≤ tn} for all t1, . . . , tn reals. Show that in the case where Xi are all discrete random variables taking values in a countable set C, then this is equivalent to asking that for all x1, . . . , xn in C, P {X1 = x1, . . . , Xn = xn} = n Y P {Xi = xi} . i=1 2. (From GS) Let X1, . . . , Xn be independent discrete random variables that are symmetric about 0, i.e., Xi and −Xi have the same distriPn bution. Let Sn = i=1 Xi . Show that for all t, P {Sn ≥ t} = P {Sn ≤ −t}. What if we drop the independence assumption? Justify your answer.