first aid handbook
Seal the hole in the chest wall. If there is an open
wound, apply plastic or a non-stick pad, taped on
three sides only leaving lower side un-taped to
allow air to escape from the chest.
Observe closely for breathing difficulties.
Abdominal injuries
Abdominal injuries are generally caused by blunt
or penetrating trauma to the abdomen and may
involve internal bleeding or the exposure of
internal organs.
There are many organs contained within the
abdomen and internal bleeding should always be
considered following an injury in this area. The
victim should be monitored for signs of shock.
Symptoms & Signs
Pale, cool, clammy skin
Evidence of a wound
Rapid, weak pulse
Rapid, shallow breathing
Abdominal rigidity
‘Guarding’ of abdomen
Lying in the foetal position
TraumaChapter 8
Call ‘000’ for an ambulance.
Place on back and assist person to bend the
knees over some bulky padding to flatten the
arch of the lumbar spine.
Stop any bleeding.
Stabilise any object.
Reassure the victim.
Evisceration is the protrusion of abdominal
organs from an open abdominal wound. There is
often little pain associated with this type of injury
and there may or may not be profuse bleeding or
smell depending on whether or not the internal
organ has been lacerated. Care must be taken to
avoid infection and prevent any material sticking
to the protruding tissues.
Symptoms & Signs
Protrusion of organs
Pale, cool, clammy skin