Team Diagnostic Survey (TDS) Model of Team Effectiveness

Team Diagnostic Survey (TDS) Model of Team Effectiveness
Research conducted and consolidated by leading US Organisational Psychologist J Richard Hackman at
Harvard University sourcing research into team development spanning four decades has shown there are
five conditions which reliably contribute to team effectiveness. By ensuring these conditions are in place,
leaders can structure & support their teams in a manner that makes the team a more effective unit.
1. The team is a Real Team
Clearly a bounded task and everyone on the team has a clear idea of who the team members are.
The authority to manage their own work
Stable membership
A clear model of working with their task structure (shared, independent or interdependent).
2. There is an Enabling Structure for task achievement
Task design that supports completion of work and is intrinsically motivating and meaningful to team
Team members have strong task skills
Team members have adequate interpersonal skills
Team is the right ‘size’ for the task.
At the group level the team has a good balance in terms of heterogeneity and homogeneity.
Team norms to shape and support behaviour
3. The team has a Compelling Direction for task achievement
Clarity in terms of the task or outcome of team work
The outcome or direction is both challenging and consequential
The task objective is clear
Means of achieving the task is self-directed or managed by the team
Clear measures of success
4. There is a Supportive Organizational Context that ensures team success
Team identity reinforced by the organisation e.g. rewarding and reinforcing excellent team performance
(pay, benefits)
Information system that makes data required to plan team work easily accessible to the team members.
Educational system that provides training [interpersonal and technical expertise] when required.
Team is provided with sufficient material resources to do their work
5. That Expert Coaching is available and delivered by both the team leader and peers to:-
Improve group process
Reinforce individual behaviour
Improve interpersonal relationships
Eliminate unhelpful interventions
Adapted from Hackman
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