Government Why do governments form? Why do people need governments? Take 5 minutes to brainstorm and categorize why people need governments? Government is … The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. Government is made up of those people who exercise its powers, all who have authority and control over people. Name types of governments and place on this continuum. absolute freedom no freedom What is a state? ➔ Body of people ➔ Defined territory ➔ Organized politically ➔ Power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority. Force Theory Contends that a person or small group of people “force” inhabitants of a territory to submit to their rules. They claim control by force - in other words there was a war. Name times in history when this happened or current events of this? Evolutionary Theory The state evolved naturally from the “family” unit. This theory claims it started as one person as head of the family and which this unit acted as the government. That “power and influence” eventually spread to clans and tribes. Name some countries that have developed in this manner. Divine Rights Theory This theory was accepted widely in the Western world from the 15th-18th centuries. Basically it believes that God created a state and God gave certain people the “divine right” to rule over the people. If the people opposed the Divine Rights of Kings - not only was it considered treason, but a mortal sin. Name some countries that developed from this theory. Social Contract Theory Formed in the 17th and 18th centuries by key players. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Montesquieu This theory contends that a state arises because of the people, of free will, give powers to a governmental unit to protect the safety of the people. The contract is called a constitution. This theory promotes popular sovereignty, limited government and individual rights.