Organizational Behavior and Organizational

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Organizational Behavior and
Organizational Change
Leadership & Power
Roger N. Nagel
Senior Fellow & Wagner Professor
Lehigh University
1
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Topics This Presentation
‰ What Is Leadership?
¾ Leadership Traits
¾ Grid Management Styles
¾ Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
eleventh edition
‰ Trust: The Foundation of Leadership
¾ Dimensions of Trust
¾ Three Types of Trust
¾ Basic Principles of Trust
‰ Charismatic approaches to leadership
organizational behavior
stephenp. robbins
¾ Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
¾ Beyond Charismatic Leadership
‰ Contemporary Leadership Roles
¾ Mentoring
¾ Ethical Leadership
¾ Facilitating Leader
2
“Organizational
“Organizationalbehavior”
behavior”
Eleventh
EleventhEdition
Edition
By
BySteve
SteveRobbins
Robbins
ISBN
ISBN0-13-191435-9
0-13-191435-9
Reference
ReferenceBook
Book
2
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Topics This Presentation
‰ Personal Power
¾ A Definition of Power
¾ Contrasting Leadership and Power
eleventh edition
‰ Bases of Power:
¾
¾
¾
¾
Formal Power
Information Power
Personal Power
Dependency Power
‰ Power Tactics
¾ Power in Groups
¾ Power & Politics
¾ Defensive Behaviors
¾ Blame Culture in an
Organization
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
organizational behavior
stephenp. robbins
2
“Organizational
“Organizationalbehavior”
behavior”
Eleventh
EleventhEdition
Edition
By
BySteve
SteveRobbins
Robbins
ISBN
ISBN0-13-191435-9
0-13-191435-9
Reference
ReferenceBook
Book
3
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
What Is Leadership?
Leadership
The ability to influence a
group toward the
achievement of goals.
Management
Use of authority inherent
in designated formal rank
to obtain compliance from
organizational members.
Page 332
Page 332
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
4
Leadership Traits: USA View
Leadership
:
LeadershipTraits
Traits:
•• Ambition
Ambitionand
andenergy
energy
•• The
Thedesire
desireto
tolead
lead
•• Honest
Honestand
andintegrity
integrity
•• Self
-confidence
Self-confidence
•• Intelligence
Intelligence
•• High
-monitoring
Highself
self-monitoring
•• Job
-relevant knowledge
Job-relevant
knowledge
5
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
My View
•• Trait
Traittheory:
theory:
Leaders
Leadersare
areborn,
born,not
notmade.
made.
•• Behavioral
Behavioraltheory:
theory:
Leadership
Leadershiptraits
traitscan
canbe
betaught.
taught.
Your
View
Disagree
Agree
6
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Grid Management Styles
Employee-Oriented Leader
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a
personal interest in the needs of employees and
accepting individual differences among members.
Production-Oriented Leader
One who emphasizes technical
or task aspects of the job.
7
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
The
Managerial
Grid
(Blake and Mouton)
E X H I B I T 11–1
E X H I B I T 11–1
Page 337
Page 337
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
8
Scandinavian Studies
Development-Oriented Leader
One who values experimentation, seeking
new ideas, and generating and
implementing change.
Researchers in Finland and Sweden
question whether there are only two
dimensions (production-orientation and
employee-orientation) that capture the
essence of leadership behavior. Their
premise is that in a changing world,
effective leaders would exhibit
development-oriented behavior.
9
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Path-Goal Theory of Leadersship
Path-Goal Theory
The theory that it is the leader’s
job to assist followers in attaining
their goals and to provide them the
necessary direction and/or support
to ensure that their goals are
compatible with the overall
objectives of the group or
organization.
Page 344
Page 344
10
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Trust: The Foundation of Leadership
Trust
A positive expectation that
another will not—through
words, actions, or decisions—
act opportunistically.
Trust is a history-dependent
process (familiarity) based on
relevant but limited samples
of experience (risk).
E X H I B I T 12–1
E X H I B I T 12–1
Page 356
Page 356
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
11
Dimensions of Trust
‰ Integrity
¾ honesty and truthfulness.
‰ Competence
¾ technical and interpersonal
knowledge and skills.
‰ Consistency
¾ reliability, predictability, and
good judgment in handling
situations.
‰ Loyalty
¾ the willingness to protect and
save face for another person.
‰ Openness
¾ reliance on the person to give
you the full truth.
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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12
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Trust and Leadership
Leadership
Leadership
TRUST
TRUST
and
and
INTEGRITY
INTEGRITY
13
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Employees’ Trust in Their CEOs
Employees who believe in senior management:
E X H I B I T 12–2
E X H I B I T 12–2
Page 358
Page 358
14
Source: Gantz Wiley
Research. Reproduced
CSE & Enterprise
Systems
Center in USA Today, February 12, 2003, p. 7B.
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Three Types of Trust
Deterrence-based Trust
Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated.
Knowledge-based Trust
Trust based on behavioral
predictability that comes from a
history of interaction.
Identification-based Trust
Trust based on a mutual understanding of each other’s
intentions and appreciation of the other’s wants and desires.
15
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Basic Principles of Trust
‰ Mistrust drives out trust.
‰ Trust begets trust.
‰ Growth often masks mistrust.
‰ Trust increases cohesion.
‰ Mistrusting groups self-destruct.
‰ Mistrust generally reduces productivity.
16
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
What are the important leadership traits from your point of view?
Please add any traits you feel are missing!
USA View
Leadership Traits
Ambition and energy
The desire to lead
Honest and integrity
Self-confidence
Intelligence
High self-monitoring
Job-relevant knowledge
Development-Oriented
Path-Goal
Trust Building
Charismatic
Visionary
Willing to Sacrifice
Chinese View
Charismatic Approaches to Leadership
Charismatic Leadership Theory
Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary
leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
Charismatics
CharismaticsInfluence
InfluenceFollowers
FollowersBy:
By:
1.
1. Articulating
Articulatingthe
thevision
vision
2.
2.
3.
3.
Setting
Settinghigh
highperformance
performanceexpectations
expectations
Conveying
Conveyingaanew
newset
setof
ofvalues
values
4.
4. Making
Makingpersonal
personalsacrifices
sacrifices
18
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
1. Vision and articulation. Has a vision—expressed as an
idealized goal—that proposes a future better than the status
quo; and is able to clarify the importance of the vision in
terms that are understandable to others.
2. Personal risk. Willing to take on high personal risk, incur
high costs and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve the vision.
3. Environmental sensitivity. Able to make realistic
assessments of the environmental constraints and resources
needed to bring about change.
4. Sensitivity to follower needs. Perceptive of others’ abilities
and responsive to their needs and feelings.
5. Unconventional behavior. Engages in behaviors that are
perceived as novel and counter to norms.
E X H I B I T 12–3
E X H I B I T 12–3
Page 363
Page 363
Source: Based on J. A. Conger and R. N. Kanungo, Charismatic
Leadership in Organizations
(Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998), p. 94.
CSE & Enterprise
Systems
Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
19
Beyond Charismatic Leadership
‰ Level 5 Leaders
¾ Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal
humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic
leadership qualities of individual capability, team skills,
managerial competence, and the ability to stimulate others to
high performance.
¾ Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the
goal of building a great company.
20
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Transactional and Transformational Leadership
Transactional Leaders
• Contingent Reward
Leaders who guide or motivate
their followers in the direction of
established goals by clarifying role
and task requirements.
• Management by
Exception (active)
• Management by
Exception (passive)
• Laissez-Faire
Transformational Leaders
Leaders who provide individualized
consideration and intellectual
stimulation, and who possess
charisma.
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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• Charisma
• Inspiration
• Intellectual Stimulation
• Individual
Consideration
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
21
Characteristics of Transactional Leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards
for effort, promises rewards for good performance,
recognizes accomplishments.
Management by Exception (active): Watches and
searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes
corrective action.
Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes
only if standards are not met.
Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids
making decisions.
Source: B. M. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to
Share the Vision,” Organizational Dynamics, Winter 1990, p. 22.
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
E X H I B I T 12–4
E X H I B I T 12–4
Page 367
Page 367
22
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Characteristics of Transformational Leaders
Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills
pride, gains respect and trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses
symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in
simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence,
rationality, and careful problem solving.
Individualized Consideration: Gives personal
attention, treats each employee individually, coaches,
advises.
E X H I B I T 12–4
E X H I B I T 12–4
Page 367
Page 367
23
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
Effectiveness
Elements
Elementsof
ofEmotional
Emotional
Intelligence
Intelligence: :
••Self-awareness
Self-awareness
••Self-management
Self-management
••Self-motivation
Self-motivation
••Empathy
Empathy
••Social
Socialskills
skills
Page 368
Page 368
24
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Providing Team Leadership
Team
TeamLeadership
LeadershipRoles
Roles: :
•• Act
Actas
asliaisons
liaisonswith
with
external
externalconstituencies.
constituencies.
•• Serve
Serveas
astroubleshooters.
troubleshooters.
•• Managing
Managingconflict.
conflict.
•• Coaching
Coachingto
toimprove
improveteam
team
member
memberperformance
performance
Lee Iacocca
Page 369
Page 369
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
25
Contemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring
Mentor
A senior employee who
sponsors and supports a
less-experienced
employee (a protégé).
Mentoring
MentoringActivities
Activities: :
•• Present
Presentideas
ideasclearly
clearly
•• Listen
Listenwell
well
•• Empathize
Empathize
•• Share
Shareexperiences
experiences
•• Act
Actas
asrole
rolemodel
model
Page 371
Page 371
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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•• Share
Sharecontacts
contacts
•• Provide
Providepolitical
politicalguidance
guidance
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
26
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Facilitating Leader
Facilitating Leader
The most
successful leaders
strive to make The
their subordinates
successful in
leadership roles
Facilitating
FacilitatingLeader
Leader: :
•• Set
Setclear
cleargoals
goalsand
andobjectives
objectives
•• Provide
Provideresources
resources
•• Ensure
Ensurethe
thesubordinates
subordinates
receive
receive credit
credit
•• Mentor,
Mentor,Advise,
Advise,and
andGuide
Guide
•• Applaud
Applaudthe
thesuccess
successof
oftheir
their
subordinates
subordinates
27
Peter Likins Presents awards
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Ethical Leadership
Actions
Actions::
•• Work
Workto
topositively
positivelychange
changethe
the
attitudes
attitudesand
andbehaviors
behaviorsof
of
employees.
employees.
•• Engage
Engagein
insocially
sociallyconstructive
constructive
behaviors.
behaviors.
•• Do
Donot
notabuse
abusepower
poweror
oruse
use
improper
impropermeans
meansto
toattain
attaingoals.
goals.
Page 373
Page 373
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
28
Personal Exercise
1.
2.
Rate yourself on the grid and Leadership Traits
explain your rating.
Ambition and energy
Fill out the two columns on
The desire to lead
the left and add any rows
Honest and integrity
you need.
Self-confidence
Check Your
Characteristics
Areas you wish to
improve
Intelligence
High self-monitoring
Job-relevant knowledge
Development-Oriented
Path-Goal
Trust Building
Charismatic
Visionary
Willing to Sacrifice
29
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Personal Exercise continued
3. For any areas for improvement you
identified explain what you want to achieve,
and how you might accomplish the
improvement.
4. What else did you learn about leadership
that you value? How will you act on what
you have learned?
30
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
31
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Topics This Presentation
‰ Personal Power
¾ A Definition of Power
¾ Contrasting Leadership and Power
eleventh edition
‰ Bases of Power:
¾
¾
¾
¾
Formal Power
Information Power
Personal Power
Dependency Power
‰ Power Tactics
¾ Power in Groups
¾ Power & Politics
¾ Defensive Behaviors
¾ Blame Culture in an
Organization
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
organizational behavior
stephenp. robbins
2
“Organizational
“Organizationalbehavior”
behavior”
Eleventh
EleventhEdition
Edition
By
BySteve
SteveRobbins
Robbins
ISBN
ISBN0-13-191435-9
0-13-191435-9
Reference
ReferenceBook
Book
32
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Personal Power
"Man of the Year" for 1985.
I Am Proud to Be a Member of the Chinese Nation and to Consider Myself a Citizen of the
World. As a Son of the Chinese People, I Dearly Love My Country and My Compatriots.
---Deng Xiaoping
http://www.cbw.com/asm/xpdeng/quicksurvey.html
A Definition of Power
Power
The capacity that A has to influence
the behavior of B so that B acts in
accordance with A’s wishes.
A
B
Dependency
B’s relationship to A when
A possesses something
that B requires.
Page 390
Page 390
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
34
Contrasting Leadership and Power
Leadership
Power
Focuses on goal
achievement.
Used as a means for achieving
goals.
Requires goal compatibility
with followers.
Requires follower dependency.
Focuses influence
downward.
Used to gain lateral and
upward influence.
Research Focus
Leadership styles and
relationships with
followers
Research Focus
Power tactics for gaining
compliance
35
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Bases of Power: Formal Power
Formal Power
Is established by an individual’s position in an
organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward,
from formal authority, or from control of information.
Coercive Power
A power base dependent on fear.
Reward Power
Compliance achieved based on
the ability to distribute rewards
that others view as valuable
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Page 390
Page 390
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
36
Bases of Power: Formal Power
Legitimate Power
The power a person receives as a result
of his or her position in the formal
hierarchy of an organization.
Information Power
Power that comes from
access to and control
over information.
37
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Bases of Power: Personal Power
Expert Power
Influence based on special
skills or knowledge.
Referent Power
Influence based on possession
by an individual of desirable
resources or personal traits.
Charismatic Power
An extension of referent power stemming from an
individual’s personality and interpersonal style.
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
38
“ I was just going to say ‘Well, I don’t make the rules,’
But, of course, I do make the rules.”
Source: Drawing by Leo Cullum in The New Yorker, copyright ©1986 The New Yorker Magazine.
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
E X H I B I T 13–1
E X H I B I T 13–1
Page 393
Page 393
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
39
Dependency: The Key To Power
‰ The General Dependency Postulate
¾ The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has
over B.
¾ Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others
need makes a manager powerful.
¾ Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces
the resource holder’s power.
‰ What Creates Dependency
¾ Importance of the resource to the organization
¾ Scarcity of the resource
¾ Non-substitutability of the resource
Page 394
Page 394
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
40
Power Tactics
Power Tactics
Influence
InfluenceTactics
Tactics: :
Ways in which
individuals translate
power bases into
specific actions.
• • Legitimacy
Legitimacy
• • Rational
Rationalpersuasion
persuasion
• • Inspirational
Inspirationalappeals
appeals
• • Consultation
Consultation
• • Exchange
Exchange
• • Personal
Personalappeals
appeals
• • Ingratiation
Ingratiation
• • Pressure
Pressure
• • Coalitions
Coalitions
Page 396
Page 396
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
41
Power Tactics
1. Legitimacy.
¾ Relying on one’s authority position;
» request is in accord with organizational policies or rules..
2. Rational persuasion.
¾ Logical arguments and factual evidence;
» request is reasonable.
3. Inspirational appeals.
¾ Enveloping emotional commitment;
» appeal to values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.
4. Consultation.
¾ Increase motivation and support;
» involve people in deciding how the pan will be implemented.
Page 396
Page 396
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
42
Power Tactics
5. Exchange.
¾ Reward with benefits or favors in exchange for following a
request.
6. Personal appeals.
¾ Ask for compliance based on friendship or loyalty
7. Ingratiation.
¾ Use flattery, praise, or friendship prior to making request
8. Pressure.
¾ Use warnings, demands, and threats.
9. Coalitions.
¾ Enlist other people to persuade others.
Page 396
Page 396
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
43
Power in Groups: Coalitions
Coalitions
Clusters of individuals
who temporarily come
together to a achieve a
specific purpose.
• • Seek
Seekto
tomaximize
maximizetheir
their
size
sizeto
toattain
attaininfluence.
influence.
• • Seek
Seekaabroad
broadand
anddiverse
diverse
constituency
constituencyfor
forsupport
support
of
oftheir
theirobjectives.
objectives.
• • Occur
Occurmore
morefrequently
frequentlyinin
organizations
organizationswith
withhigh
high
task
taskand
andresource
resource
interdependencies.
interdependencies.
Page 398
Page 398
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
• • Occur
Occurmore
morefrequently
frequentlyifif
tasks
tasksare
arestandardized
standardized
and
androutine.
routine.
44
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Politics Is in the Eye of the Beholder
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
“Political” Label
Blaming others
“Kissing up”
Apple polishing
Passing the buck
Covering your rear
Creating conflict
Forming coalitions
Whistle blowing
Scheming
Overachieving
Ambitious
Opportunistic
Cunning
Arrogant
Perfectionist
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
“Effective Management” Label
Fixing responsibility
Developing working relationships
Demonstrating loyalty
Delegating authority
Documenting decisions
Encouraging change and innovation
Facilitating teamwork
Improving efficiency
Planning ahead
Competent and capable
Career-minded
Astute
Practical-minded
Confident
Attentive to detail
MYTH OR SCIENCE?
‰“It’s Not What You Know, It’s Who You Know”
¾ This statement is somewhat true.
» While knowledge is an increasingly important source of
power, knowing the right people increases your chances
of getting ahead.
» Networking refers to "establishing effective relationships
with key people inside" and/or outside the organization
and is an important activity performed by managers who
were promoted the fastest.
Page 403
Page 403
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
46
MYTH OR SCIENCE?
‰ A study of general managers found:
1) they fully understood the importance of networking,
2) they established a wide political network,
3) which provided them with information,
4) established cooperative relationships that could enhance their
careers, and
5) they did favors for these contacts, stressed the obligations of
these contacts, and “called in” these obligations when needed.
‰ Research indicates that a person’s location within an
organization is an important determinant of his/her
influence.
¾ This evidence is not a rejection of job-relevant expertise but it
indicates that “who you know” is important.
Page 403
Page 403
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
47
Avoiding
AvoidingAction
Action: :
Defensive
Behaviors
• • Overconforming
Overconforming
• • Buck
Buckpassing
passing
• • Playing
Playingdumb
dumb
Avoiding
AvoidingBlame
Blame: :
• • Stretching
Stretching
• • Buffing
Buffing
• • Stalling
Stalling
• • Playing
Playingsafe
safe
• • Justifying
Justifying
• • Scapegoating
Scapegoating
• • Misrepresenting
Misrepresenting
E X H I B I T 13–6
E X H I B I T 13–6
Page 407
Page 407
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Avoiding
AvoidingChange
Change: :
• • Prevention
Prevention
• • Self-protection
Self-protection
48
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
Blame Culture in an Organization
‰ When something goes
wrong find the person
or group to blame
¾ Easy to do
¾ Usually political
‰ When something goes
wrong find the root
cause and eliminate it
¾ Hard to do
¾ But very productive when
done
49
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
Lehigh University
Roger N. Nagel © 2006
XIE XIE
Roger N. Nagel
Wagner Professor and Senior Fellow
CSE Department &
The Enterprise Systems Center at Lehigh University
200 West Packer Avenue
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 18015
(610) 758-4086, (610) 868-0402 [fax]
[email protected]
50
CSE & Enterprise Systems Center
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Roger N. Nagel © 2006
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