LAKE ORES AND IRON INDUSTRY IN FINLAND DURING THE

advertisement
Geological
Survey of
Geologi
cal Survey
2000
of Finland
Finland,, Current
Current Research 19991999-2000,
Edited
by Sini
o.
'
Edited by
Sini Auti
Autio.
Geological
Geol
og ical Survey of
and, Special Paper
1, 47- 5555,. 2001.
of Finl
Finland,
Paper 3
31,
2001.
LAKE ORES AND IRON INDUSTRY IN FINLAND
DURING THE PERIOD 1811-1916
1811 _1916
by
Kauko
Puustinen
KaukoPuustinen
Geological Survey of Finland
.O . Box
Finland,, PP.O.
Box 96
FIN-02151 ESPOO
96,, FIN-021S1
ESPOO,, FINLAND
FINLAND
E-mail:
.fi
E-mail: Kauko.Puustinen
Kauko.Puustinen @gsf
@ ssf.fi
Key words (GeoRef Thesaurus, AGI): mining, industry,
industry, iron ores, lake ores, minig claims, production
production,, history,
history, Finland
Introduction
The practice of manufacturing iron for domestic
use has been weIl
well known for time immemorial.
immemorial. Iron
oxides were reduced
reduced to
to metal by heating ore with
charcoal in various
various kinds of heaters. First, smaIl
small pits
filled with
with earth
filled
used,
earth or
or sometimes hearths
hearths were
were used.
and
blown
with
bellows
(Furuhjelm
fuelled by wood
wood
(Furuhjelm
1 877, Mustonen 1894,
1877,
Nikander 1928,
1 8 94, Nikander
1 928, Tylecote
Tyleco te 1976).
I97 6).
Towards the end of the
Towards
the 19th century, a more sophisticated method,
method, using bloomery furnaces
furnaces with singleof
ore
were
used.
fill
charging
fill
ore
used. The
The soft iron
iron thus
produced was directly
produced
hammering. The so
directly suitable
suitable for
forhammering.
caIled
pig -iron, produced
produced in
called pig-iron,
in the still
still more
more sophisticated
continuously filIed
filled furnaces was suitable,
suitable, however,
however,
for casting only, and the malIeable
malleable rod iron had to be
produced in aseparate
produced
a separate furnace
furnace..
In the
the 1850's puddling became widely known. It
was an epoch-making
epoch-making turn
turn in
in manufacturing
manufacturing malIeable
malleable
iron
bog ores
iron and
and changed
changed the
the use
use of lake
lake and
and bog
ores..
Puddling
pig-iron with slag
Puddling involved
involved smelting
smelting pig-iron
slag in an
an air
furnace. When the melt
melt was
was being stirred, air
air oxidated
oxidated
phosphorus,
the carbon and, above
all,
the
phosphorus,
and
by this
above all,
way the harmful constituents
constituents could be removed.
The
The Nyby iron works
works built on the lands of
of the Suila
estate in the
the 1530'
1530'ss is considered the first industrial
industrial
plant
beneficiating the iron ore
plant in Finland.
Finland. It aimed at beneficiating
of
amo mine in
a. The
of the
the recentl
recentlyy founded Oj
Ojamo
in Lohj
Lohja.
The first
actual blast
actual
blast furnace was built
1616 at
built in 1616
at Mustio. Later,
important blast furnaces were founded e.g. at Billnäs
important
(1641) and Fiskars (1649) in Pohja,
Pohja, at Taalintehdas
Taalintehdas
686) in Perniö,
(1686)
(1686) in Dragsfjärd, and at Teijo (1
Pemiö,
where today iron-based
iron-based industrial activities are still
continuing.
continuing. In
In these
these iron
iron works
primary raw
works the
the primary
materials were domestic
materials
and
imported
iron
ore. The
domestic
machinery operating
machinery
operating tilt hammers and blowing were
powered by
by flowing
flowing water. Consequently,
Consequently, the
the iron
works were always
always built along rapids
rapids or rivers.
The increase in general industrial production and
growing need of
growing
of iron started
started as early as the end of
of the
18th
18th century.
century. After
After the
the annexation
annexation of
Finland to
of Finland
Russia
weden were
Russia in 1809,
1809. the direct
direct ties
ties to S
Sweden
were broken
and importing
iron
ore
from
the
Swedish
mines grew
importing
more difficult.
more
an to
difficult. The
The authorities beg
pay more
began
to pay
attention
to mining industries
Finland, the
attentiontomining
industries in
inFinland,
the Office
Office of
Comrnissioners
Commissioners of Mines was founded, and the promotion
motion of
mining resulted as the issue of
of mining
of a
a declaration
by the
by
the Czar
Czar on
on 33 October
October 1821
1821.. The
The Office
Office of
Commissioners
Commissioners of Mines was even changed into the
Bureau
Bureau of
Mines in
of Mines
in 1858. The
The objective
objective was
was to
develop the iron
to produce aa surplus
iron industry
industry in order
orderto
for exported iron, particularly to
to the markets of St.
Petersburg. Notable results
results were
were achieved by
by government'
ernment'ss enhanced mineral
mineral prospecting, practical
guidance, own
guidance,
mining, and supporting
ownmining,
supporting domestic
domestic industry.
As agriculture and industrialization
industrialization advanced, the
need of pig-iron for casting increased in Finland as
weIl.
well. Since the import of iron ore and pig-iron from
Sweden
Sweden to Finland was restricted,
restricted, the iron works
works had
to utilize more and more domestic lake and bog ore
(Laine 1955). When Sweden
Sweden removed restrictions in
47
Paper 31
3I
Geological
Survey of Finland, Special Paper
Geological Survey
Kauko
Kauko Puustinen
Puustinen
1850's, the
export
pig-iran in
in the
the 1850's,
and pig-iron
iron ore
ore and
export of iron
utilization of mine:d
resumed in western
iron ore was resumed
minerd iran
( 1853
and southern
War (1853
Crimean War
During the Crimean
Finland. During
southern Finland.
-- 1856)
blocked.
was blocked.
world was
western world
to the
the western
1856) export
export to
Consequently,
sought after
iron was
was much sought
Finnish iron
Consequently, Finnish
especially in
The sudden post-war
in St.
St. Petersburg. The
reduction in
year 1858
export towards Russia
1858 export
in the
the year
reduction
reflected the economical crisis of the previous year
(Joustela 1963).
1963).
The dose
St. Petersburg smelting
close vicinity of the St.
works
and
the
Russian
arms
in Olonetz
factories in
works and the Russian arms factories
attached
businessmen to
Russian businessmen
interests of Russian
the interests
attached the
(Holmberg 1857,
eastern Finland lake and bog ores (Holmberg
Solitander
&
1948, 1955,
1955, Saltikoff
Saltikoff &
1882, Laine
Laine 1948,
Solitander 1882,
Puustinen
Consequently, the Raivola works
Puustinen 2000). Consequently,
(1800)
( 1 800) at Kivennapa,
Sumpula works (1827)
Kivennzrpa, and the Sumpula
at Rautu were founded by Russians in the Karelian
Isthmus in the
works of St.
19)th century. The iron works
the 19th
pig-iron
Anna,
across
of
Anna, that
expor!3d large amounts ofpig-iron
that exported
Lake Ladoga
Ladoga to St. Petersburg, was built at Suojärvi
in 1809. It was founded by a court
court lady, the countess
countess
Anna
who also
Anna Alexeyevna
Alexeyevna Orlov-Tchesmensky, who
owned
Korpiselkä, and
Suoj tirvi, Korpiselkä,
owned the
the parishes ofSalmi,
of S almi, Suojärvi,
Soanlahti.
half
Finland, in
in the latter
latterhalf
central Finland,
Soanlahti. Similarly
Similarly in central
of
Haapakoski
iron works
works such
such as Haapakoski
of the 19th
19th century,
centu4r, the iron
( 1 842), Huutokoski
( 1 85 8),
atPieksämäki
Huutokoski at Jorainen
Joroinen (1858),
at Pieksämäki (1842),
(1868)
and Oravi at Rantasalmi
were founded. Soon
Rantasalmi
afterwards,
afterwards, the ownership of these plants was transferred to Nikolai Putilov
Putilov from St. Petersburg. At the
same time,
L,udvig Arppe constructed
constructed the greattime, Nils Ludvig
(1837) in
est
blast furnaces
Möhkö (1837)
est blast
furnaces of Finland
Finland at
at Möhkö
( 185 1) in Tohmajärvi.
Ilomantsi and Värtsilä
Tohmajärvi.
Värrtsilä (1851)
Prior
least 32
iron works
works had
had been
Prior to
to 1809,
1809, at
at least
32 iran
operated
operated in Finland, and by the early 1900's, a minimum of
ve
had been acti
1 15 iron
iron works
works or
or bloomeries
bloomeries had
active
of 115
(Bremer 1824, 1825,
18i25, Hultin 1897,
1 897, Laine 1907, 1948,
19 48,
1950,
19 50, 1952,
1 955 ). These numbers
numbers indude
include iran
iron works
19 52, 1955).
located beyond the
present Finnish
border on
Finnish border
the present
on the
Ladogan
Ladogan Karelia and the Karelian
Karelian Isthmus.
Isthmus. An
An exam-
pie
pravided by
iron industry
industry is provided
the Finnish
Finnish iron
ple fram
from among
among the
the
restoration of
iron works
works ofLeineperi
of Leineperi
of the
the iron
history and
andrestoration
the history
at
al
operational
which was
was still
still operation
1771 , which
founded in 1771,
at Kullaa,
Kullaa, founded
in
1987,
although
its
activity
was
somewhat
transwas
its
in
formed (Härö 1994). On the other hand, the Värtsilä
industries, that were created during the time of Nils
Ludvig Arppe, provide
pravide an example of an iron works
plant (Kaukoranta
(Kaukoranta
developing
into
industrial plant
modern industrial
developing into aa modem
1935). However,
the Finnish
Finnish modem
modern mining
ofthe
However, the rise of
(Puustinen
industry
1900' s (Puustinen
industry began only after the early 1900'
1999).
Raw
Raw materials for the iron works
During the first decades
the 19th
19th century, the
decades of the
Finnish
mined iran
iron ores located
iron industry
industry relied on mined
Finnish iran
(Bremer 1824,
mainly in the southern
parts ofFinland
southern parts
of Finland (Bremer
mainly
1825, Holmberg 1858, Puustinen 1997). A statistical
presentation of
bog ores
presentation
of the importance
importance oflake
of lake and bog
ores as
basic raw material
material for blast furnaces is set out, giving
basic
the average amounts of ore used during
during periods of
several years (Table 1) and on annual basis (Fig. 1).
Over the period
period of 1811
1 8 1 1 - 1915,
1 9 1 5, a
a total of 1.13
1. 13 million
tonnes
2.29 million
iron ore
an d2.29
million tonnes
tonnes of
of mined
mined iron
ore and
tonnes oflake
of lake
and bog ore were used in blast furnaces. The annual
average consumption
10 777 tonnes of
mined iran
iron
consumption was 10777
of mined
(31. 1 %),
ore (31.1
and
23
897
tonnes
of
lake
and
bog
ore
Vo), and 23
(68.9 %).
Vo).
Comparing the
the consumption of lake and bog ore
with that of mined ore, the peak period of the former
was in 1861 - 1877 with
75.8 % ofthe
with75.8Vo
of the total ofiran
of iron ore
year 1860
consumed
then. The
The year
1860 stands
consumed then.
stands out
out as
as the
relative
peakyear, when
37883
bog
relativepeakyear,
when37
883 tonnes oflake
oflake and
andbog
ore were
were used, corresponding
total of
corresponding to 81.6 %
thetotalof
Vo of
of the
iron
iron ore used that
that year. Surprisingly
Surprisingly enough,
enough, the peak
year for the
the amount of lake ore utilization in blast
furnaces in Finland was the year 1900 with 59
59 880
tonnes. The
The amounts
amounts of
of ore material
material raised
raised fram
from lakes
(Furuhjelm 1881)
and bogs (Furuhjelm
1 88 1) can
can also
also be
be compared
compared with
Table
I . Average
blast furnaces by
by time
iron ore
in blast
periods during
Table 1.
Average utilization of
of iron
ore in
time periods
during 1811
-- 1915
Finland (records from
Furuhjelm 1881
1881,, Laine 1907,
190'7, 1948,
1948, Mäkinen
1915 in
in Finland
from Furuhjelm
Mäkinen 1920),
1920),
(according to
and
er of
bog ore
lake and
ore claims
claims (according
to the archive
and numb
number
of lake
and bos
archive records
records in
in the
the NationNational
s).
al Archive
Archives).
Period
Periodss
48
Iron
Iron ore
Lake
bog ore
Lake and
and bog
tonnes
tonnes
1811
1811 - 1852
1853
1853 -- 1860
1861
1861 - 1877
1878
1878 - 1886
1887
1887 -- 1907
1908
1908 -- 1915
5
8
12
l2
16
t6
17
t7
13
IJ
Average
Average for
1811
1811 -- 1915
l9l5
10
t0 777
238
238
974
9'7 4
902
879
015
899
Lake
Lake and
and bog
ore
ore claims
%
554
554
796
796
390
015
393
393
809
32.8
75.6
7 5.6
75.8
65.5
'7 3.2
73.2
25.7
33lI
170
r70
241
241
77lI
20
2
23
23 897
68.9
76
2
27
40
5Z
32
46
4
Geological
Geological Survey
Survey of
of Finland
Finland,, Special
Special Paper
Paper 31
31
Lake
Lake ores
ores and
and iran
iron industry
industry in
in Finland
Finland during
period 181!
during tbe
the period
1811 -- 1916
1916
r- - - - - - - -70000
70 000
~,---
j
~
60ooo] f-1_
60000
50 000
50000
40 000
40000
-
tI
t-
._L
-~~L
LaKe and
ano bog
oog ore
ore I
Lake
Mined iron
iron ore
ore
Mined
-----
J
30000
30 000 - - - - -
20 000
20000
t-
- - - --
-
1
~
~
10 000 '
10000
L
o
I
f.cn.,.,.,;......."......'Il'm'!~",...,.
[email protected]@[email protected]$F
~
~ ~ ~ ~
[email protected]@[email protected]
CX)oooocoo:>ooco
@@@@@@@@@@@
T"""
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co
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C'\J
CD
0'>
0OOF
cx>OOOOOl
ooo
CX)
----
(tonnes) in
Fig.
l. Annual
Fi
g. J.
ast furn
aces from
Annual use
use of
of iron
iron ore
ore (tonnes)
in bl
blast
fumaces
from !811
1811 to
to 1915
(records from
in FinJ
Finland
from Furuhjelm
in
and (records
Furuhjelm 1881,
1881, Laine 1907,
1907, 1948,
1948, Mäkinen
Mäkinen 1920).
1920).
the amount of ore used in blast furnaces. It is noted
amount oflake
that the amount
raised is slightly
of lake ore
oreraised
slightly largerthan
which rnight
might be explained
the amount used, which
explained by losses
due to refining or transport.
Bog ore accounted for 14.6 %
Vo ofthe
of the total lake and
bog ore in 1851 - 1862 (Laine 1955). Following that
of bog ore decreased graduperiod of time, the ratio of
aIly,
bog ore
ally, due
due to new
new bog
ore distriets
districts could
could not
not be claimed
year 1877.
any longer after the year
1877 . Apparently,
Apparently, the last
furnace having
having beneficiated
beneficiated bog ore
blast
blast furnace
ore was Sumpula
which ceased operations
operations in 1882.
periodicity in
A
in the
the utilization
bog ore
A periodicity
utilization oflake
of lake and
and bog
ore in
1811 blast furnaces can
can be observed. The period 1811
1852
belonged to
to the
pre-industrial era
era with
with relatively
1852 belonged
the pre-industrial
general. In
small
small use of iron ores in general.
In 1853 -- 1860,
lake and bog ores started a noticeable
noticeable
utilization of
oflake
increase. This period
period includes
includes the increased demand
reflecting the Crimean
Crimean War (1853 - 1856),
for iron
iron reflecting
1856), as
in 1858
weIl as
as the
thedecline
in the
theexport
to Russia
Russiain
well
decline in
export to
1 85 8 with
effects.
no significant
significant effects.
distinct
1861 - 1877 forms the first distinct
The period of 1861
peak involving steady growth of use.
use. The FrenchFrenchGerman War (1870 - 1871) and the Russo-Turkish
War ((1877
occurred during
during that
that period
period of
of time,
War
1 877 - 1878)
1 878) occuned
1878. During
1878 -- 1886,
1886,
and also
also the
the drop
drop in
in 1878.
During 1878
and
two peak
peak periods, the
the lake
lake and bog
bog ore
between two
65 .5 Vo.
%. The
The other
other peak
peak period
beneficiation was
was only
only 65
beneficiation
collapse. Blast
is in 1887 - 1907, which ended in a collapse.
furnaces using
using lake
lake ore
ore declined
declined definitively
definitively during
during the
the
furnaces
period 1908 - 1915.
1915 .
Distribution of lake and bog ore
According to
to Aarnio
Aarnio ((1915),
1915), lake
lake ore
ore deposits
deposits occur
According
of Kuopio
Kuopio and Mikkeli.
Mikkeli. The
The
mainly in the
the provinces
provinces of
mainly
area can be approximately restricted
restricted in the south by a
linedrawn
line drawn through
through thecities
the cities ofSavonlinnaandMikkeli
of Savonlinna andMikkeli
and through the northern ends of the lakes Päijänne
and Näsijärvi,
west by a
Näsij?irvi, and on the other hand,
hand, in the west
line
line drawn from the northern
northern end ofLake
of Lake Näsijärvi
Näsijärvi to
Lake Oulujärvi. This is primarily
primarily due to the fact that
lake
occurs mainly on such
lake bottoms where
the
lake ore
oreoccurs
suchlakebottoms
wherethe
soil type surrounding
surrounding the lakes is sand or gravel, and
the
lakes are
rich enough
in humus
humus to
the lakes
are rich
enough in
to allow
allow the
of iron. An
example of
retention
Anexample
retentionof
of solitary,
solitary, notable
notable islets
of lake ore deposits is the corner
corner formed by Pusula,
Lake Pyhäj2irvi,
Pyhäjärvi, Loppi, Tammela, and Somernierni,
Somerniemi,
where sand
with bogs
bogs form
gravel eskers
where
sand and
eskers with
form a
and gravel
suitable ground for the deposition of lake ores. For
several decades, most of the lake ore smelted in the
Högfors
blast furnace at
at Karkkila came
came from
from this
Högfors blast
area, specifically
specifically from
the lakes
lakes Liesjärvi,
Liesjärvi, Heinäjärvi,
Heinäjärvi,
from the
and Pyhäjärvi
Pyhäjärvi (Aarnio 1917).
l9I7).
Lake ore is found in shallowish lake shores, at the
yeIlow, brown orblackish,
or blackish, with
depth of 11 - 3 m, it
itisis yellow,
depth
porose or brittle texture (Aarnio 1915). It is shaped
round and
and flflat,
or bean-shaped
bean-shaped bits,
bits, or
or as
as wider
wider plates,
at, or
round
and
accordingl
y,
lake
iron
is
called
bean,
coin, or
or cake
coin,
and accordingly, lake iron called
respectively. The bean ore was
was considered
considered the
ore respectively.
because the latter
best, and the cake ore the worst, because
difficult to raise, as well
weIl as generally poorer in
was difficult
Bog
iron
occurs
as
lumps and cakes
cakes in bogs
quality.
quality.
iron
and narrow streams normally beneath a 15 - 60 cm
thick layer
layer of
of soil.
soil. The
The iron
iron content
content oflake
of lake ore
ore varies
varies
thick
considerably reaching
reaching as
as much
much as
as 46 Vo
% Fe
Fe at
at its best
considerably
(Aarnio I9l7).The
1917). The mineralogical
rnineralogical and
and chemical
chernical com(Aarnio
position, structural
structural types
types and
and their
their origins
origins of
position,
ferromanganese lake
lake ores
ores in some
some Finnish
Finnish lakes
lakes have
ferromanganese
(1976) among
among
recently been discussed by Halbach (1,976)
others.
49
49
Paper 31
3l
Geological
Finland, Special
Special Paper
Survey of
oI Finland,
Geological Survey
Kauko Puustinen
Kauko
Regulations
Regulations concerning
concerning claims
Russia, the
to Russia,
After
had been
been annexed
annexed to
After Finland
Finland had
in force,
force, and
and its
Swedish Law from
1734 remained in
from 1734
principles
principles are still in force
force today. The Swedish
Swedish Mining
from
Legislation
and decrees at least from
Legislation contains laws and
(on
prerogative rights
the years
1649, 1723
the prerogative
years 1551,
1551,1649,1723
(on granting claim and
1741
ores),, 17
of the Crown to
41 (on
to ores)
(the prospecting
prospecting
1757 (the
mining licences),
as weil
well as
as 1757
licences), as
that have
rule).
social changes
changes that
rule). Despite
Despite the
the various social
taken place in Finland,
Firrland, the Finnish Mining Acts have
contents. The
always displayed
displayed aa uniform
uniform pattern and contents.
following sections
Legislation will
sectiorrs from the Mining Legislation
clarify the temporal
distribution of lake and bog ore
tempc,ral distribution
claims.
In 1542, southern
Finland's mighty Councellor of
southr:rn Finland's
privilege to underState, Erik Fleming, was granted privilege
take mining
mining at Ojamo in Lohja (Hultin 1897, Neovius
1911). Already in 1538, Erik Fleming was given the
plea to King
Lohja parish as a fief, and now he made aa plea
Gustav Wasa of Sweden that he be granted rights to
engage in mining
recently discovmining activities, as he had
hadrecently
ered an iron
iron or steel
hill. As a result ofthis
of this petition, on
steel hilI.
9 September
September 1542,
l5'[2, the
the King permitted that for the
given by God could
good ofthe
of the country such gifts given
could be
granted
utilized, and
Lord Erik
Erik was
ted the
and that
that Lord
was gran
the right
without
mine and smelt rocks and whatwithout hindrance
hindrance to mine
give
ever the
the Lord
Lord Almighty
Almighty would
would gi
ever
ve rum
him from
from this work,
iron or steel,
steel. however
horryever on condition that the Crown
(corresponding
should
be donated
ppunta (corresponding
should be
donated every 12th
I 2th ki
kippunta
to 170 kg) of
of pure iron, were it soft iron, cast iron, or
pig-iron.
pig-iron. As
and coal
As to
to the
the pit and
coal timber,
timber, that
that were
necessary for the mining activity, Lord Erik would
would
have to make
make arrangements with the owners of the
have
forests, nevertheless
forests,
nevertheless being
being under
under obligation
to inform
obligation to
on the development of this mining work.
the King on
Finally, the King forbids his bailiffs and sheriffs to
cause
cause hindrance
hindrance to
to the
the aforesaid
aforesaid mining
rnining activities.
activities. The
licence
licence granted bry
by the King of Sweden
Sweden is interesting
in that it corresponds to modern
modem mineral exploration
and mining
rnining rightrl,
rights, and the
the government
government claim
claim fee and
the tax on profits.
profits.
The ordinance on
on legal
legal prospecting of ores
ores and
substances
substances of
of the,
the mineral kingdom, as well
weil as on
on the
right to raise them and manufacture
manufacture them into products from
from the yezr
year 1857 decreed
decreed that objects
objects oflegal
of legal
prospecting
prospecting were
were formedby
fOlmed by all
all metals
metals andores,
and ores, found
in
layers, on
in bedrock,
bedrock, soil
soillayers,
on the
the bottoms
bottoms of
oflakes,
bogs or
lakes, bogs
swamps. Ordinarry
Ordinary limestone and quartz
quartz may not be
legally
legally claimed
claimed but
but only
only for mixing
rnixing material
material or
or lining
lining
material for use in smelting
smelting plants. In other
other words,
words, it
was
was possible to
to claim
claim lake
lake and
and bog
bog ore,
ore, but
but the
limestone
limestone and quLartz
q artz required
required by industrial
industrial furnaces
had
had to
to be
be claimed.
claimed. The
The claim
claim owner
owner was
was to
to be
be aa private
private
50
person.
Aregulation
Senate in 1877
1877 stated
stated that
that
A regulation given by the Senate
limestone
quartz, as
as bog
bog ore,
and quartz,
as weil
well as
ore, could be
limestone and
claimed
ted by the Senate.
grantedby
apermission gran
claimed only with apermission
Claiming
Claiming bog ore was prevented because the raising
work often required extensive removal
removal ofloose
of loose earth
which caused unnecessary harm to agriculture.
A prospecting
prospecting and mining rule decreed in 1883
1883 that
minerals for prospecting
prospecting are iron and its ores, with the
exception of bog
bog ore.
Lake ore
ore was
was allowed to
to be
ore. Lake
claimed
if it were utilized and further processed
processed
claimed only if
in an industrial plant that was already in operation
operation or
under
The claim
owner was
was to
under construction. The
claim owner
to be
be a
private
law
was
devised
to
prevent
private person.
person. This
This law was devised to
superfluous claims
bog ore. The
claims of
of lake and
andbog
The iron works
had rights
utilize, which
rights to more
more lakes than they could utilize,
was a hindrance
hindrance to free competition.
An ordinance
ordinance from 1902, which
which alters the prospecting
ing and
and mining regulation of 1883, ordered that in
addition to
location of the
to the
the location
the lake ore,
ore, the
the area
area in
squares
be given, and an annual
squares be
annual obligation
obligation to work
work the
site is specified.
Finally, it was ordered
specified. Finally,
ordered that
that prospecting rights oflake
be lost
of lake ore will
will be
lostififthe
the establishment
establishment for
which
been made,
which the
the claim
claim has
has been
made, ceases to
to be
be the
prospector's
property, or in case the claim
prospector' s property,
claim is made for
an
an establishment
establishment under construction and
and the
the claim
owner has failed to comply with the period of time
allowed for its construction.
The Mining Act of the year
year 1932
1932 decreed
decreed that a
Finnish
Finnish citizen
citizen and
and company, cooperative society,
society,
association or other group has the right to claim
claim and
beneficiate iron, with the exception of bog ore. The
may not be
Act also
also stated that aa lake ore deposit may
claimed
with the view of
ofutilizing
claimed otherwise
otherwise than with
utilizing it
it in
an existing iron works or one to be established.
The Mining Act from
from 1943 stated that a Finnish
citizen
association or
or other
other community
community
citizen and
and company,
company, association
has the
the right
right to
to prospect and
iron with
with the
has
and claim iron
exception of
of bog ore.
exception
The
Act of
of 1965
decrees that
that Finnish
Finnish citizen
The Mining
Mining Act
1965 decrees
and company, cooperative society,
society, association
association or
and
other community
community or foundation has the right
right to prosother
pect,
pect, claim
claim and beneficiate
beneficiate iron only ifit
if it is located
located in
bedrock. Consequently,
Consequently, claiming
claiming lake or
or bog ore
the bedrock.
possible. It was only now that quartz
quartz
was no longer possible.
and lime
li me feldspar were added to mining
rnining minerals,
minerals,
and
although itit is
is possible
possible to claim
claim and utilize
utilize quartz
quartz only
although
bedrock.
when it occurs in the bedrock.
Temporal distribution of lake and bog ore
claims
claims
This work looks into the period between
between the year
1916, which
which is soon after
after the Finnish War
War
1811 and 1916,
paper 31
Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper
Geological
3l
Lake ores
ores and
and iron
iron industry in
Lake
in Finland during
period 1811
during the
the period
1811 -- 1916
1808 - 1809,
I 809, as weIl
1808
well as the time
time when
when the so-ealled
so-called Old
Finland was annexed
Finland
annexed into
into the Grand
Grand Ouehy
Duchy ofFinland
of Finland
181 1, i.e. 105 years prior
in 1811,
prior to the last lake ore claim
in 1916. The material
in
material eoneeming
concerning claims has
has been
collected from original
eolleeted
original sourees
sources stored
stored in the National
Archives (Vuorihallitus 1811-1884,
Arehives(Vuorihallitus
1 8 1 1 - 1 884, Teollisuushallitus
Teollisuushallitus
ja
1
885
1
1885 -1903,
903, KauppaKauppa- jateollisuushallitus
teollisuushallitus 1904-1918).
I 904 - 1 9 I 8).
Claims
Claims register
register reeords
(Furuhjelm
records for the year 1875 (Furuhjelm
1877)
are provided as
example of
printed claims
1877)areprovided
as an
anexample
of the
theprinted
register. The information that was
register.
was gathered for the
present
present work included
included claim register number, owner,
(corresponding to the present-day munieipalparish (eorresponding
municipality), name, starting
starting year, and loeation
location if given. Geographic loeations
graphie
locations of claims
claims were established separately
the present
rately later on the level
present day topographie
level of
ofthe
topographic
map sheets in seale
scale 1: 20 000.
Ouring
total of
lake
During the period 1811 - 1959 aatotal
of 7 320
320lake
ore claims and 450 bog ore claims were made, i.e. 7
770 claims
be investigated
claims in all (Fig. 2). The
period to be
The period
investigated
is the time immediately
immediately after the Finnish War 1808 1809.
beeause the soeiety
1809. Apparently,
Apparently, because
society was
was in turmoil,
the sueeessor
Collegium
successor to the Swedish Mining
Mining Collegium eercertainly did not keep any records
reeords on lake and bog ore
claims in 1811 - 1813. The latest lake ore claim was
made
by the eompany
Wärtsilä Ab when applying
madeby
company Oy
OyWärtsiläAb
for an extension for
for lake
lake Koitere
Koitere in Ilomantsi in 1916.
1 9 1 6.
All bog ore claims
All
claims date to 1817 - 1877. The
The eessation
cessation
ofbog
prospeeting in 1877
of bog ore prospecting
1 877 is due to the alteration
of the prospeeting
prospecting rule.
As
be seen
As stated above,
above, it ean
can be
seen that
that the
the annual
amounts of
of lake and bog ore utilized
utilized in blast
blast fumaees
furnaces
falls into several time periods (Table 1 and Fig.
Fig. 1).
Comparing these periods of time with the temporal
distribution of the claims (Fig. 2), partly eoineiding
coinciding
800
aoo
T - - ---
LiI
700
7o,0 -
-
-
600 I
600
500
soo
200
2o,0
-
-
Claims
-
1
-
400
300
30()
features ean
be deteeted.
can be
detected.
Towards the end of the period of 1811 - 1852, the
forthcoming inerease
fortheorning
produetion was being
increase in iron production
prepared for, and, eonsequently,
ring the period
consequently, du
period of
during
increasein
inerease
in 1853 - 1860, approximately 170
claims per
lT0claimsper
year were made. Ouring
period of 1861
During the peak period
1861 1877 aatotalof
total of24l
during the 1878 - 1886
241 claims,
claims, and
andduringthe
interval,
interval, 71
71 claims were made. On the
the other hand,
during
produetion peak, only
during the
the last
lastproduction
only 20 annual
annual claims
claims
were made, and at the end of the whole
time
span
whole
under investigation, only two were made.
A single peak year of
of claims
claims is the year 1867, when
alone
741 claims were reeorded.
aloneT4I
recorded. Beeause
Because the lonely
peak of 1879 is produeed
produced by the 458 claims
claims by Adolf
Tömgren,
Törngren, whieh
which in
in addition
addition did
did not
not lead
lead to
to establisbing
establishing
a plant, it ean
can be stated that no more lake ore claims
were made after the
the 1877 Mining Aet
Act amendment.
The use of lake ore as an important raw material for
iron
works eontinued
ti111906.
by the
ironworks
continuedtill
1906. This is explained
explainedby
faet
previously
fact that the iron works
works operated
operated utilizing
utilizing previously
granted claims.
Ouring
During the period 1941
I94I - 1959, 21
2l lake ore claims
were still
still made with
with the objeetive
objective of
of investigating the
manganese
manganese potential of the lakes south of
lisalmi. In
of Iisalrni.
tbis
respect, the eompany
this respeet,
company Oy
Oy Vuoksenniska
Vuoksenniska Ab
Ab hoisted
aa total of 8 860 tonnes of
of lake ore during 1944 - 1947
with
with the average
average eontent
content of29.0
of 29.0 %
Va Fe
F e and
and 14.0
| 4.0 %
7o Mn
from the lakes Kirmajärvi,
Kirmaj ärvi, Nerkkoonjärvi,
Nerkkoonj ärvi, Onkivesi,
Onkive si,
and Porovesi.
In addition
ves
addition to ore and coal,
coal, various
various kinds
kinds of
of additi
additives
were
were needed in the iron works. As a
a result, during the
years 1811
limes tone in
181I - 1877, claims
claims were
were made for
forlimestone
137 eases
cases and quartz in 43 eases.
cases.
- -- -- --
-
+----- - -
-
- -- -
100
@[email protected]
[email protected]
@@[email protected]@[email protected]
a
aEaa
60NO
Fig.
from 1811 to
to 1916
1916 in
in Finland
claims from
Fig. 2.
2. Temporal distribution of lake and bog ore claims
(according
(according to
stored in
in the
the National
National Archives).
Archives).
to the
the archive
archive records
records stored
51
Paper 3311
Geological
of Finland.
Finland, Special
Special Paper
Geological Survey
Survey of
Puustinen
Kauko
Kauko Puustinen
bog ore
Regional
of lake
lake and
and bog
Regional distribution of
claims
Loeations
boe ore claim sites were
Locations of the lake and bog
.
.•
0o
0.
0a
a
o
0
o
0
0a
0I
1O
0
0O
0
established
ve material
of the original arehi
archive
established on the basis of
stored in the National Archives and on a topographie
topographic
map sheet level. Therefore
Therefore all claim sites appear
appear in the
middle
pertinent map
their pertinent
map sheet
sheet whieh
which eauses
causes
middle of
of their
11-3
-3
4-7
4-7
88-12
- 12
13-16
13
- 16
17 --20
17
20
2r --2s
21
25
26-29
26
- 29
30
- 35
30-35
.
36-42
36
- 42
43
- 48
43-48
00
. 0
o
., ., 0 ., ., .,
0
. 0
4s-5s
49
- 55
.,
.,
0 .,
• • 00
00
s6-82
56
- 82
o
o
00
0
o
..
00
o ••
o
o
o
.::
.
!-:.': -:i:iii'.i:;S*#*rr,
!: -a:.:.:: E:.;:::..:l--:3"_.
·.o 0.
0
o
' l.;r-it'rl!f[*Hl::isni:i
. -.i-::*:..::: .*:i!i[:i-i
o
o.
00
00
00
o
a
o
. 0
0.o 0..., .,
., 0 0
o
o.
o
o
.
o
0 .,
o.
00
-aaa
aa.r"'
.,
t
' 'i!t3.i . :.
.;- ...
roör
.ll' ' ' :' - ^!
00 •
• 00
., 000
0 0 .
0
o.
0
0 0
.,
a
3
'li.
:: "tt:!&t=
.
..0
0000
o o.
.,., .,
•
0
. 0
.,
.,.,., 0 .,
.0.
o
., 0I!I""
.,., .,
o•
•• 0
0
000 .
00 • • • • •
o
E=I
aa a.
a
100
I
GTK 2OOI
2001
GTK
Fig.3.
Fig. 3. I{egional
Regional distribution oflake
of lake and bog ore claims from
from 1811
1811 to
to 1916 in Finland on the level ofthe
of the
topograprhic
I: 20 000 (according
(according to the archive
archive records stored in the National Archives).
Archives).
topographie map
rnap sheets in scale 1:
52
Geological Survey of Finland,
Geological
Finland, Special Paper
Paper 31
3l
ores and
and iron
Lake ores
iron industry in
in Finland during the
period 1811
the period
1811 -- 1916
1916
certain angularity in the map (Fig. 3).
Claims dating to prior
prior to 1811,
Claims
181 1, i.e. to the time of
of the
Swedish Rule, were not recorded in this work. It is
self-evident
self
-evident that
that by then
then mined iron ore,
ore, as
as weIl
well as
as lake
and bog ore was being hoisted for utilization in iron
Between 1811 and around 1838, the main part
works. Between
of the claims
of
provinces of
claims were made in the provinces
of Ladogan
Karelia, North-Karelia, and
Karelia,
and North-Savo,
North-Savo, and
and only
thereafter
thereafter to provinces such as North-Ostrobothnia,
North-Ostrobothnia,
Kainuu and Central
Central Finland.
Practically no claims
claims took place
place on the
Practically
the coastal
coastal areas
ofFinland
of Finland during
period investigated
during the time
time period
investigated (Fig. 3),
number of
where the number
of lakes is relatively
relatively small as
as weIl.
well.
Excluding the few cases in Ylitornio
Excluding
Ylitornio and Rovaniemi,
no claims were made in Lapland either. Outside the
Central Finland
Central
lake distriet,
vidual islets are
tinFinlandlake
individual
district, indi
are dis
distinhowever, e.g., the lake districts ofLoppi
guished however,
of Loppi and
Tammela, Ikaalinen
Ikaalinen and
and Parkano,
Parkano, Lappajärvi and
Kortesjärvi, and
Kortesjärvi,
and the
the Ylitornio lake
lake districts.
districts. Other
claims on the coastal
claims
coastal areas concerned
concerned mainly
mainly bog
bog ore,
out of which Koivisto in the Karelian Isthmus, and
Mantsila in the Salmi parish in the Ladogan Karelia
stand out.
An interesting observation is the absence of lake
ores
ores immediately
immediately south
south of the
the Salpausselkä, from
Hanko to Imatra. The area constitutes
constitutes a Quaternary
Quaternary
geological unit of
geological
of its own, where the soil rich in clays
has not been favourable for the formation and deposition of lake ores.
The
parishes in
The regional
regional distribution of
of the claims
claims by
by parishes
the Central Finland
Finland lake district will be dealt with
separately in this work. The map (Fig. 3) also shows
concentrations
concentrations of
provinces
of claims
claims near Iisalmi
Iisalmi in the provinces
ofNorth-Savo,
of North-Savo, aroundNurmes
around Nurmes and Valtimo
Valtimo in NorthKarelia, and around Kuhrno,
Kuhmo, Sotkamo and the Lake
Oulujärvi area in Kainuu. As a general observation,
observation,
the regional
regional distribution
distribution oflake
of lake ores described in this
work
work follows weIl
well the lake ore distribution
distribution collected
collected by
Aarnio
Aarnio (1915).
Distribution of lake and bog
bog ore claims by
parishes
During the years
years 1811
1811 -- 1916, lake
lake and bog ore
claims
8 797,,covering
covering the area
parishes
claims totalled
area of218
of 218 parishes
totalled8797
(Table 2).
(Table
parishes as
The most
most significant parishes
to the
2). The
as to
Karttula
number
number of
of claims
claims were Kuhmo 338 (3.8 %),
Vo),Karttula
302 (3.4 %),
329 (3.7 %),
Vo), Juva
hva302
7o), Suonenjoki 268 (3.0
%), Pieksämäki
250 (2.8 %),
Ilomantsi 225 (2.6 %),
Pieksämäki250
Vo),Ilomantsi
Vo),
Suistamo
223
(2.5
%),
Impilahti
207
(2.4
%),
(2.5
(2.4
223
Va),
Impil.ahti
207
Vo),
Suistamo
(2.I %).
Punkaharju 190 (2.2 %),
and Mikkeli 187
I87 (2.1
Vo).
Vo), and
On examination
ratio of
number of
examination ofthe
of the ratio
of number
of claims
claims per
parish-area, the
most notable concentration
the most
concentration is located
upon aa relatively narrow
naffow zone
zone trending southwest-
Table 2.
2. Regional
Table
bog ore
Regional distribution
distribution of
of Finnish
Finnish lake
lake and
and bog
claims from
from 1811
claims
by parishes
l8l1 to
(according to
to 1916
1916 by
parishes (according
to the
archive records
archive
National Archives)
records stored
stored in
in the
the National
Archives) and
and in
in relation
parishes. The
ation to
to the
the land
land area
area of
of the
the parishes.
The intensity
intensity factor
is
is defined
defined as
as number
number of
of claims
per square
claims per
square kilometre
kilometre and
multiplied
by 100.
multiplied by
Parishes
Pari shes
Area
Area
km
'
km2
Number
Number of
claims
Karttula
Karttul a
Kesälahti
Virtasalmi
Virtasalmi
Punkaharju
Suonenjoki
S uonenj oki
Tervo
Terv o
Sulkava
Rautalampi
Pieksämäki
Saari
Juva
JJoroinen
oroinen
Mänttä
Impilahti
Kerimäki
Savonranta
S avonranta
Vesanto
Vesanto
Mikkeli
Uukuniemi
Uukuniemi
Rantasalmi
Rantasalmi
Suomenniemi
Suomenniemi
Kiihtelysvaara
Ki ihtely s vaara
Jäppilä
Enonkoski
Hankasalmi
Total
Total of
of claims
of
parishes
the 25
25 parishes
of the
with
greatest
with greatest
number
number of
of claims
Total
of other
Total of
parishes
Total
Total of
of all
parishes
Intensity
factor
329
163
lOS
105
190
268
126
r26
183
159
250
44
302
147
14'7
16
207
137
t) |
81
8l
88
187
98
101
49
77
51
5l
49
86
468.2
468.2
387.3
387 .3
263.2
498.4
719.6
347.4
347 .4
588
.7
588.7
548.6
945.1
167.4
II 168.7
576.7
57 6.7
64.2
64.2
889.4
594.0
594.0
386.0
422.9
972.7
97 2.7
511.7
511.'7
562.5
285.2
486.7
486.7
330.5
322.8
572.4
70
.3
7 0.3
42.1
42.l
39.9
38.1
37.2
36.3
31.
3 1.1I
29.0
26.5
26.3
25.8
25
.5
25.5
24
.9
24.9
23.3
z-).-)
23.1
21.0
2t.0
20.8
19.2
19.2
18.0
17.2
t7 .2
15.8
I 5.8
15.4
15 .4
15.2
15.0
33 493
493
13 080.3
080.3
26.7
55 304
156
841.2
841.2
3.4
88 797
169
r69 921.5
5.2
northeast
part of the
province of
northeast from
from the
the central part
the province
South-Savo
the southwestern
South-Savo to
to the
southwestern corner
corner of
of NorthSavo, i.e. from Sulkava
to
Tervo
(Table
2).
Another
Sulkava
concentration
concentration lies between the eastern part of SouthSavo and the northeastern tip of South-Karelia, i.e.
from
from Savonranta
Savonranta to Uukuniemi. Practically
Practically only
only small
areas
exist
outside
the
above
mentioned
areas,
the above
areas, in
areas exist
North-Karelia
North-Karelia from Kiihtelysvaara
Kiihtelysvaara and Pyhäselkä to
Eno, and also in the Ladogan
Ladogan Karelia at Impilahti and
Suistamo.
Suistamo.
Lake and bog ore
ore claim owners
The applicants for lake and bog ore claims were
almost invariably owners
iron works.
owners of iron
works. Through
claims
they aimed
aimed to
to secure
secure the
the supply
supply of
of rawclaims they
material for their industrial
industrial plants or they were planning to construct
construct an iron works. Only 2 %
7o of owners
persons,
out of the total 7 770
770 claims,
claims, were private persons,
(Table 3).
merchants
The largest
or farm-owners
farm-owners (Table
3). The
merchants or
groups were formed by small individual iron works
(2 964
companies
claims, 38.1
38.I %)
Vo) and
and specially
companies (2
964 claims,
53
Geological Survey
Survey of Finland,
Finland, Special Paper 3l
31
Kauko Puustinen
Puustinen
Kauko
Tab le 3.
3. Grea.test
Greatest owners
owners of Finnish
Finn ish lake
lake and
a nd bog
bog ore
ore claims
c laim s from
from 1811 to 1916 (according
(acco rdin g to
to the
th e archive
archive
Table
records storeil
stored in
in the
th e National
National Archives).
Archives).
records
Claim owner
owner
Claim
Period
Pe rio d of
of time
Small iron
iron w,crks
works companies
companies
Small
Nikolai Putilov
Putilo v (iron
( iron and
and steel
steel works
works company)
co mpany)
Nikolai
Adolf Törngr,en
Törngren (iron
(iron works
works company)
company)
Adolf
Ni ls Ludvig
Ludvig ,\rppe
Arppe (iron
( iro n works
works company)
company)
Nils
1811I
181
1916
t9t6
22
1858
858
1879
t879
I1850
850
1867
18 22
1822
I1866
866
1844
t844
I 865
1865
I1867
867
I 8533
185
11870
870
1824
1876
r8'7
6
38
22 4
438
18 79
t8'79
18898
98
1
11868
868
1874
187
4
18 74
4
t87
I1865
865
I1882
882
r8'72
1872
l90l
1901
l88l
1881
I1905
905
4533
45
306
306
232
232
227
182
r79
179
I'7
1733
160
t54
154
t52
152
150
IS O
38.1
38.1
31
.4
31.4
5.8
5.8
3.9
3.9
3.0
3.0
2.9
2 .9
z-3
2.3
z.J
2.3
2.2
2.1
2 .1
2.0
2.0
2 .0
1.9
1.9
7 770
100.0
1
Miron Smirnc'ff
Smirnoff and
and Alexander
Alexander Gajewsky
Gajews ky (merchants)
(mercha nt s)
Miron
Johan Edvard
Edvard Hällström
Hä ll str öm (iron
( iron works
works company)
compa ny )
Johan
Alexander Grigorjeff,
Grigorjeff, Sergei
Sergei Soboleff
Soboleff and
and others
others (merchants)
( merchants)
Alexander
Gustaf Herman
Herm a n Löfström
Löfström (minister
(m ini ster from
from Impilahti)
Impil aht i)
Gustaf
An tti Juhana
Juh ana Mustonen
Mustonen (iron
(ira n works
works company)
Antti
Alexande r Schleisner
Schleisner (iron
(iron works
works company)
company)
Alexander
Paul Wahl
Wahl (iron
(iron works
works company
com pa ny and
and trading
tradi ng house)
hou se)
Paul
Lupikon rautarauta- ja
ja teräsyhtiö
teräsyhtiö (mining
(mining company)
co mp any )
Lupikon
Private persons
persons or
or other
other small
s mall companies
companies
Private
Totalling
Totall
in e
(2 438
claims, 31.4
%), a
a private
Nikolai Putilov (2
438 claims,
31.4 Vo),
person. Other
Other owners of
of claims
claims were Adolf
Adolf Törngren
person.
(5.8
(3.9 %),
(5 .8 7o),
%), Nils Ludvig Arppe (3.9
7o), and the work
group formed
by Miron
Srnirnoff and
and Alexander
group
formed by'
Miron Smirnoff
%), merchants from Joensuu.
Gajewsky (3.0 Vo),
Joensuu.
( 1820 - 1880)
Nikolai Putilov
Putilov (1820
was aa Russian
tycoon,
1 880) was
Nikolai
Russian tycoon,
Collegial
Counsellor,
and
later
an
actual
Counsellor
of
Collegial Counsellor,
later
actual Counsellorof
State. In
In 1868, he
he bought the Russian
Russian state-owned
large steel
arms factories in St.
St. Petersburg. In
steel and
and arms
Finland,
he acquired
at JJoroinen,
oroinen,
Finland, he
acquired the
the Huutokoski
Huutokoski works
works at
and the Haapakoski
works
from
Pieksämäki
Haapakoski
Pieksämäki in 1857,
1857,
and,
the Oravi
and, in addition,
addition, founded
founded the
Rantasalmi
Oravi works at
at Rantasalrni
in 1868. The claims
clairns ofNikolai
of Nikolai Putilov
Putilov from
from 1858 to
1876 were located
locaterl mainly
mainly in the provinces of
of NorthSavo,
South-Savo,
and
South-Karelia,
with
the
Savo, South-Savo,,
South-Karelia,
the objective
tive to assure
assure a
a continuous
continuous flow of
of raw materials
materials to his
industrial
plants. The
number ofPutilov'
industrial plants.
greatnumberof
The great
Putilov'ss claims
claims
is reflected
reflected in the fact
liact that
that his claims
claims were
were recorded as
as
aa separate
separate memorandum
memo,randum at
at the
the Finnish
Finnish Bureau
Bureau of
Mines
(Vuorihallitus 1880).
Mines (Vuorihallitus
I 880).
(1824 -- 1895)
Adolf Törngren
Törngren (1824
1895) owned the
the linen
factory and blast furnace of Tampere,
Tampere, the Hietalahti
dockyard in Helsinki, and expanded the
the Nuutajärvi
Nuutajärvi
glass factory. A special
glass
pecial feature is that a11
all of his 453
claims date to the year 1879 in the provinces NorthSavo
Savo and
and South-·Savo.
South-Savo. Soon
Soon afterwards
afterwards the
the 1883
rnining
mining rule prevented
preve)nted speculation
speculation with these kind of
claims.
Nils Ludvig Arppe (1803 - 1861) is considered the
pioneer of
pioneer
of Finnish industry. He owned among others
timber businesses
businessesi the Värtsilä
Värtsilä sawrni11
sawmill and blast furnace,
nace, the
Möhkö iron
the Möhkö
iron works
works at
Ilomantsi, and
at Ilomantsi,
and the
Läskelä sawrnill
sawmill at Harlu. Arppe's 306 claims
claims during
the
years 1850
the years
1850 -- 1898
1898 were
were situated
situated solely
solely in
in the
vicinity of the iron works district in the province of
(inr:luding Korpiselkä),
North-Karelia
North-Karelia (including
Korpiselkä), and ofLadogan
of Ladogan
Karelia in Suistamo.
54
-
Number
Number
964
%
The disappearance
disappearance of blast furnaces using
using
The
lake ore
lake
In the
the 19th century, hoisting lake
lake ore was
was more
econornical
rnining iron ore. Although the iron
economical than mining
content ofthe
of the lake
lake and
and bog
content
bog ore
ore hoisted
hoisted almost
almost equalled
that of
of the rnined
mined ore, utilization of lake and bog ore
encountered difficulties
difficulties due to the large quantities
quantities of
harmful
harmful constituents,
constituents, especially
especially phosphorus. On the
other
ore was
was also
other hand,
hand, the
the use
use of rnined
mined iron
iron ore
sometimes difficult
difficult due to sulphur and occasionally
titanium.
titanium.
The industrial
industrial revolution
revolution took
The
place towards
took place
towards the
the end
of the 19th
1 9th century
of
century in Finland.
Finland. Steam
Steam became
became the
the most
power, and mineral
source of
of power,
important source
mineral coal
coal replaced
charcoal. Simultaneously, import
import of
of cheap iron from
started and the old-fashioned iron industry of
Russia started
Finland
Finland suffered
suffered econornically.
economically.
1 859, the Senate
Senate declared
declared limitless
In 1859,
limitless free export
export of
pig-iron made
fromlake
pig-iron
lake ore
to Russia.
resulted in
made from
oreto
Russia. This
Thisresultedin
increase in exports, and particularly
particularly for the
a marked increase
iron works
works founded in the eastern
iron
lake district
eastern Finland
Finlandlake
depended primarily
primarily on exports for their
which depended
their operaLater export
restrictions resulted in a significant
tion. Later
export restrictions
significant
decrease in the iron works' feasibility,
decrease
feasibility, and the exports
to Russia declined almost totally after the year 1907
I9O7
(Laine 1955).
reason for the
The primary reason
the cessation of the
the iron
export to Russia
Russia was that the Finnish
export
Finnish iron
iron industry
industry was
unable to compete
compete with Russia'
unable
Russia' ss own iron
iron production,
also at the same time, large amounts of cheap rolled
began flowing
fl owing in from Russia
iron began
oustela
Russia (Laine 1955,
1 955, J
Joustela
1963). All this resulted in the Finnish blast furnaces
1963).
using lake ore to face a rapid closure and death.
death. The
Haapakoski at Pieksämäki
Pieksäm?iki and the Kuokkastenkoski
Haapakoski
ceased operations in 1905,
at Nurmes ceased
1 905, followed
followed by the
1906, the Möhkö at Ilomantsi
Högfors at Karkkila in 1906,
in 1907, and the Souru at Karttula and the Salahmi at
Vieremä in
in 1908.
1908. After
After 1908,
1908. the lake ore
ore smelting
smeltins
paper 31
Geological Survey
.
. Geological
Survey of
of Finland,
Finland, Special
Special Paper
3l
Lake ores
ores and
and lron
Lake
- 1916
iron mdustry
industry in
in Finland
Finland during
period 1811
during the
the period
1811
1916
furnaces still
still left operating
operating were
furnaees
were the
the Juantehdas
Juantehdas at
Juankoski till
year 1911,
till the
the year
1911, the
Juankoski
the Jyrkkäkoski
Jyrkkäkoski at
Sonkajärvi till1918,
till 1918, and the Värtsilä
Sonkajärvi
V?irtsilä tilll920.
till 1920.
Following the history of granted lake and bog ore
claims, one
one is
is also
also following
following aa his
tory of mineral
claims,
history
location of claims also
exploration. The loeation
also refleet
reflect the
geographical
geological
and
geographieal
geologieal areas where
where prospeeting
prospecting
carried out, as
as weIl
well as where raw materials
has been earried
for blast furnaees
furnaces and
for
and bloomery furnaees
furnaces were
were obtained.
Acknowledgments
to thank Mr.
The author wishes to
Mr. Eero
Eero Lampio for
for
having drawn the map in this work.
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55
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