Tropical montane cloud forests : conservation status

2. Tropical Montan
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests:
Conservation Status and Management Issues
Charles Doumenge, Don Gilmour,
Manuel Ruiz Pérez, and Jill Blockhus
With the collaboration of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre,
Cambridge, UK, and Alain Gioda, ORSTOM, Montpellier, France
In the humid tropics, montane cloud forests are found between 500 and 3,500 m
altitude (LaBastille and Pool 1978; Unesco 1981; Sosa 1987; Stadtmüller 1987; Fao 1992) with major occurrence between 1,200 and 2,500 m
(Stadtmiiller 1987). They may occur within the montane and submontane floristic zones.
Within the humid tropical zone, one can observe some vegetation gradients with increasing altitude: diminishing tree height, simplified stratification, smaller leaf size, more open understory, some floristic changes, and more
epiphytes, mosses, and lichens (Whitmore 1975; Unesco 1981; White 1983;
Jacobs 1988). Tropical montane forests are usually of low stature (White 1983;
Letouzey 1985; Sayer, Harcourt, and Collins 1992) whereas submontane forests have greater height (20-30 m vs. 15-25 m), are richer in species, with
more vascular epiphytes, and incorporate species from low and mid-altitude
forests (Letouzey 1985; Thomas and Achoundong 1991).
In this paper, we will refer to tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) in a
topographic sense, as cloud forests lying on wetter mountainsides, ridges and
saddles, whether in montane or submontane floristic zones. They can be defined as tropical montane or submontane forests characterized by persistent
clouds or fogs, sometimes with small trees, often with abundant mosses, ferns,
lichens, or flowering plants in trees and on soil surface.
In Table 1 and Figure:
the geographical distri
forests. According to re
forests comprise more
to Persson’s (1974) est
cover about 50 million
ests. These estimates s
of precise data on the
montane and submoni
mountain slopes wher
rence of ground-level
occur more frequently
Africa (Stadtmüller 19
distribution of mount.
and Asia than in Afric
Apart from this gel
rences, in locations wl
mists and clouds than
cloud forest micro-oc1
posed to wind and cloc
and other topographic
exposed to oceanic i
500-700 m, [Cusset I
where there is an exte
include important OCC
and Jenkins 1990; Th
Table 1. Tropical mont
compared to the entire .
Source: FAO 1993.
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management
GIobaI Distribution
In Table 1 and Figures 1-3, we have summarized available information on
the geographical distribution and overlap extent of montane and submontane
forests. According to recent FAO estimates (Table 1), montane and submontane
forests comprise more than 11percent of the total tropical forests. According
to Persson's (1974) estimates, cloud forests occur in aportion of this area and
cover about 50 million ha, or one-fourth of the montane and submontane forests. These estimates should be considered as border figures because of a lack
of precise data on the extent and distribution of TMCF within these broader
montane and submontane forest categories. Cloud forests occur on humid
mountain slopes where topo-climate conditions are favorable to the occurrence of ground-level clouds during a considerable period of the year. They
occur more frequently in tropical America and SoutheastAsia than in tropical
Africa (Stadtmiiller 1987). The reason for the difference is that there is a wider
distribution of mountain ranges, subject to oceanic influences, in America
and Asia than in Africa.
Apart from this general distribution, TMCF does appear as micro-occurrences, in locations where there is a cooler climate and a stronger influence of
mists and clouds than might normally be expected. In Africa, some of these
cloud forest micro-occurrences include isolated low elevation mountains exposed to wind and clouds such as the Belinga mountains of Gabon (800-900 m)
and other topographical situations where low elevation passes or peaks are
exposed to oceanic influences (e.g., in Congo, the Mayombe mountains,
500-700 m, [Cusset 1989; Dowsett-Lemaire 199I]); the Angola Highlands,
where there is an extension of dense forests from southern Zaire, which also
include important occurrences of cloud forests (White 1983; Stuart, Adams,
and Jenkins 1990; Thomas and Achoundong 199 1).
Forest Cover 1990
urce: FAO 1993.
Annual Deforestation
Montane Rain Forest
Submontane Rain Forest
Figure 1. Distribution of tropical montane and submontane forests in Central and South America. Data are incomplete for the forest
cover of Mexico, the Caribbean, and most of Central America and the southern countries of South America. (Source: World Conservation Monitorinn Centre.)
Montane Rain Forest
Figure 2. Distribution of tropical montane forests in Africa. (Source: World Coilsewation Moiiitoriiig Centre.)
Montane Rain and Monsoon Forest
Figure 3. Distribution of tropical montane rain and monsoon forest in South and SoutheastAsia and the Pacific. (Source: World Conser-
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management
Tropical montane cloud forests exhibit many values related to the uniqueness
of these ecosystems, in terms of their diversity and endemism, and the functions
they provide. These values encompass:
Watershedfitnction, including a role in the capture and transport of water
and protection of soils against erosion (LaBastille and Pool 1978). Evidence suggests that cloud forests perform a watershed function that is somewhat different from that performed by noncloud forests. This difference
relates to the presence of the cloud itself and the occurrence of occult
precipitation. The tree crowns act to intercept wind-driven cloud moisture
on leaves and branches that drips to the ground. The absolute increase in
net precipitation is a result of the presence of trees. This can add to the
groundwater and streamflow levels, but its precise effect on the hydrological cycle is difficult to determine. The impact will, in any case, vary
from place to place depending on factors such as incidence of wind-driven
clouds, density o f the clouds and wind speed, size and orientation of mountains, altitude, type of vegetation, and other climatic variables (see Kerfoot 1968; Stadtmiiller 1987).
This “cloud stripping” phenomenon may well double the effective rainfall
received in dry seasons and increase the wet season rainfall total by about
10 percent (Vogelmann 1973; Bruijnzeel 1990). Experiments to measure the
extent of occult precipitation in temperate cloud forest were carried out in the
Snowy Mounta,ins in southern Australia in woodlands close to the tree line in
an area with a high incidence of wind-driven clouds (Costin and
Wimbush 1961). The results indicated a significant increase in net precipitation under the canopy of scattered trees compared with locations between the
canopies. This contrasts strongly with the results in noncloud forests where
the opposite situation occurs. That is, in noncloud forests, tree canopies freently intercept and evaporate 20 percent or more of the incident precipitaon, and this is lost to the land component of the hydrological cycle.
It can be postulated that clearing cloud forests and replacing them with
tation with a reduced “filtering” ability will decrease net precipitation.
rect evidence for this comes from Sri Lanka, where large areas of the
highlands montane forests have been converted to tea estates. Longstreamflow records have indicated a decline in water yield even though
e has not been a corresponding trend of decline in rainfall (Madduma
a and Kurupuarachchi 1988). While correlation and causation are not
the same, it is a trend that is worth exploring further.
Vegetation elements. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Stuart, Adams, and Jenkins
(1990) postulated that 80 percent of about 4,000 plant species o f the
Afromontane region are endemic, some of them occurring in cloud forests. In cloud forests of Central America, endemism is high, especially in
C.Doumenge et al.
the Caribbean islands (LaBastille and Pool 1978). Throughout the tropics,
the cloud forest zone provides habitat for notable species such as
Podocarpus (Unesco 1981; White 1983; Sosa 1987; Jacobs 1988; FAO
1992) and tree ferns (Cyateaceae), which are common in this foggy environment (Stadtmiiller 1987). In the neotropics, Luteyn (1989) determined
that species of the family Ericaceae are most common in the cloud forest
zone, although they are not restricted to it. The economic values of this
vegetation type range from wood (often fuelwood or construction material) to medicinal plants and food plants (Torres et al. 1992), and to touristic values.
Fauna. Possibly the best known cloud forest mammal is the Mountain
Gorilla (Gorilla g. beringei), which in addition to its intrinsic value, is an
important attraction for nature tourism in some countries of Central Africa (there is a similar case in South America with the Spectacled Bear).
Cloud forests are also habitats for mammals and birds that play an important role in the functioning of the ecosystem, in terms of predation-dispersion of seeds and forest dynamics. Many species are valuable to local people
as bushmeat, providing them with animal protein. In tropical Africa, the
centers of endemism for birds largely coincide with mountainous areas,
including cloud forests (Stuart, Adams, and Jenkins 1990); in South
America montane areas and foothills were refuges during dry periods in
the geological past, and are currently centers of diversity and endemism
(Colinvaux 1989). In Costa Rica, cloud forests are covered with epiphytes,
which “provide many birds with habitat and supplies of energy and nutrients,” especially in the wet season (Nadkami 1988).
Cloud forest environments in some areas have values for alternate uses,
particularly where the soils are of high quality (LaBastille and Pool 1978).
These include general agriculture, tea or coffee estates, pastures, and wood
plantations (e.g., Piizus spp., Eucalyptus spp.). r
Human Uses and Conservation Status
Many TMCFs suffer from human pressure, particularly in the submontane
area (White 1983). However, it is difficult to assess precisely the global extent of such pressures in terms of their effects on structure and composition
or disappearance of the cloud forests. A recent evaluation of tropical hill and
mountain forest clearance by FAO (1993) estimated that the annual rate of
deforestation was about 1.1 percent for 1981-1990 (Table 1). This is greater
than the rate of deforestation for the tropical forest biome as a whole, esti-mated to be about 0.8 percent per year. LaBastille and Pool (1978) estimate
that the cloud forests in Central America and the Caribbean are “probably
disappearing faster than any other forest ecosystem.”
2. Tropical Mon
A variety of nonv
example, in the mov
ploited for the medii
(Letouzey 1985). Fc
bamboo (Arundiizar.
not harvesting is at
areas, the collection
tributor to forest de:
forest edges (Thom:
montane areas but 8
causes substantial cl
Hunting has a di1
on forest cover, as h
sometimes the fores;
mals in areas of you
Significant areas
ijecially in submonta
altitude and pasture:
the Andes, agricultu
well over 4,000 m (1
montane forest zone
zone in Sri Lanka. C
converted to agri
(Unesco 1981). In C
even when there is a
complex with fewer i
1988). Changes in 1: ,
lead to locally sever
Especially in isla
animal species has
Island, Doumenge a
Hamilton and Benst
Some cloud fores
in montane areas, bi
sess because of frag
large species, but M
tended to be underre
and Jenkins 1990).
In some areas, lo
certain forest resour
honey collection is a
placed in trees such
considered sacred by
Lake Oku in Camerc
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management
h as
s an
s in
:. of
A variety of nonwood forest products is harvested from cloud forests. For
example, in the mountains of Central Africa, Prunus africana is heavily exploited for the medicinal properties of its bark and is in danger of extinction
(Letouzey 1985). For other products, such as shoots of the edible mountain
bamboo (Aruizdiizaria alpina) in Uganda, it is difficult to assess whether or
not harvesting is at a sustainable level. In heavily populated mountainous
areas, the collection of fire wood (for heating and cooking) is a major contributor to forest degradation. Fires of human origin are of importance along
forest edges (Thomas and Achoundong 1991). Logging, especially in submontane areas but also at higher altitudes for species such as Podocarpus,
causes substantial changes to forest structure.
Hunting has a direct impact on fauna populations and an indirect impact
on forest cover, as hunters regularly burn the vegetation at forest edges (and
sometimes the forest itself) for ease of access and to concentrate grazing animals in areas of young vegetation.
Significant areas of cloud forests have been converted to plantations, especially in submontane areas. InAfrica, agriculture is found as high as 2,400 m
altitude and pastures as high as 2,000-3,000 m (Letouzey 1985) whereas in
the Andes, agriculture has been developed as high as 3,700 m and pastures to
well over 4,000 m (Morlon 1992). Tea and coffee estates are common in the
montane forest zone of EastAfrica, and tea estates are widespread in the same
zone in Sri Lanka. Cloud forests on steep slopes in South America have been
converted to agriculture and pastures, resulting i n severe erosion
(Unesco 1981). In Costa Rica, the conversion of cloud forests into pastures,
even when there is a colonization by shrub trees, has resulted in a vegetation
complex with fewer epiphytes, smaller biomasgand lower diversity (Nadkarni
1988). Changes in land use, such as gold mining or iron ore extraction, can
lead to locally severe land degradation.
Especially in islands or isolated forests, introduction of exotic plant and
animal species has favored degradation of native ecosystems (La Reunion
Island, Doumenge and Renard 1989; East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania,
Hamilton and Bensted-Smith 1989).
Some cloud forests are nevertheless incorporated in the existing reserves
in montane areas, but their extent and conservation status are difficult to assess because of fragmented information. Generally, areas with lesser known
large species, but with numerous endemics, such as montane forests, have
tended to be underrepresented in networks of protected areas (Stuart, Adams,
and Jenkins 1990).
In some areas, local traditions favor conservation and sustainable use of
certain foreit resources. For example, in some parts of Cameroon Highlands,
honey collection is an important activity for the local people and beehives are
placed in trees such as SclzefJera spp. Some forests or parts of forests are
dered sacred by local people and are afforded protection (as occurs around
Oku in Cameroon).
2. Tropical Mon
C.Doumenge et al.
sources and state-cc
ceived national intei
An additional inj
which forests are ni;
montainous parts of
grounds different frc
make effective man:
Despite some notable examples of local protection, in most places high
population density and the consequent demand for forest products and land
for alternate uses are the most important factors that influence the conservation status of cloud forests. In some countries official government policies
recognize the conservation value of such forests, and attempts are made to
establish protected reserves. However, in heavily populated areas, current land
pressures are likely to lead to the preservation of only small forest patches
within a wider agricultural landscape. This is the case in montane Central
Africa, where rich volcanic soils and high population densities favor conversion to agriculture and grazing lands.
Conservation :
The three projects d
of approaches that I
areas subject to hea
mented in montane a
*they cover only part
'ensure the conserva
.ment activities.
Management Issues
Some important biophysical aspects should be .considered when discussing
management of TMCFs and converted land: The major issues are related to
the role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle, long-term supply of forest
products (both plants and animals), protection of soils, and maintenance of
ecological processes. However, the details of the processes involved are poorly
understood, and there is a lack of basic scientific data on the nature of the
The use of forest resources is increasingly driven by the immediate benefits that arise from these uses. Therre is often no real management of cloud
forest resources based on rational assessment of the extent of goods and services that can be provided by well-managed forests. Some studies are being
conducted to evaluate the carrying capacity of the environment with respect
to resource use, but these studies have been recently established and are not
yet fully operational.
It is frequently perceived that a lack of awareness and knowledge among
local people is at the heart of unsustainable utilization of forest resources.
However, it is rare that people living close to forests, and often dependent on
them for their livelihood, are not aware of the importance of the forest. A
more important constraint is often associated with the inability of local populations to take effective actions because of the presence of more powerful
socioeconomic structures.
One essential element of effective management is the development of appropriate institutional structures to ensure that the wishes and desires of all
those who Kave an interest in montane cloud forests can be considered. These
interest groups may include a range of people, from those who depend on the
forest for livelihood support to those who have an intellectual interest in forest conservation. However, the official decision-making process is normally
in the hands of urban-based government officials and politicians who have
the task of integrating sectoral interests with the broader interests of the state.
There can also be, as in Eastern Zaire and the Cameroon Highlands, conflicts
between traditional customary regulations governing the use of natural re-
Mount E1j ,
The Mount Elgon I
!Agency for Develop
between the Ministr
i"long-term goal is to .
while assisting comi
directly linked to thc
project consisted of
some immediate CO.
implementation of a
aimed at promoting
marcation of the Ml
the infrastructure an
A study has recentlj
zation patterns in th
vesting bamboo sho
The goal is to cont
conserving the baml
nature of the interac
lude to developing I
In the Itombwe MOL
ernmental body, the
local people and NC
., ,
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management
es high
nd land
nade to
:nt land
sources and state-controlled structures and laws that tend to focus on perceived national interests.
An additional influence, which often has a major impact on the way in
which forests are managed, is that of in-migration. Examples can be seen in
montainous parts of the Philippines where migrants, often from ethnic backgrounds different from the local indigenous populations, create situations that
make effective management difficult.
Conservation and Sustainable Use: Some IUCN Experiences
lated to
f forest
ance of
:of the
.te benf cloud
ind sere being
are not
dent on
trest. A
1popu3wer fu 1
t of aps of all
I. These
1on the
t in forxmally
i o have
le state.
ural re-
The three projects described here are used as examples to illustrate a variety
of approaches that may be suitable in advancing conservation objectives in
areas subject to heavy pressure on forest resources. They are being implemented in montane and submontane areas where cloud forests occur, but where
they cover only part of the project area. The primary goal of the projects is to
ensure the conservation of forest resources
by facilitating related develop-ment activities.
Mount Elgon Conservation and Development Project
The Mount Elgon Project in Eastern Uganda (financed by the Norwegian
Agency for Development Cooperation) promotes a joint program of activities
between the Ministry of Environment Protection of Uganda and IUCN. The
long-term goal is to ensure conservation of natural forests on Mount Elgon
while assisting community development activities where this development is
directly linked to the sustainable use of forest products. The first phase of the
project consisted of an extensive study and planning stage, combined with
some immediate conservation measures. Phase two, under way, consists of
implementation of a management plan for the forest and a long-term strategy
aimed at promoting the sustainable use of natural resources in the area. Demarcation of the Mount Elgon Forest Park boundaries and improvement of
the infrastructure and management of the park are also part of the activities.
A study has recently started to determine bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) utilization patterns in the area. The plan will involve people who depend on harvesting bamboo shoots and stems in management of the bamboo resources.
The goal is to continue bamboo harvesting in a sustainable manner while
conserving the bamboo forests. Similar studies are planned to determine the
nature of the interactions between people and other forest resources as a prelude to developing management procedures aimed at sustainable utilization.
Itombwe Mountains Project
In the Itombwe Mountains in Eastern Zaire, IUCN works closely with a governmental body, the Zairian Institute for Conservation of Nature, and with
local people and NGOs. Pressures on the forests come from extension of pas-
C. Doumenge et al.
2. Tropical A
tures and agriculture, gathering of wood (for fuel and construction), hunting,
and, in some places, gold mining. The approach selected is a participative
one, bringing external expertise to work with local people and NGOs to
facilitate planning and sustainable development. This participatory rural development process has permitted local people to gather information and analyze environmental and socioeconomic problems they are facing. The
socioecomomic data are processed locally, and the results will be discussed
with the rural people living in the area, through workshops to be held in selected villages. This action will form the basis for future project planning.
Although this process has just started, the cooperative mechanism has reinforced local awareness and local capacity to analyze and manage natural
resources. This cooperative effort is vital in countries like Zaire where internal conflicts have resulted in disintegration of the administrative capacity of
the official government. Some problems experienced include the necessity to
send longer support missions than may be the case in normal circumstances,
and the difficulty-in continuing with the analysis phase-of mobilizing funds
to execute future on-groun4 activities in a country with political instability.
Native Andean Forests Conservation Project
A recent preliminary analysis by Intercooperation (an NGO) and IUCN of
native Andean forests in Bolivia and Ecuador drew several conclusions:
(1) only small patches of native montane forests remain; (2) these forest fragments are in danger of complete elimination due to pressure from uncontrolled colonization; (3) the official management institutions are ineffective
with respect to protection of remaining forest areas. This analysis led to a
program aimed at conservation and sustainable use of the native Andean forests by stabilizing the pressures on these forests and reclaiming degraded areas. The activities include establishing demonstration projects, strengthening
institutional capacity, analyzing the legislative system, and enhancing regional
coordination and knowledge sharing. This project is financed by and will be
implemented by Intercooperation and the Swiss Technical Cooperation with
local organizations and communities; IUCN will provide technical support.
' U
Such topics fo.
the conditions ne
provided some c
projects. A conch
to cloud forest cc
pants and interesr
necessary to built
and potential con
which is more pai
(Poore 1992). Sir
should be further
The diversity (
some basic princ
be valid worldwi
Poore 1992).
While a lack o
nature of the hyd
major need is a c>
tion needs of cloi
the task of provi
that need considc,
listing of the
evaluation of
their conserv2
definition of
those areas w
actions betwe
The values and services provided by TMCFs should be fully recognized and
taken into account in policy statements and management decisions. Management decisions should consider (1) the necessity of exploiting products within
the carrying capacity of the ecosystems; (2) the value of forests in water capture
and for maintaining soil stability (particularly important in areas where soils
are prone to erosion); and (3) the necessity of conserving reservoirs for genetic material. The conversion of forests to other uses should be carried out
only after careful impact analysis.
cloud forests,
detailed map1
tion value (lo
protection, th
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Consentation Status and Management
rrir% .
Such topics for consideration are important; however, they do not meet all
the conditions necessary for sustainable use of natural resources. We have
provided some details of possible approaches, with references to IUCN
projects. A conclusion of these project experiences is that the major constraint
to cloud forest conservation is awareness and commitment of all the participants and interest groups for the long-term conservation of these forests. It is
necessary to build management processes that take into account the existing
and potential conflicts to be resolved and to design a human-scale approach,
which is more participative, favoring integration of concerns and cooperation
(Poore 1992). Similar initiatives are being implemented around the world but
should be further developed, extended, and adapted to different circumstances.
The diversity of situations implies a diversity of strategies in the field, but
some basic principles that apply to managing mountain ecosystems can still
be valid worldwide (see global guidelines in Dasmann and Poore 1979 and
Poore 1992).
While a lack of biophysical knowledge is a constraint to understanding the
nature of the hydrological and ecological processes operating in TMCFs, the
major need is a conceptual framework within which to address the conservation needs of cloud forests globally, regionally, and nationally. We hope that
the task of providing such a framework will be undertaken, Among points
that need consideration are:
listing of the unique features and values of TMCF, including a typology;
evaluation of extent and distribution of cloud forests, and assessment of
their conservation status;
identification of the major threats to their conservation and of sustainable
definition o f a global policy on cloud forests including prioritization of
those areas where immediate conservation action is required.
identification of the transfrontier cloud forests that deserve coordinated
actions between neighboring countries;
establishment of cooperation processes to manage sustainably transfrontier
cloud forests, and design of regional policies.
detailed mapping of cloud forest areas and assessment of their conservation value (locally and globally) and status (current land tenure, level of
protection, threats to their integrity);
C. Doumenge et al.
2. Tropical Mo
development of a strategy to e n s u r e t h a t t h e values of c l o u d forests a r e
recognized a n d f u l l y considered in decision-making processes;
implementation of management regimes that t a k e a c c o u n t of t h e legitim a t e demands of local people f o r access t o a n d u s a g e of f o r e s t products in
a sustainable way.
Acknowledgments. T h e authors thank their colleagues in G l a n d a n d around
t h e w o r l d w h o provided valuable information a n d helpful c o m m e n t s o n t h e
Bruijnzeel, L. A. 1990. Hydrology of moist tropical forests and effects of conversion:
A state of knowledge review. Paris: Unesco.
Colinvaux, P. A. 1989. The past and future Amazon. Scientific American 68-74.
Costin, A. B., and D. J. Wimbush. 1961. Studies in catchment hydrology in the Australian Alps. 4) Interception by trees of rain, cloud and fog. CSIRO Australian
Division of Plant Industry Technical Paper 16, Canberra, Australia.
Cusset, G. 1989. La flore et la végétation du Mayombe congolais. Etat des
connaissances. In Revue des Connaissances sur la Mayonibe, ed. J. Sénéchal,
Matuka Kabala, and F. Fournier, 103-136. Paris: Unesco.
Dasmann, R. F., and D. Poore. 1979. Ecological guidelines f o r balanced laiid use,
conservation and developnient in high mountains. UNEP, Nairobi, IUCN, and WWF,
Gland, Switzerland.
Doumenge, C., and Y. Renard. 1989. La conservation des écosystkmes forestiers de
1 ’île de la Rkunion. Gland, Suisse et Cambridge, Royaume-Uni: IUCN.
Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 199 1. The vegetation of the Kouilou bassin in Congo. In Flore et
faune du bassin du Kouilou (Congo) et leur exploitation, ed. R.I. Dowsett and
F. Dowsett-Lemaire. Touraco Research Report 4: 17-51.
FAO. 1992. Aménagement et conservation des forèts denses en Amérique tropicale.
FAO, Etude Forêts 101, Rome.
FAO. 1993. Summary of the final report of forest resources assessment 1990 for the
tropical world. Paper prepared for the 11th COFO meeting, Rome.
Hamilton, A. C., and R. Bensted-Smith, eds. 1989. Forest conservation in the East
Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK: IUCN.
Jacobs, M. 1988. The tropical rain forest: Afirst encounter. Berlin and Heidelberg,
Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Kerfoot, O. 1968. Mist precipitation on vegetation. Forestry Abstracts 29:8120.
LaBastille,A., and D. J.Pool. 1978. On the need for a system of cloud-forest parks in
Middle America and the Caribbean. Environmental Conservation 5(3): 183-190.
Letouzey, R. 1985. Notice de la cartephytogéographique du Cameroun au 1:500 O00
(198.5). 2) M-SM: Région afro-montagnarde et étage submontagnard. Toulouse,
France: Institut de la Carte Internationale de la Végétation.
Luteyn, J. L. 1989. Speciation and diversity of Ericaceae in Neotropical montane vegetation. In Tropical forests. Botanical dynamics, speciation and diversity, ed. L.B.
Holm-Nielsen, I.C. Nielsen, and H. Balslev, 297-3 10. London: Academic Press.
Madduma Bandara, C. M., and T. A. Kurupuarachchi. 1988. Land-use change and
hydrological trends in the upper Mahaweli basin. For workshop on hydrology of
natural and man-made forests in the hill country of Sri Lanka, Kandy. Unpublished.
Morlon, P., ed. 1992. Comprendre l’agriculture paysanne dans les Andes Centrates.
Paris: INRA.
Nadkarni, N. M.198
Tropical rairifores
189-208. San Frai
tion for the Advar
Persson, R. 1974. [Vo
Poore, D. 1992. Guic
Cambridge, UK: I
Sayer, J. A., C. S. Ha
tropical forests. A
Sosa, V. J. 1987. Gen
de montatïa de Ta
Stadtmüller, T. 1987.
Nations Universit.
Stuart, S. N., R. J. P
Afiica and its i s h
casional Papers o f
Thomas, D. W., and
AETFAT Congres
,‘ Torres, H., R. Borel,
arbustos nativos e
-“.Unesco. 1981. Yegetr.
Vogelmann, H. W. IS
Bioscience 23(2):
White, F. 1983. The 1
Whitmore, T. C. 197.’ .
sity Press.
2. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management
Nadkami, N. M. 1988. Tropical rain forest ecology from a canopy perspective. In
Tropical rainforests: Diversity and conservation, ed. F. Almeda and C.M. Pringle,
189-208. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences and American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Persson, R. 1974. Worldforest resources. Stockholm: Royal College of Forestry.
poore, D. 1992. Guidelines f o r mountain protected areas. Gland, Switzerland, and
Cambridge, UK: IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas.
Sayer, J. A., C . S. Harcourt, and N. M. Collins, eds. 1992. The conservation atlas of
tropical forests. Africa. Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK: IUCN.
Sosa, V. J. 1987. Generalidades de la región de Gómez Farias. In EI bosque ???eSOJlO
de niontatïa de Tamaidipas, ed. H. Puig y R. Brach, 15-28. México: Instituto de
Stadtmüller, T. 1987. Cloudforests in the humid tropics. A bibliographic review. United
Nations University, Tokyo, and CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Stuart, S. N., R. J. Adams, and M. D. Jenkins. 1990. Biodiversity in Sub-Saharan
Africa and its islands. Conservation, management and sustainable use. IUCN, Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 6, Gland, Switzerland.
Thomas, D. W., and G. Achoundong 1991. Montane forests of Western Africa. In
AETFAT Congress.
Torres, H., R. Borel, N. Bustamante, and M. I. Centeno. 1992. Usos tradicionales de
arbustos nativos en el sur de Puno. Puno, Pení: Intercooperation.
Unesco. 1981. Vegetation map of South America. Explanatory notes. Paris: Unesco.
Vogelmann, H. W. 1973. Fog precipitation in the cloud forests of Eastern Mexico.
BioScience 23(2): 96-100.
White, F. 1983. The vegetation ofAfrica. Paris: Unesco.
Whitmore, T. C. 1975. Tropical rain forests of the Far East. London: Oxford Univer-
With 102 illustrations
New York Berlin Heidelberg London