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ANTHROPOLOGY 2250
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Spring, 2009
Dr. Ann T. Jordan
COURSE DESCRIPTION
A survey of anthropological attempts to understand and explain the similarities and differences
in human behavior, social institutions, and total ways of life. Extensive use will be made of
descriptions of cultures from around the world.
COURSE GOAL
To enrich the student=s awareness and appreciation of Anthropology, particularly as it focuses
on the cultural basis for human behavior.
COURSE OBJECTIVES
1) To acquaint the student with the central and basic concepts of sociocultural anthropology
necessary for understanding humans and their behavior.
2) To develop appreciation and awareness of culture and its role in human behavior.
3) To develop understanding and awareness of the different approaches used in the study of
culture and human behavior.
4) To develop within every student an awareness of the consequences of ethnocentrism and the
need for sensitivity and appreciation for cultures of others.
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ANTHROPOLOGY 2250.001
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
COURSE SYLLABUS
Required Reading:
Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective by Gary Ferraro
Selected Articles:
ABody Ritual Among the [email protected] by Miner
AUnderstanding Eskimo [email protected] by Nelson
AToo Many Bananas, Not Enough Pineapples, and No Watermelon At All:
Three Object Lessons in Living with [email protected] by Counts
AWhen Brothers Share a [email protected] by Goldstein
AYellow Woman and a Spirit of [email protected] by Silko
ARituals of [email protected] by Purdum and Paredes
ANandi: Cattle-Keepers to Cash Crop [email protected] by Oboler
“Barbie’s Taiwanese Homecoming: A Plastic, Fantastic Tale of Globalization” by
Dmitri
Class Topics and Assignment Schedule:
1/20
Introduction
1/22
The Anthropological Perspective
1/27-2/3
The Meaning of Culture
Reading Assignment Due:
2/5-10
2/12
Ferraro, Chapters 1 - 2
Ethnographic Fieldwork
In-Class Exercise: Doing Fieldwork in the Student Union
Reading Assignment Due: Ferraro, Chapter 5
ABody Ritual Among the [email protected]
In-Class Exercise: Doing Fieldwork in the Student Union
Field Assignment Due: Symbols
2/17-19
Adaptation: Environment, Subsistence and Cultures
Reading Assignment Due:
Ferraro, Chapter 7
AUnderstanding Eskimo [email protected]
Video: Patterns of Subsistence: Hunters and Gatherers
Patterns of Subsistence: Food Producers
2/24-26
Exchange and Economic Systems
Reading Assignment Due:
Ferraro, Chapter 8
AToo Many Bananas, Not Enough Pineapples, and
No Watermelon At All
2
In-Class Exercise: The Penny Economy
3/3
3/5
Religion and the Supernatural
Reading Assignment Due: Ferraro, Chapter 14
ARituals of [email protected]
Field Assignment Due: Ritual
Video: AAlejandro [email protected]
Exam Review
3/10
EXAM
3/12
Domestic Life: Marriage and Household Patterns
Reading Assignment Due:
Ferraro, Chapter 9
AWhen Brothers Share a [email protected]
Kinship
Reading Assignment Due: Ferraro, Chapter 10
In-Class Exercise: Survivor Anthropology Style: Marriage on a Remote Island
Field Assignment Due:
Kinship Chart
3/24-26
3/31
4/2
4/7-9
Gender
Reading Assignment Due:
Political Organization
Reading Assignment Due:
Video: ADead [email protected]
Ferraro, Chapter 11
AYellow Woman and a Spirit of [email protected]
Ferraro, Chapter 12-13
4/14
Revisiting The Meaning of Culture, Part I: Culture as a Holistic, Integrated
System
Reading Assignment Due: ANandi: Cattle-Keepers to Cash Crop [email protected]
Writing Assignment Due:
Fitting the Pieces Together: Cultural Integration
among the Nandi
4/16
Revisiting The Meaning of Culture, Part II: Culture Falls Apart
Video: AMirrors of the [email protected]
4/21-28
Culture Change and Globalization
Reading Assignment Due: Ferraro, Chapters 16
“Barbie’s Taiwanese Homecoming: A Plastic,
Fantastic Tale of Globalization”
Video: ATrinkets and [email protected]
In-Class Exercise: Cultural Rights and Human Rights
Case Study: Saudi Arabia
4/28
3
4/30
Applying Anthropology
Reading Assignment Due: Ferraro, Chapter 3
Writing Assignment Due:
Applied Perspective
In-Class Exercise: Today’s News (Bring News Examples to Class)
5/5-7
Pre-Finals Week
Exam Review
5/12
EXAM
1:30-3:30 PM
PROCEDURES AND POLICIES
Grading Procedure: Grades in this course will be based on four field assignment written
reports, two major exams, one writing assignment, and class participation.
Three Field Assignments at 50 pts each
Midterm Exam
Two Writing Assignments at 50 pts each
Final Exam
Class Participation
Total
150 pts
100 pts
100 pts
100 pts
50 pts
500 pts
Students are expected to complete the reading assignments listed for each day prior to that day's
class and to come to class prepared to discuss the reading assignments to be covered that day.
For articles with discussion questions in this study guide, students should be prepared to answer
all the questions in class. Professor will call on students to answer the questions. Ability to
answer the questions will figure in the Class Participation points.
Final Grades will be determined as follows:
100-90% of pt total =
A
89-80% of pt total =
B
79-70% of pt total =
C
60-60% of pt total =
D
59% and below
=
F
Attendance: Attendance is mandatory. Students who miss 5 classes will have their grade
dropped one letter grade.
Other Information: Professor's Office: Chilton 330; Tel: 940/565-3443;
e-mail: [email protected] Office Hours: Tuesday, Thursday 1:00-2:00.
Students will be notified in class of any changes in the information given above.
Anthropology does not discriminate on the basis of an individual's disability as required by the
Americans with Disabilities Act. The program provides academic adjustments and aids to
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individuals with disabilities in its programs and activities.
5
FIELD ASSIGNMENTS
1. Symbols
Due: 2/12
Spend one hour walking the North Texas campus and listing all symbols you see and the number
of times you see each symbol.
Type up this list of symbols with the frequency. Explain briefly the meaning of each symbol
which you understand.
Turn in your field notes from your walk and your typed list and explanations.
2. Ritual
Due: 3/5
Attend a ritual which is unfamiliar to you. If possible, take notes during the ritual. If note taking
is inappropriate, then make notes immediately after leaving the ritual. Write up your experience
in the following way.
Name of the Ritual
Place, Date and Time of Day
Description of the Ritual:
Estimate number of people present, number of males, females, children
Describe the actions, music or other [email protected] if any.
Describe the symbols used and explain, if you can, their meaning.
Explain if there are ways in which this ritual is marked off in time and or in space.
Length of typed, written report: one to three pages
Turn in your field notes about the ritual and your typed report.
3. Kinship
Due: 3/26
Make a kinship chart for your family including as many relatives as you know from memory.
Interview another person about their family and make a chart for that person=s family as well.
Explain in one typed page the ways in which the two charts are similar and different.
Turn in the two charts and your one-page explanation.
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WRITING ASSIGNMENTS
1. Fitting the Pieces Together: Cultural Integration among the Nandi
Due: 4/14
Read Nandi: From Cattle-Keepers to Cash-Crop Farmers
The point of this exercise is to work out all the ways in which the characteristics of a culture are
integrated with each other.
In the figure on the following two pages you see 8 circles each labeled with one of the topics of
culture we have studied. In each circle, write a list of all the characteristics of Nandi culture
which fit under the topic. To simplify things, use the characteristics of the culture at the time
Oboler studied the Nandi. After you have written all the lists, draw lines between integrated
characteristics which are in different circles. For example, in the circle labeled [email protected]
you may write Acattle [email protected] and in the circle labeled AMarriage and Household [email protected]
you may write Abridewealth in cattle, sheep and [email protected] The subsistence strategy of cattle
herding is integrated with the bridewealth gift in cattle and so you will draw a line connecting
cattle herding in the [email protected] circle with bridewealth in the AMarriage and Household
[email protected] circle. Some characteristics may seem to fit equally well in more than one circle. In
this case, you may either list them in both circles and draw a line connecting them, or you may
list them in one circle and draw a line to the other relevant circle(s). Write a two page, typed
report explaining the connections. Tear out the two pages with the figure from this Study Guide
and turn them in with the report.
2. Applied Perspective
Due: 4/30
Choose two of the AApplied [email protected] boxed inserts found in your textbook (Cultural
Anthropology: An Applied Perspective by G. Ferraro). These can be from any chapter in the
book but the two should be from different chapters. Do the following for each: In one
paragraph, summarize the example. Then answer the Aquestions for further [email protected] found at
the end of the boxed insert. Total assignment length: four pages.
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8
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CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR ARTICLES
Body Ritual Among the Nacirema
1. Describe the magic-ridden practices of the Nacirema people.
2. What appears to be the most important focus of this culture?
3. What is the point Miner is making in this article?
Understanding Eskimo Science
1. What is Nelson=s background and how did he gain knowledge of the Koyukon Indians and
the Inupiaq Eskimos?
2. What are Nelson=s main points? Do you agree or disagree with him?
3. What traditional Koyukon and Inupiaq practices do you find contrary to values professed in
your society? How are they important to survival?
4. Is there a difference in how the Inupiaq and Koyukon (as described by Nelson) and people in
your society experience nature? What is the difference?
5. Compare western and Eskimo science.
Too Many Bananas, Not Enough Pineapples, and No Watermelon at All: Three Object
Lessons in Living with Reciprocity
1. What is Counts= background and how did he gain knowledge about the Kaliai people?
2. What are the three lessons he learned?
3. What do you learn from this about reciprocity?
Rituals of Death
1. What are Purdum and Paredes= backgrounds and how did they gain knowledge of death
rituals among the Aztec and in Florida?
2. How are the death rituals among the Aztec and the Floridians similar and different?
3. In what way are the explanations for Aztec death ritual and for Florida death ritual
nonrational?
4. What do the authors consider to be the scientific explanations for the death rituals among the
Aztec? Among the Floridians?
5. What are the main points the authors are making in this article?
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When Brothers Share a Wife
1. What is Goldstein=s background and how did he gain knowledge of Tibetan marriage
practices?
2. What is fraternal polyandry? How are husbands and wives expected to treat each other?
3. Why do Tibetans practice fraternal polyandry?
4. Fraternal polyandry functions similarly to what western inheritance practice? What are the
advantages/disadvantages of each?
5. What underlying values about marriage are different for the Tibetans practicing fraternal
polyandry from the values about marriage in your society?
Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit
1. What is Silko=s background and how did she gain knowledge about the cultural ways she
describes?
2. How did the beliefs of the old-time people compare with the beliefs of modern times?
3. How was beauty manifested in the old time Pueblo world? How was health manifested?
4. How was difference celebrated? Give an example?
5. What would be the reaction to attempts to keep young looking or to have cosmetic surgery?
6. What values of the Pueblo world did you learn from this article?
Barbie’s Taiwanese Homecoming: A Plastic, Fantastic Tale of Globalization
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Why did Matel locate a factory in Taishan?
What kinds of jobs did the town’s inhabitants perform for Matel?
What do the inhabitants describe as the benefits of Matel’s presence?
Why did Matel close its factory in Taishan?
What are the inhabitants doing now to continue to capitalize on the Matel experience?
How do the inhabitants of Taishan exhibit “agency?”
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STUDY OUTLINE
11
INTRODUCTION: THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
ANTHROPOLOGY=S BEGINNINGS: A SOCIAL SCIENCE
WHAT ANTHROPOLOGY BRINGS TO THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
1. HOLISM
2. COMPARATIVISM
3. RELATIVISM
4. TIME DEPTH
5. IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL BODY
CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY
1. CONCEPT OF CULTURE
2. DATA ABOUT NON-WESTERN SOCIETIES
3. SEPARATION OF BIOLOGY AND CULTURE IN UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY
4. AWARENESS OF CULTURAL SENSITIVITY AND CULTURAL RELATIVISM
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THE MEANING OF CULTURE
DEFINITION OF CULTURE:
AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF LEARNED PATTERNS OF BELIEF, BEHAVIOR AND
ARTIFACTS CHARACTERISTIC OF A SOCIETY
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
1. ADAPTIVE
2. LEARNED
3. SHARED
4. SYMBOLIC
5. INTEGRATED
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
SUBSISTENCE
RELIGION
ECONOMIC SYSTEM
POLITICAL SYSTEM
LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION
SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND KINSHIP
ART
ESSENTIAL CULTURAL SKILLS FOR ANTHROPOLOGISTS
ETHNOCENTRISM
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
13
SYMBOLS
DEFINITIONS:
EXAMPLES:
1. FOOD
2. SPACIAL ARRANGEMENTS
3. THE HUMAN BODY AS SOCIAL GROUPING
4. SPORTS
14
FIELDWORK
1.
ANTHROPOLOGY AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE
2.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
$
HYPOTHESIS
$
RESEARCH DESIGN
$
COLLECT DATA
$
ANALYZE DATA
$
ACCEPT OR REJECT HYPOTHESIS
VALIDITY
RELIABILITY
REPLICATION
3.
THE FIELD SITUATION AND THE USES OF QUALITATIVE METHOD VERSUS
QUANTITATIVE METHOD
4.
TECHNIQUES OF THE QUALITATIVE METHOD
$
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
DON=T ASSUME ANYTHING
RECORD THE SETTING
LOOK FOR PATTERNS
ETHNOGRAPHIC CENSUS TAKING
IMPORTANCE OF TIME, DATE AND CYCLE OF BEHAVIOR
$
INTERVIEWS
DON=T ASSUME ANYTHING
DON=T ASK LEADING QUESTIONS
15
ADAPTATION: ENVIRONMENT, SUBSISTENCE AND CULTURES
SUBSISTENCE SYSTEMS
I. HUNTERS AND GATHERERS
CHARACTERISTICS:
1. FLEXIBLE CAMPS
2. GATHERING MORE IMPORTANT THAN HUNTING, UNLESS QUITE FAR NORTH
3. LOTS LEISURE TIME
4. GOOD DIET (LOTS PROTEIN AN D CALORIES)
5. FAMILISTIC ETHIC
6. NOT AGGRESSIVE OR TERRITORIAL
7. POPULATION STABILIZES BELOW THE MAX THE ENVIRONMENT CAN SUPPORT
8. NO FORMAL LEADERSHIP / LEADERSHIP IS USUALLY CHARISMATIC AND BASED ON
AGE
9. INFORMAL SANCTIONS TO ENFORCE MORAL BEHAVIOR -
SAHLINS= TWO WORLD VIEWS:
GALBRAITHIAN:
ZEN:
16
II. HORTICULTURALISTS/AGRICULTURALISTS
SLASH AND BURN (SWIDDEN)
IRRIGATED TERRACING
HOE FARMING
EUROPEAN MIXED FARMING
17
III. PASTORALISTS
DEFINITION OF PASTORALISTS
HOW H/G BECOME PASTORALISTS: REINDEER DOMESTICATION OF SIBERIA
CHARACTERISTICS:
1. ANIMALS EVEN MORE IMPORTANT IDEOLOGICALLY THAN IN REALITY
2. MORE WEALTH DIFFERENTIATION THAN AMONG H/G
3. RARELY ECONOMICALLY SUFFICIENT
4. PATRILINEAL
5. TRANSHUMANTS
6. EFFICIENT, SKILLED RAIDERS
7. EMOTIONAL COMMITMENT TO ANIMALS
8. CARE OF ANIMALS IN HANDS OF YOUNG BOYS
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IV. INDUSTRIALISTS
V. POST-INDUSTRIALISTS
19
EXCHANGE AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
1. POLANYI'S ECONOMIC TYPES
1. RECIPROCITY
2. REDISTRIBUTION
3. EXCHANGE
2. SAHLINS’ ECONOMIC CONTINUUM
I------------------------------I-------------------------------I
GENERAL
BALANCED
NEGATIVE
RECIPROCITY
RECIPROCITY
RECIPROCITY
20
RELIGION AND THE SUPERNATURAL
I. UNIVERSAL COMPONENTS OF RELIGION
1. BELIEF
2. RITUAL
3. ETHICS
II. FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
1. MALINOWSKI'S
2. RADCLIFFE-BROWN AND DURKHEIM'S
III. TYPES OF MAGIC
1. CONTAGIOUS
2. SYMPATHETIC
IV DEFINITIONS
SHAMANISM
PRIESTHOOD
21
DOMESTIC LIFE: MARRIAGE AND HOUSEHOLD PATTERNS
AND
KINSHIP
I. UNIVERSAL INCEST TABOO
II. FUNCTIONS OF THE MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY
1. SOCIALIZATION OF CHILDREN
2. ECONOMIC COOPERATION
3. REPRODUCTION
4. IDENTIFICATION OF KINSHIP POSITION IN THE FAMILY AND NAME
IDENTIFICATION IN SOCIETY
III. TERMINOLOGY
A. TERMS DESCRIBING TYPES OF DESCENT OR KINSHIP RELATIONSHIPS
BILATERAL DESCENT
UNILINEAL DESCENT
PATRILINEAL DESCENT
MATRILINEAL DESCENT
CROSS COUSIN
PARALLEL COUSIN
22
B. TERMS DESCRIBING TYPES OF MARRIAGE PATTERNS OR MARRIAGE RULES
NEOLOCAL MARRIAGE PATTERN
NATOLOCAL MARRIAGE PATTERN
PATRILOCAL MARRIAGE PATTERN
MATRILOCAL MARRIAGE PATTERN
ENDOGAMY
EXOGAMY
BRIDE PRICE
DOWRY
LEVIRATE
SORORATE
C. TERMS DESCRIBING FAMILY OR MARRIAGE TYPES
NUCLEAR FAMILY TYPE
EXTENDED FAMILY TYPE
MONOGAMY MARRIAGE TYPE
POLYGAMY MARRIAGE TYPE
POLYGYNY MARRIAGE TYPE
POLYANDRY MARRIAGE TYPE
D. KIN TERM TYPES
23
GENDER
I. BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES VERSUS GENDER DIFFERENCES
II. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
III. DIVISION OF LABOR AND WORK PATTERNS
AGTA OF THE PHILIPPINES
TCHAMBULI OF NEW GUINEA
TODA OF INDIA
IV. POLITICS AND WARFARE
IROQUOIS OF NORTH AMERICA
MENDE OF SIERRA LEONE
V. STATUS
MBUTI OF CENTRAL AFRICA
IROQUOIS
VI. HOMOSEXUALITY
LEPCHA OF THE HIMALAYAS
SIWAN OF NORTH AFRICA
ETORO OF NEW GUINEA
24
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
TYPES OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS
1. BAND
2. TRIBE
3. CHIEFDOM
4. STATE
SOCIAL CONTROL
1. INTERNALIZED
2. EXTERNALIZED
25
REVISITING THE MEANING OF CULTURE
PART 1: CULTURE AS A HOLISTIC, INTEGRATED SYSTEM
COMMONLY FOUND SYSTEMS
SUBSISTENCE
ECONOMIC
ORG.
POLITICAL
ORG.
KINSHIP
RELIGION
HUNTER/
GATHERERS
RECIPROCITY
BAND
EGALITARIAN
DECENTRALIZED
BILATERAL
UNILINEAL
SHAMANISM
HORTICULTURALISTS
RECIPROCITY
TRIBE
HEADMAN/
ADVISOR
DECENTRALIZED
UNILINEAL
SHAMANISM
HORTICULTURALISTS
REDISTRIBUTION
CHIEFDOM
RANKED
CENTRALIZED
UNILINEAL
SHAMANISM
OR
PRIEST-HOOD
PASTORAL-ISTS
RECIPROCITY
TRIBE
HEADMAN/
ADVISOR
DECENTRALIZED
UNILINEAL
PRIEST-HOOD
AGRICULTURE
MARKET
EXCHANGE
STATE
STRATIFIED
CENTRALIZED
VARIES
PRIEST-HOOD
INDUSTRIAL/
POST-INDUST.
MARKET
EXCHANGE
STATE
STRATIFIED
CENTRALIZED
VARIES
PRIEST-HOOD
PART 2: CULTURE FALLS APART: MIXED SALAD OR MELTING POT
YOUR CULTURAL FINGERPRINT
26
CULTURE CHANGE AND GLOBALIZATION
WHAT WE KNOW FROM CULTURE CHANGE
1. INVENTIONS / INNOVATIONS
2. DIFFUSION
3. ACCULTURATION
4. LINKED CHANGES
ISSUES OF CULTURAL CHANGE
1. OBSTACLES TO CULTURAL CHANGE
2. CULTURAL SURVIVAL OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
3. URBANIZATION AND CHANGE
27
GLOBALIZATION AND WORLD CULTURES
EXAMPLE: THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
TRADITIONAL CULTURE
RELIGION AND VALUES
SUBSISTENCE
POLITICAL SYSTEM
MODERN CULTURE
RELIGION AND VALUES
SUBSITENCE
POLITICAL SYSTEM
MECHANISMS OF CULTURE CHANGE
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APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGY
DEFINITIONS
APPLIED VERSUS PURE ANTHROPOLOGY
APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
SPECIAL FEATURES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
1. PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION
2. HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE
3. REGIONAL EXPERTISE
4. EMIC VIEW
5. CULTURAL RELATIVISM
6. TOPICAL EXPERTISE
7. DRAWBACKS
SPECIALIZED ROLES OF APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS
EXAMPLES
29
READING ASSIGNMENTS: SELECTED ARTICLES
30
ANTHROPOLOGY
2250
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
SYLLABUS
ASSIGNMENTS
STUDY GUIDE
SELECTED READINGS
Spring, 2009
DR. ANN T. JORDAN
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Course Description, Goal and Objectives
1
Syllabus
2
Procedures and Policies
4
Field Assignments
5
Writing Assignments
6
Class Discussion Questions for Articles
9
Study Outline
11
Reading Assignments: Selected Articles
30
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