Essential Vocabulary Words 1. Speed- how fast an object is moving; speed = distance/time 2. Acceleration- change in speed or direction; acceleration = force/mass 3. Friction- force between 2 surfaces rubbing one another, slows down object and creates heat 4. Hypothesis- a prediction based upon prior knowledge 5. Energy Transfer- changing from one form of energy to another form 6. Potential energy- energy stored in objects 7. Kinetic energy- energy produced by motion 8. Proton- positively charged part of an atom 9. Neutron- neutral part of an atom 10. Electron- negatively charged part of an atom 11. Force- push or pull on an object 12. Balanced Force- forces acting on an object are equal, so the object does not move 13. Motion- movement or change in position over time 14. Newton’s 1st law of Motion- objects will not change motion unless a force act on the object (Law of Inertia) 15. Inertia- objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion remain in motion in a straight line unless a force acts on them. 16. Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion - when a force acts on an object the object will move in the direction of the force 17. Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion- every action has an equal and opposite reaction 18. Law of Conservation of Mass- total mass is the same before and after a physical or chemical change 19. Element- substance made of one type of atom 20. Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space 21. Mass- amount of matter in an object 22. Compound- atoms of more than one type of element chemically combined 23. Atom- building block of matter 24. Nucleus- positively charged center of an atom that contains the protons and neutrons 25. Molecule- two or more atoms held together by an attractive force 26. Conduction- transfer of heat by molecules bumping into one another 27. Convection- transfer of energy through the flow of material; heating, rising and cooling, sinking of material 28. Radiation- transfer of energy through waves 29. Mixture- two or more substance not chemically combined 30. Physical Property- characteristic you can see without changing the composition of a substance 31. Chemical property- characteristic that can only be seen by altering the substance 32. Physical change- form or appearance changes, but not the composition 33. Chemical change- substance is changed into a different substance by a chemical reaction 34. Density- amount of mass in a given space; density = mass/volume 35. Solubility- amount of substance that will dissolve in an amount of another substance at a given temperature 36. Climate- an area’s averaged weather conditions over time 37. Evaporation- when a liquid turns to a gas 38. Condensation- when a gas turns to a liquid 39. Precipitation- water falling from clouds 40. Abiotic factor- nonliving physical features of an environment including water, air, and temperature 41. Biotic factor- features of an environment that are alive or once alive 42. Rotation- spinning of Earth on its axis; takes 24 hours 43. Revolution- the Earth moving around the sun; takes 1 year 44. Solar Eclipse- when the Earth moves into the moon’s shadow 45. Lunar Eclipse- when the moon moves into the Earth’s shadow 46. Atmosphere- layer of air surrounding Earth 47. Asteroid- rocky objects in space 48. Comet- large body of ice and rock that travels around the sun 49. Gravity- attraction between objects 50. Tides- rise and fall of sea level due to the gravitational pull of the sun and moon 51. Asthenosphere- plastic like lower mantle of Earth 52. Lithosphere- crust and upper part of the mantle that is broken into plates 53. Plate Tectonics- theory that Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that move on the asthenosphere 54. Constructive forces- forces such as crustal deformation, faulting, volcanic eruptions and deposition of sediment that creates landforms 55. Destructive forces- forces such as weathering and erosion that changes landforms 56. Weathering- breaking down of rock by nature 57. Erosion- movement of rock and soil caused by water, wind, and ice 58. Fossil- hardened remains of organisms that give clues to Earth’s past 59. Crustal Deformation- bending and tilting of Earth’s crust 60. Faulting- breaking of rock formations 61. Deposition of Sediment- settling of sediments moved by erosion 62. Behavior- ways an organism interacts with other organisms and its environment 63. Stimulus- anything that causes a response 64. Adaptation- change in structure behavior or physiology that enhances the survival and reproductive success in a particular environment 65. Chromosome- structure in the nucleus of a cell that contains hereditary material 66. DNA- code store in the hereditary material that contains information about growth and function of the organism 67. Sexual Reproduction- when two sex cells come together to create a new organism. 68. Asexual reproduction- a new organism is produced by one parent; both the parent and offspring will be identical 69. Cell- basic unit of life 70. Tissue- group of similar cells doing same sort of work 71. Organ- different types of tissue working together 72. Organ System- a group of organs working together to do a job 73. Organism- any living thing 74. Eukaryotic cell- cell with membrane bound organelles 75. Prokaryotic cell- cell without membrane bound organelles 76. Genes- section of DNA found on a chromosome 77. Population- all animals of a species that live together in a particular place 78. Food Chain- flow of energy from one organism to another in a community 79. Ecosystem- all populations living together and the abiotic factors that affect them 80. Extinction- disappearance of a species 81. Species- group of similar organisms that can mate and reproduce 82. Mitosis- process of cell division where the nucleus divides and new cells are formed 83. Learned Trait- trait received from someone else 84. Innate behavior- response present from birth 85. Heredity- passing of characteristics from parents to offspring. 86. Global Warming- increase in the average global temperature of Earth 87. Greenhouse Effect- heat trapping feature of the atmosphere that occurs when certain gases in the atmosphere trap heat 88. Acid- substance that releases H+ ions and produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water 89. Base- substance that accepts H+ ions and produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water 90. pH- measure of how acidic or basic a solution is 91. Concentration- describes how much solute is present in a solution compared to the amount of solvent 92. Coriolis effect- causes moving air water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to the Earth's rotation 93. Astronomical unit- unit used to measure distances in the solar system; distance from Sun to Earth 94. Seafloor spreading- new seafloor is formed when magma is forced up toward the surface at a mid ocean ridge 95. Limiting factor- anything that can restrict the size of a population 96. Carrying capacity- largest number of individuals of a particular species that an ecosystem can support over time 97. Mutation- any permanent change in a gene or a chromosome of a cell 98. Symbiosis- any close relationship between species, includes mutualism, commensalism and parasitism 99. Continental drift- hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large landmass that broke apart about 200 million years ago and drifted to their current locations 100. Energy- the ability to cause change 101. Weather- state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place 102. Ozone layer- layer in the stratosphere that blocks most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation 103. Isotope- variants of atoms of a particular chemical element, which have differing numbers of neutrons 104. Dominant trait- a trait that covers over, or dominate another form of the trait 105. Recessive trait- trait that is covered over, or dominated by another form of that trait and seems to disappear 106. Variable – the part of the experiment that the scientists changes or the scientist causes to change 107. Independent Variable - the variable you change, on purpose, in the experiment 108. Dependent Variable - the response to the independent variable. he thing that changes as a result of the change of independent variable 109. Control - the group, or experimental subject, which does not receive the independent variable 110. Constants - conditions that remain the same in the experiment.