OGT Benchmark: Explain the social, political, and economic effects

OGT Benchmark: Explain the
social, political, and economic
effects of industrialization.
effects of industrialization
on the farm
the growth of cities
industrialization and the rise of the modern
• the rise of labor unions
• reform movements: Populism and Progressivism
This benchmark focuses on the effects of industrialization in the United States after
1877. In the course of leaning about industrialization, you will also encounter its
causes. Understanding the causes of industrialization will help you remember the
effects. For the purposes of the OGT, however, knowing the effects (results) of
industrialization will help you be successful.
For this benchmark, effects of industrialization in the 19th century (1877-1900)
include changes in work and the workplace, the impact of immigration and child
labor, modernization of agriculture, urbanization, and the growth of the middle class
and its effect on cultural life. Economic and political effects of industrialization in
both the 19th and 20th centuries include the development of corporations, laissezfaire economic policies, monopolies, changes in the standard of living , and the
growth of labor unions.
Reform movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were another response
to industrialization, especially the Populists and the Progressives. The goals and
achievements of these reform movements also are part of the story of
industrialization in the US. They include urban reforms, the conservation
movement, business regulation and antitrust legislation, the public school
movement, and the regulation of child labor.
Percent of World
Production in 1913
Percent of World
Production in 1870
Great Britain
United States
Rest of World
I. Effects of Industrialization
During the 19th Century
• Q: What is Industrialization?
• A: When workers and immigrants from other
countries moved into urban areas (cities) and began
to work in the factories. This began in the US in the
• *During the years after the Civil War, people began to
move to the cities.
1850ʼs: 1 in 5 people lived in the city
1915: half of all people lived in the city
Effect #1: Cities grew
1. Farmers move to the city
a. Find jobs
b. Have better lives
2. Immigrants come to the cities
a. Most immigrants settled in the city
b. Settled together in the cities
3. This created many problems
a. overcrowding
b. poor housing
c. poor sanitation/dirty
d. rise in crime
Rural and Urban U.S. Population,
1860, 1900, 1920
% Rural
% Urban
Effect #2: US economy became the best
1. immigrants worked AND bought stuff
2. improvements in transportation and
3. better technology: machines
4. new business processes: modern
5. tariffs
Effect #3 Work and the Workplace
 1. Before IR: small business. Everyone knew
each other
 2. During IR: large factories. Many people
operated machines
 3. Working conditions
 a.
 b.
 c.
 d.
low pay, long hours, unsafe conditions
fierce competition for jobs (immigrants, child labor
no unemployment or disability
Effect #4 Living Conditions
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
housing: tenement houses
no or poor sewers/water
dirty and diseases spread
high crime
• Effect #5: Working Conditions
1. low pay
2. dangerous machines
3. dark and dangerous factories
4. little or no benefits
5. no worker’s compensation
6. Women and Child Workers
– a. women
• increased
• had to work to make end’s meat
• made 1/2 of what men made
– b.
worked for less money
dangerous conditions
child labor laws passed (ignored at first)
1. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the
following was not an effect of the Industrial Revolution?
• A. An increasing number of people worked on family
• B. An increasing number of people lived in cities
• C. An increasing number of people worked in factories
• D. An increasing number of people left the family farms
2. OGT Multiple Choice
• (Base Test March 2005) In the late 19th and early
20th centuries, improvements in steel technology
allowed architects to design buildings taller than
had previously been possible. As a result,
skyscrapers began to be built in cities such as
New York and Chicago.
• What was the result of this new technology on
population patterns in the United States in the
first half of the 20th century?
• A. decreased growth of suburban areas
• B. migration from the West to the Midwest
• C. increased migration from urban to rural areas
• D. greater population density in urban areas
3. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (2005 Practice Test) What factor
contributed to the migration of large numbers of
people from Europe to the United States in the late
19th century?
• A. Economic prosperity in Europe allowed people
to purchase land in the United States
• B. Industrialization in the United States attracted
laborers from Europe.
• C. European social reform movements wanted to
spread their beliefs to the United States.
• D. The United States needed people to colonize
the overseas territories it had recently acquired.
4. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (2005 Practice Test) In the late 19th and early 20th
centuries, many immigrants who came to the United States
did not speak English as their native language. One way
this resulted in the exchange of cultural practices was that
• A. words from other languages entered into the
mainstream vocabulary
• B. people from other countries tended to remain culturally
• C. people without knowledge of English were not allowed
to immigrate
• D. most people were able to speak several languages
5. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the
following best explains the impact immigration has had
on the American diet?
• A. Fast food restaurants have sprung up all over the
United States
• B. There is great variety of types of restaurants serving
ethnic foods
• C. There are very few choices of different ethnic foods in
• D. Americans eat the same food almost everyday
6. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Base Test March 2005) One effect of
industrialization in the United States in the late
19th century was
• A. a decrease in immigration to the United States
• B. an increase in demand for handicraft goods
• C. a decrease in child labor
• D. an increase in urbanization
7. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____(Practice Test Booklet, 2005) The
consequences of urbanization often include all of
the following EXCEPT
• A. increased pollution of air and water
• B. more people living in crowded conditions
• C. more people farming
• D. more jobs in factories and businesses
8. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Immigration
impacts language in the United States because it
• A. causes the official language to change with each
new immigrant culture
• B. results in English speaking people resisting new
• C. infuses new words into the language
• D. maintains the current language without change
OGT Extended Response
• How did industrialization in the United States affect
family life? In what ways would working in a
factory in the 1880ʼs compare to working in a
factory today?
II. On the Farm
Technology: modernized the farms
1. Railroads
A. Transport goods
B. Transcontinental--1869
C. By 1900, several transcontinental RR’s
D. 1880: 93,000 miles of track
E. 1900: 193,000 miles of track
• 2.
New Invention Help Farmers
1875--refrigerated railroad cars
McCormick reaper
steel-tipped plow
combines (reap, thresh, and clean grain)
– ***All of these allowed farmers to grow
more crops with less labor in a short
period of time. Food could also be
transported all over the country!
The McCormick Reaper
• Let’s look at this video on new inventions
during the Industrial Revolution
• Length is 4:11
OGT Extended Response
• The Industrial Revolution
brought about major changes
not only in cities, but in rural
America as well. Explain two
ways farming changed as a
result of the Industrial
Revolution. (4 points)
OGT Extended Response
• How did agricultural tools
and machines invented in the
19th century make it possible
for American cities to grow
rapidly in the late 1800ʼs. (4
1900: 40% lived in urban areas
1915: 50%
1920: over 50% in cities (1st time ever!)
Where did they come from?
1. immigrants
2. the farms
3. African-Americans from the south (Jim Crow laws)
A. Urban Problems
1. Tenement houses
a. Hold as many families as possible
b. Poor immigrants lived there
c. Bad conditions
2. Dirt, disease, and crime
a. Bad plumbing: flies and germs
b. No bathtubs with running water
c. Tuberculosis was common
d. “Murdererʼs Alley” and “Misery Lane”
Let’s look at a video clip from United
Streaming on Getting Out of the Slums:
Immigrants Turning to a Life of Crime
This clip is 3:39 in length.
• middle class grew
• more office workers needed (office workers =
white collar; factory workers = blue collar)
• engineers and
salesmen needed
• standard of living
• enjoyed sports, theater,
newspapers in free time
OGT Extended Response
• Explain four effects of industrialization on living
and working conditions for the early industrial
working class in the United States in the late 19th
century. (4 points)
1. OGT Multiple Choice
• (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Industrialization in the United
States resulted in
• A. the country becoming more urban than rural
• B. workers seeing no need to unite to form labor unions
• C. the transformation from an urban to an agrarian society
• D. politics not being affected by the economic changes
2. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the
following statements best reflects housing
patterns for immigrants soon after their arrival to
the United States?
• A. They tended to assimilate quickly into the
existing communities
• B. They tended to spread out quickly into many
different communities
• C. They tended to congregate into their own
• D. They tended to leave the United States soon
after arriving
3. OGT Multiple Choice
_____ (Base Test March 2005) Consider the following changes
that occurred in the United States in the late 19th Century:
•Improvements in agricultural production
•Increases in immigration from Europe
•Advancements in networks of railroad and streetcar lines
These changes led to the
A. rapid growth of urban areas
B. acquisition of overseas territories
C. elimination of large suburbs around many cities
D. movement of people from the urban to the rural areas
IV. Industrialization and the Rise
of the Modern Corporation
• Q: What is a corporation?.
• A: New businesses needed money (capital) to start
up. A corporation was one way to get that capital.
Corporations sell shares of their business, called
stock, to the public. If the company does well,
stockholders earn a profit.
• Examples: railroads, Standard Oil, General Electric
A. Corporations
• 1. RR 1st to form corporations
• 2. many others followed
– Ex: Standard Oil, McCormick Company, and
General Electric
B. Businesses compete
• Business leaders looked for ways to make more
– A. wanted less competition
– B. Examples: Oil, coal, and steel industries
• 1. Create monopoly or trusts (no competition)
–combined many small companies into 1
large company = less competition = charge
higher prices = more $$$$$$$$$
B. Examples of Monopolies
1. J. Pierpont Morgan
• A great organizer
• Bought many
businesses, including
Carnegie Steel
• Controlled many RR’s
• Worth billions
• Banking mogul
2. Andrew Carnegie
• Childhood
A. Poor
B. Educated himself
C. Became
• Steel monopoly
• Gave a lot away
A. Colleges
B. Libraries
• Pittsburgh
3. John D. Rockefeller sets up
the Standard Oil Company
A. ambitious
B. great organizer
C. Cleveland
1. great place to start oil
a. by a lake
b. many railroads
Rockefeller continued….
• Bought oil refineries
1. 1st in Cleveland
2. bought others in
other areas
D. Laissez-Faire Policies
• Q: What is laissez-faire?
• A: The government allows the people to do as they choose
• Laissez-faire allowed for:
– 1. no gov. regulation of business
– 2. wages and working conditions were unregulated
– 3. no environmental regulations to control pollution
– 4. allowed for the rise of monopolies
Do You Agree With Laissez-Faire???
• Pros
• Gov. can’t tell owner
what to do
• Business owner would
make more money
• Cons
• Gov. could shut business
down if they did bad
things (unsafe, pollution,
• have to make business
• better working conditions
(higher pay, shorter hours,
insurance, etc)
Write a position paper for or against laissez-faire.
OGT Short Answer
• Why did corporations favor laissez-faire
• Industrialization raised the standard of living for
a entreprenuers (business owners)
b. the middle class
c. managers
d. many new inventions (United Streaming Video)
– What about blue- collar workers??
1. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Blue Book, 2005) Laissez-faire
theory argued that
• A. poverty was nautral and unavoidable
• B. corporations required regulation
• C. government intervention was
• D. the market was self-regulating
OGT Extended Response
• During the industrial era of the late 1800’s in the
United States, monopolies began to grow. A
monopoly means there is no competition in a
given business.
• •List 2 men during this era who had a monopoly
and describe their business. (2 pts)
• •Do you believe monopolies were good or bad for
the American economy?
• Describe your answer. (2 pts)
V. The Rise of Labor Unions
A labor union is workers who join together to get
better conditions and more money.
1. Workers Unite to Improve Working Conditions
a. unsafe conditions
b. low pay
c. long hours
d. child labor
2. Owners resisted the unions
a. violence
• 3. Strikes
a. The Power of the Strike--a strike is when
workers refuse to work.
• b. They do not get paid, but the company also does
not make any money.
• c. The company could hire strikebreakers--they
were hired to take the place of the striking workers.
Fights would often break out between the workers
and the strikebreakers.
4. The First Unions
A. The Knights of Labor
1. began in 1869 by Uriah Stephens
2. It started off small, but then grew
3. Terrence V. Powderly became the leader--memberhsip
4. This union included any worker who wanted to be in it.
5. This union grew to over 700,000 members.
The American Federation of Labor
1. started in 1886 by Samuel Gompers.
2. for skilled workers only
a. Skilled workers were carpenters, bricklayers, etc.
*Both wanted better pay and working conditions for its members!
5. Haymarket Riots
A. The Haymarket Square Bombing
-80,000 workers went on strike
-Fights broke out
-police were called in.
-police killed a couple of the strikers.
-someone threw a bomb into the crowd and others were
-Many people blamed the Knights of Labor for this.
-Membership in unions declined after this riot.
AF of L
1. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005)
During the late 1800ʼs and early
1900ʼs, labor unions in the United
States have been interested in all of
the following EXCEPT
• A. higher wages
• B. longer work week
• C. safer working conditions
• D. shorter work week
OGT Extended Response
• Analyze reasons for the rise and growth of
labor organizations (Knights of Labor,
American Federation of Labor) in the
United States. (4 pts)
OGT Extended Response
•What are two things workers
must do to make a strike
successful? (2 points)
•In your opinion, are unions
good? Why or why not? (2
IV. Reform Movements:
Populism and Progressivism
• Q: What is reform?
• A: Reform means to make changes for the
• During the IR, Many people believed there
were corrupt things going on. Those who tried
to change these evils were known as
• Reformers usually joined either the Populist
Party or the Progressive Party.
A. Populists
• 1. Populism was mostly an agrarian movement
• 2. wanted gov. to take over railroad
• b. RR owners made prices too high for farmers to ship goods
• 3. prices were too low--overproduction due
to new technology
• 4. *Populists want gov. help for farmers!
B. The Granger Movement
The farmersʼ revolt
During Civil War, farmers prospered. Now, a
bushel of wheat sold for 49 cents (used to sell at $1.21
during Civil War) Other prices went down. Farmers
were poor and many lost their farms.
*Farmers formed the “Granges”
A. national farm organization
B. similar to labor unions
C. wanted help from the government to get
them out of debt
At meeting halls, like this one near Murphysboro,
Grange members gathered to plan improvements for
the agriculture industry
C. Farmers’ Alliance
By 1890’s Grangers declined, Farmers’ Alliance
takes over.
1.5 million members
became more political
wanted strict regulation of RR’s
policy to allow farmers to easily pay debt
low interest loans for farmers
government-ran storage facilities
D. The Progressive Movement
• The Progressive Movement was an urban,
middle-class reaction to social and
economic dislocations fostered by the
growth of the United States as an industrial
E. Progressive Reformers
• 1. fight business corruption
• 2. fight monopolies
– a. New laws would regulate big business
• 3. better living conditions
• 4. strengthen political system
– a. Voters will have more say in selecting candidates
• 5. Many people involved in progressive movement
F. Muckrakers
A. Journalists
1. Named by Teddy Roosevelt
2. They looked for corruption
3. They made up stories of corruption
4. Everybody read their stories
1. Lincoln Steffens
“Tweed Days in St. Louis”
a. misgovernment in the city
Shame of the Cities
He was a feared writer
• 2. Ida Tarbell
* She bashed John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
a. it ruined her fatherʼs business
• 3. Upton Sinclair--most famous muckraker
1. The Jungle
2. Exposed the Meat Packing Industry
• These writers got their message to everybody. Millions
bought newspapers and magazines to read the
muckrakersʼ stories. This led to even more REFORM!!!!
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
The Jungle
G. Government Reforms
A. Meat Inspection Act--gov. had right to inspect
1. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
B. Pure Food and Drug Act
1. manufacture and sale of impure foods, drugs,
and liquors was forbidden
C. Employersʼ Liability Act
1. provided accident insurance for railroad
D. Strengthen Interstate Commerce Commission
1.They would regulated RR
E. Newlands Reclamation Act
1. Money from sales of land in west would go
to build dams and canals
2. This allowed for dry areas to get water
F. Other state reforms
a. child-labor laws
b. workmenʼs compensation
c. insurance for sick, old, and disabled
d. minimum wages
e. By WWI, 26 states were “dry”
f. changed tax laws to heavily tax:
-the rich
-big businesses
G. Direct democracy and womenʼs suffrage
A. Australian ballot
1. Secret ballot
2. Used to help stop political bosses
B. Direct primary
1. Mississippi and Wisconsin used it first (1902)
2. Each party candidates voted by people
C. Seventeenth Amendment
1. Direct election of Senators
a. no longer by state legislatures
b. no longer “Rich Manʼs Club”
D. Initiative
1. the people can start a bill
2. takes 5 to 8%
E. Referendum
1. a direct vote from the people to make a new
law or change an old law
F. Recall
1. the people could replace an elected official
Example: 2003 California used the recall to replace the governor (Gray Davis) with Arnold
G. Womenʼs suffrage (19th amendment finally in 1920)
1. Progressives believed women would help
2. 1896: 4 states
1914: 7 more states
H. Child Labor Legislation
• Progressives want gov. to regulate
• 1916: Keating-Owen Act--set age limits
• 1938: Fair Labor Standards Act--set up
even more strict child labor regulations
• Progressives were able to fix many of the
evils going on during the Industrial
1. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____(Base Test March 2005) The 1890 U.S.
Census led some people to conclude that there
was no longer a frontier line in the West. Early in
the 20th century, President Theodore Roosevelt
advocated the conservation of the nationʼs
natural resources. These events signaled a
change in how people perceived
• A. urban areas
• B. farmland
• C. wilderness areas
• D. centers of industry and technology
2. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Blue Book, 2005) Which of the
following groups favored a civil service system?
• A. Progressives
• B. immigrants
• C. political machine bosses
• D. railroad owners
3. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (2005 Practice Test) Progressive reformers after
1900 sought to regulate working conditions and to set a
minimum age for child labor. The need for this legislation
was prompted by
• A. Civil War casualties leading to children taking the jobs
of others
• B. unions restricting membership to adult workers
• C. industrialists using child labor to keep production costs
• D. lack of job opportunities for children seeking afterschool jobs
4. OGT Multiple Choice
_____ (2005 Practice Test) In 1872, as part of a state-bystate campaign for womenʼs suffrage, Susan B. Anthony
knowingly and deliberately violated New York state law by
casting a ballot in the presidential election. She was tried,
found guilty, and ordered to pay a fine.
What was the purpose of Susan B. Anthonyʼs act of civil
A. to gain support for a particular candidate
B. to use propaganda to influence public opinion
C. to call attention to a perceived injustice
D. to show that unjust laws could not be enforced
5. OGT Multiple Choice
______ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) In the late
19th century, farmers in the United States
responded to the changing economy in which of
the following political movements?
A. Civil Rights
B. Abolitionist
C. Populist
D. Progressive
6. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (2005 Practice Test) How did the U.S.
Constitution change as a result of the
ratification of the 19th Amendment?
• A. The right of suffrage was extended to
• B. Freedom of assembly was restricted
• C. The power of government decreased
• D. Freedom of the press was strengthened
7. OGT Multiple Choice
_____ (Base Test March 2005) During the
Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century,
farmers in the United States worked to increase
their land holdings and modernize their
equipment. A lasting effect of these changes was
A. higher prices for crops
B. increased rural population density
C. a shortage of land for farming
D. greater productivity of farming
8. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Blue Book, 2005) The Progressive movement
is best defined as
• A. an organized political party with a clear-cut set of
• B. an idea that favored government reforem of
social abuses
• C. pro business and antiunion
• D. made up mostly of minorities and labor unoin
9. OGT Multiple Choice
• _____ (Blue Book, 2005) The Populist Party program
• A. was so impractical that none of it was ever enacted
• B. wanted to prohibit government intervention in the
• C. Favored laissez-faire policies to help corporations
• D. favored government regulation of railroads
• This concludes our unit on Industrialization.
Next, we will look at the United States and