Lung

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OF TAIWANESE EDEMIC DEER
29-35,ANATOMY
2009
台灣獸醫誌 Taiwan Vet J 35 (1):LUNG
29
The Bronchial Tree and Lobular Division of the Formosan
) Lung
Reeve’s muntjac (
1
Albert Taiching LIAO, 2 Ming-Huang CHANF, Chau-Hwa CHI, *1 Tzong-Fu KUO
1
2
(Received: November 5, 2008. Accepted: January 7, 2009)
st
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[Liao AT, Chang MH, Chi
CH and *Kuo TF. The Bronchial Tree and Lobular Division of the Formosan Reeve’s muntjac (Muntiacus
Reevesi Microcurus) Lung. Taiwan Vet J 35 (1): 29-35, 2009. *Corresponding author TEL: 886-2-3366-1295,
FAX:886-2-223-6483, E-mail: [email protected]]
INTRODUCTION
The comparative anatomical study of the lung
was commenced by Aeby who examined numerous
mammal lungs including human [1]. He originally
classified the bronchioles into the epiarterial and hypoarterial bronchioles according to the passing position of the pulmonary artery. Since human left lung
don’t have epiarterial bronchiole, he rather classified
the bronchioles into the dorsal and ventral bronchiole
systems. Another study by examining numerous mammalian lungs identified that the bronchioles from the
upper and middle lobe were united in the left lung before them joins the trachea [3]. In the middle of 20
century, Jackson and Huber divided the human lung
into ten pulmonary segments on each side for the con-
30
Albert Taiching LIAO et al
venience of surgery [4].
The lobulation of animal lung was well established by Ellenberger and Baum since 1932 [2]. The left
lung of domestic animal was divided into the apical,
cardiac, diaphragmatic and intermediate lobes, except
for the horses. However, the lobulation of the left lung
was challenged by other authors later. Seiferle pointed
out that the left cardiac lobe identified by Ellengberger
et al. should be part of the apical lobe [12]. Therefore,
the interpretations for the lobulation of left lung are
quite different among authors.
To establish the fundamental structure of the
bronchial ramifications for mammalian lungs, Nakakuki examined 26 species of mammalian lungs, including the human lung [7,8,9,10,11]. He concluded
that the dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial bronchioles
arose respectively from the dorsal, lateral, ventral and
medial sides of bronchi in both right and left lungs.
Furthermore, two pairs of bronchioles arose from the
lateral sides of the trachea. The cranial lobe bronchioles are the first bronchiole of the dorsal bronchiole
system (cranial lobe bronchiole I) and the two bronchioles arising from the trachea (cranial lobe bronchioles II and III). In this way, three cranial lobe bronchioles could be enumerated. However, in general, the
cranial lobe can be formed by any one of them. The
middle lobe bronchiole was the first bronchiole of the
lateral bronchiole system. The accessory lobe bronchiole is the first bronchiole of the ventral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles of the four bronchiole
systems constitute the caudal lobe [7,8].
In the previous studies, Nakakuki already reported the fundamental structure of bronchial tree in domestic animals [7,8,9,10] and striped dolphin [11].
However, the peripheral portion of the bronchial tree
is needed for clinical reason. Later, Nakakuki also reported the detail bronchial tree of dear and horse later
[9,10]. In this study, lungs from six Formosan Reeve’s
muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi micrurus (Sclater), an endemic deer in Taiwan, were examined and the whole
bronchial tree of Formosan Reeve’s muntjac was established.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Formosan Reeve’s muntjac was found dead
at the wild of Fu-Shan Research Station, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute then sent to Department of
Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine,
National Taiwan University for necropsy. The lungs of
six Formosan Reeve’s muntjac were injected with latex colloid solution through the laryngeal cavity and
trachea into bronchial tree with the aid of plastic syringe. After injection, the lungs were floated on the
water and placed at room temperature until the latex
colloid was solidified completely. The lungs were subsequently treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to remove soft tissue. The latex cast models were obtained
after washed with running water.
RESULTS
The external contour of lungs Like most of the
other domestic species, the lungs of the Formosan Reeve’s muntjac are clearly subdivided into multiple lobes by interlobar fissures. (Fig. 1 and 2) However, the
interlobar fissures of lungs in the Formosan Reeve’s
muntjac are deeper than most of domestic species. Externally, the left lungs are subdivided to two lobes,
cranial, and caudal lobes. The cranial lobes are composed of cranial part and caudal part. Shallow fissures
were observed on the cranial and caudal margins of the
right cranial lobe. In addition to the cranial, middle,
and caudal lobes, the right lungs have one extra small
lobe, accessory lobe, located on the ventral side of
right lungs behind the trachea bifurcation. The cardiac
impressions are presented on the medial side of the areas of the cranial lobe to the cranial portion of the caudal lobe on each side (Fig. 2).
The dorsal (D), lateral (L), ventral (V) and medial
bronchiole system (M) arise respectively from the dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial sides of the bronchus on
each side. The distribution of bronchioles and lobulation of the lung are show by the examination of latex
cast models (Fig. 3 and 4) and the bronchiole tree is
drawn and labeled on the figures 5 and 6.
The bronchial ramifications of right lungs
The cranial lobe of right lungs is developed from the
right cranial lobe bronchiole III, the so-called tracheal
bronchiole (bronchus). This bronchiole arises from the
right dorsolateral side of the trachea before its bifurca-
LUNG ANATOMY OF TAIWANESE EDEMIC DEER
(
Fresh lung of the Formosan Reeve’s muntjac
). Dorsal view
tion, and is divided immediately into cranial (a) and
caudal (b) branches (Fig. 5 and 6). The cranial branch
is more developed than caudal one. Compared to other
ruminants and pig, the distance from origin of the right
cranial lobe bronchiole III to the bottom of tracheal bifurcation is comparatively short (about 4.76 ± 0.2cm).
No cranial lobe bronchioles I and II can be found. Six
lateral bronchioles (L1-L6) and six dorsal bronchioles
(D1-D6) arise respectively from the lateral and dorsal
side of right bronchus and distribute from the root of
tracheal bifurcation till the end of right bronchus. The
lateral bronchioles system of right bronchus is more
developed than the dorsal bronchiole system, except
for last two lateral bronchioles (L5 &L6). On the ventral side, three ventral bronchioles (V1-V3) ramify
from the root of tracheal bifurcation to the middle way
of right bronchus. The only one median bronchiole
(M1) arises from the dorsal-median side and locates
on the one third distances to the end of right bronchus.
Both of first right lateral bronchioles (L1) and first
right ventral bronchioles (V1) are well developed and
(
31
Fresh lung of the Formosan Reeve’s muntjac
). Ventral view
constitute respectively the middle lobe and accessory
lobe of right lung. The caudal lobe of right lung is
composed of the rest of bronchioles including right
lateral (L2-L6), right dorsal (D1-D6), right ventral
(V2 & V3) and right median (M1) bronchioles.
The bronchial ramifications of left lungs The
lateral bronchiole system of left lung includes four
bronchioles (L1-L4). They distribute from the root of
tracheal bifurcation till the end of left bronchus. In the
middle of left lung, there are two bronchioles (D1-D2)
on the dorsal side of left bronchus and one bronchiole
(V1) on the ventral-lateral side. The first median left
bronchioles (M1) are right next to the first dorsal left
bronchioles (D1) on the median-dorsal side of left
bronchus. The rest of median left bronchioles (M2M5) locate on dorsal-median side of the tail of left
bronchus. The first lateral bronchioles (L1) of left lung
arise from the root of tracheal bifurcation and subdivide to cranial (c) and caudal (d) branches. Both branches are well developed. The cranial branches (c) of
32
Albert Taiching LIAO et al
Bronchial tree cast from the Formosan Reeve’s
muntjac (
). Dorsal view
Bronchial tree cast from the Formosan Reeve’s
muntjac (
). Ventral view
first lateral bronchioles (L1) constitute the cranial part
of left cranial lobe, while the caudal one (d) forms the
caudal part of the left cranial lobe. The caudal lobe of
left lung consist of the remaining bronchioles of left
bronchus including three lateral bronchioles (L2-L4),
two dorsal bronchioles (D1 & D2), five median bronchioles (M1-M5) and one ventral bronchiole.
reported by Nakakuki [7,8]. Those bronchioles correspond to the right cranial lobe bronchiole of the cow,
goat, sheep, pig and also Japanese deer, [7,8,10]. Since
the distance between the origin and the tracheal bifurcation is longer than those of the cow, goat, sheep or
pig [7,8], the right cranial lobe bronchiole III of the
Formosan Reeve’s muntjac is most likely to be the
right cranial lobe bronchiole II. This is because the
distance between larynx and tracheal bifurcation in the
Formosan Reeve’s muntjac is longer than other mammals.
Formosan Reeve’s muntjac is an endemic and
smallest deer in Taiwan. In addition to the deeper interlobar fissures in Formosan Reeve’s muntjac, the
bronchial tree and lobular division of Formosan Reeve’s muntjac lung are similar to the Japanese deer (Cervus Nippon) lung reported earlier by Dr. Nakakuki
[10]. The right lung of both deer is divided to four lobes, cranial, middle, caudal and accessory lobes.
Moreover, the bronchial tree of right lung on both deers are almost the same (the right cranial lobe bronchi-
DISCUSSION
The anatomical terms, the cranial, middle, caudal
and accessory lobes, used in this study respectively
correspond to the apical, cardiac, diaphragmatic and
intermediate lobes reported by Ellenberber and Baum
at 1932 [2]. They also correspond to the upper lobe,
middle lobe, lower lobe and medial basal segment (S7)
in human lung, respectively [7,8].
The bronchioles of right cranial lobe in the lungs
of the Formosan Reeve’s muntjac correspond to the
right cranial bronchiole III, in the fundamental structure of the bronchial ramification in mammalian lung
LUNG ANATOMY OF TAIWANESE EDEMIC DEER
Bronchial tree of the Formosan Reeve’s muntjac
(
). Dorsal view
D-Dorsal bronchiole system; L-Lateral bronchiole system; M- Medial bronchiole system; III-Cranial lobe bronchiole III. The remaining bronchioles constitute the caudal lobe; A-right pulmonary artery; B- left pulmonary artery
oles III form right cranial lobe, the first lateral bronchioles (L1) form right middle lobe, the first ventral
bronchioles (V1) form right accessory lobe and remaining bronchioles on the right bronchus form right
caudal lobe). In the left lung, the bronchial tree of left
caudal lobe is the same on both deers. The cranial and
caudal branch of first left lateral bronchiole constitutes
respectively the cranial part and caudal part of left
cranial lobe of Formosan Reeve’s muntjac lung. However, the Japanese deer lacks the left cranial lobe, and
the left middle lobe of the Japanese deer lung is developed from the cranial and caudal branch of first left
33
Bronchial tree of the Formosan Recve’s muntjac
(
). Ventral view
D-Dorsal bronchiole system; L-Lateral bronchiole system; M-Medial bronchiole system; III-Cranial lobe bronchiole III. The remaining bronchioles constitute the caudal lobe; A-right pulmonary artery; B-left pulmonary artery
lateral bronchiole [10].
The system of left cranial lobe bronchile in present study followed the bronchiole system designated
by Shoichi Nakakuki. In this system, bronchiole in the
Formosan Reeve’s muntjac arises from the dorsolateral side of the left bronchus which becomes an epiarterial bronchiole and corresponds to the first bronchiole (D1) of the dorsal bronchiole system. Therefore,
the features of this bronchiole are totally different
from those of the middle lobe bronchiole, and correspond to those of the cranial lobe bronchiole I. Therefore, the present authors consider this as the left cranial lobe bronchiole I.
34
Albert Taiching LIAO et al
REFERENCES
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Aeby, C. Der Bronchialbaum der Saugetiere und des
Menschen. W. Engelmann, Leipzig. 1880
Ellenberger W, Baum H. Handbuch der vergleichenden
Anatomie der Haustiere. 17. Aufl. Springer, Berlin
733-411, 1932.
Huntington GS. The epiarterial bronchial system of the
mammalian. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 11: 127-149, 1898.
Jackson CL, Huber JF. Correlated applied anatomy of
the bronchial tree and lungs with a system of nomenclature. Dis. Chest Chicago 9: 319-326, 1943.
Kuo TF, Chang MH, Chou LS. The bronchial tree and
)
lobular division of the Dwarf Sperm whale (
lung. J. Agr. A. China 3: 254-263, 2002.
Kuo TF, Chang MH, and Chou LS. The bronchial tree
and lobular divisions of the Fraser' dolphin (
) lung. Taiwan Vet. J. 28: 161-167, 1999.
Nakakuki S. The new interpretation of the bronchial
tree. Proc. Jpn. Acad. 51: 342-346, 1975.
8. Nakakuki S. Comparative anatomical studies on the
mammalian lung. Bull. Fac. Agr., Tokyo Univ. Agr. Tech.
21: 1-74, 1980.
9. Nakakuki S. The bronchial tree and lobular division for
the horse lung. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 55(3): 435-438, 1993.
10. Nakakuki S. The bronchial tree and lobular dividsion
and blood vessels of Japnese deer (Cervus Nippon)
lung. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 55 (3): 443-447, 1993.
11. Nakakuki S. The bronchial tree and lobular division of
the lung in the striped dolphin (
). J. Vet. Med. Sci. 56: 1209-1211, 1994.
12. Seiferle E. Grundsätzliches zu Bau und Benennung der
Haussäugerlunge. Okajimas Folea anat. Japonica Tokyo
28: 71-81, 1956.
7.
LUNG ANATOMY OF TAIWANESE EDEMIC DEER
) 肺臟支氣管樹及其分枝之研究
山羌 (
1
廖泰慶
1
國立台灣大學獸醫專業學院獸醫學系暨研究所
2
國立嘉義大學農學院獸醫學系暨研究所
2
張銘煌
1
季昭華
*1 郭宗甫
(收稿日期:97 年 11 月 5 日。接受日期:98 年 1 月 7 日)
摘要
35
為瞭解山羌支氣管分枝之狀況,本研究以六隻山羌作其肺臟支氣管樹分枝之大體解剖學研究。以乳膠灌流中
空之支氣管做成硬化之支氣管樹標本,供做研究之用。山羌的肺葉與其他家畜極為類似,在外觀上牠的左肺葉或右肺
葉均有明顯的葉間裂隙,左肺葉包括尖葉 ( 前葉 )、中間葉與膈葉 ( 後葉 ),右肺葉則包括尖葉 ( 前葉 )、中葉、膈葉
( 後葉 ) 與附屬葉。右尖葉的主幹支氣管單獨源自於氣管,位於氣管末端主幹支氣管分叉的上方。依中久喜一教授的
分類法;右支氣管可分枝右外側小支氣管系統 (L) 從第一至第六;右背側小支氣管系統 (D) 僅從第一至第六;右內側
小支氣管系統 (M) 僅一。右腹側小支氣管系統 (V) 從第一至第三。左支氣管可分枝左外側小支氣管系統 (L) 從第一至
第四,左背側小支氣管系統 (D) 亦從第一至第二;左內側小支氣管 (M) 從第一至第五,而左腹側小支氣管 (V) 僅一。
[廖泰慶、張銘煌、季昭華、*郭宗甫。山羌 (
) 肺臟支氣管樹及其分枝之研究。台灣獸醫誌
35 (1): 29-35,2009。*聯絡人 TEL: 886-2-3366 1295,FAX: 886-2-2230 6483,E-mail: [email protected]]
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