Monroe Doctrine 1823 - SISHurtTAPUSHistory

Monroe Doctrine 1823
First Statement of U.S. Foreign Policy
Monroe Doctrine (text):
Monroe Doctrine (archived handwritten copy):
A. The U.S. has a complex relationship with Latin America.
(friendship and cooperation, neglect and indifference, hostility and fear)
B. Commercial contacts between the U.S. and Latin America
1. Began in 17th century.
2. Dynastic and imperial wars in Europe allowed more
trade agreements.
3. American merchant traders carried the Declaration of
Independence to Central and South American colonies.
C. Latin American Independence
1. Spain busy in Napoleonic Wars.
2. South American revolutions were led by Simon Bolivar
(1783-1830), El Liberator, one of South America's
greatest generals. His victories over the Spaniards won
independence for Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, and Venezuela, and the title "George Washington
of South America."
3. By 1821, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Chile, and
Mexico were independent. In 1822, Brazil separated from Portugal.
4. Why the U.S. recognized Latin American independence:
a. Latin American revolutions were inspired by the American Revolution.
b. U.S. preferred weak, independent nations in Latin America.
c. U.S. wanted trade with Latin America.
D. Adams-Onis Treaty 1819-1821 (transcontinental treaty)
1. Florida: problems & importance
2. Major characters:
President James Monroe
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
Luis de Onis of Spain
Secretary of War John C. Calhoun
General Andrew Jackson (War of 1812 hero)
3. Terms:
a. Spain ceded east and west Florida.
b. U.S. assumed claims of its citizens.
c. Spain gave up territory north of the 42
parallel - from Rockies to the Pacific
d. U.S. gave up claims to Texas.
E. Monroe Doctrine, 1823, “the most significant of all American state papers”
1. Causes: reaction to European alliances, Russian expansion
2. British opposed the restoration of Spain and enjoyed trade with Latin America.
George Canning (British Foreign Minister) suggested a joint proposal with the U.S.
3. Three Main Principles: non-colonization, “two spheres”, non-intervention
a. Western hemisphere closed to further colonization; "two spheres" concept
b. U.S. would not interfere with existing colonies (nonintervention).
c. U.S. would not interfere in Europe.
d. U.S. would oppose transfer of colonies.
4. ***Does the importance lie in what is not said? "dangerous to our peace and safety"
While on its face a declaration of withdrawal from European affairs, the
Monroe Doctrine was really a commitment to leadership in world
politics, a bold and far-reaching commitment, modified in the course of
time and extended to meet changing circumstances. Constituting the
classic definition of the role of the United States in international affairs,
it has been with considerable justice called "the most significant of all
American state papers.
Richard B. Morris, Great Presidential Decisions
5. Significance:
a. American nationalism expressed.
b. Gave evidence of America's role in world affairs
(a unilateral statement)
c. Attempted to isolate the western hemisphere
d. "Two-sphere" concept: American system vs. European system
6. Reaction: Europeans ignored it or treated it with contempt. British supported nonintervention, and ignored non-colonization. In Latin America, some conservatives
opposed it, and some liberal welcomed it believing it might lead to a closer relationship
with the U.S.
7. Expansion of the Monroe Doctrine
a. 1845: James K. Polk - reasserts the doctrine
b. 1862: Maximilian in Mexico
c. 1863: Civil War an "internal affair"
d. 1895: Olney-Venezuela Crisis
e. 1902: Drago Doctrine
f. 1905: Roosevelt Corollary—Monroe Doctrine becomes an offensive
document: “any chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American country
would justify U.S. intervention.”
g. 1912: Lodge Corollary—protect America from Asian interests
h. 1914: Haiti—U.S. troops there until 1934, in Nicaragua 1912-1933
i. 1933: Good Neighbor Policy
j. 1947: Truman Doctrine—Greece and Turkey
k. 1957: Eisenhower Doctrine—Middle East
l. 1961: Alliance for Progress—Latin America
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