Danielle Schumacher IRLS 506 – Atkinson Final Paper 12-12-08 Title: Mobile internet acceptance in Korea. Author(s): Je Ho Cheong, Myeong-Cheol Park. Source: Internet Research Year: 2005 Volume:15 Issue: 2 Pages: 125-140. I chose this paper inline with my interests in East Asian studies and technology. Changing technology is very important to LIS and knowledge about how different technologies are being adopted and why can help people think of ways to serve their patrons better. Patrons may want to receive notices in different ways or access a library’s items in a more mobile format. Research into why people adopt technology is also useful to librarians as people who work in libraries often have to convince users to learn new technologies in the libraries such as electronic catalogs, databases, and ILL systems. Research into what motivates people to adopt new technologies can be applied to these types of everyday problems. The paper is relatively recent; unfortunately attitudes and trends in technology usage change quickly, so it may be a little bit behind. Still, this paper has been an interesting start to look backwards into the field of technology usage research. The study measures how different variables affect mobile internet usage and acceptance among Koreans. The main variables were perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived playfulness, perceived price level, internet experience, intent to use, perceived content quality, and perceived system quality. The first two, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, are part of the “Technology Acceptance Model” developed by Davis and reviewed later in this paper. One of the goals of the authors of this study was to create a more detailed version of the Technology acceptance model using information that we’ve gained about the field since 1989 when the TAM was created. Adding perceived playfulness to the TAM seems to be a well-accepted addition by other scholars. This is supported within the paper by the results of a previous survey they’ve chosen to include that lists the main uses of M-Internet. The top 5 most popular uses are entertainment such as ring tones, and music downloads. The paper presents the following 15 hypotheses all of which were supported by their research: H1. A customer’s perceived ease of use has a positive impact on his/her attitude toward M-internet. H2. A customer’s perceived ease of use has a positive impact on his/her perceived usefulness. H3. A customer’s perceived usefulness has a positive impact on his/her attitude toward M-internet. H4. A customer’s perceived usefulness has a positive impact on his/her intention to use M-internet. H5. A customer’s attitude toward M-internet has a positive impact on his/her intention to use M-internet. H6. A customer’s perception of playfulness is positively influenced by his/her perceived ease of use. H7. A customer’s perception of playfulness has positive impact on his/her attitude toward M-internet. H8. A customer’s perception of playfulness has positive impact on his/her intention to use M-internet. H9. The internet experience has positive impact on his/her perception of M-internet playfulness. H10. The internet experience has positive impact on his/her perceived ease of using M-internet H11. The perceived price level has negative impact on his/her attitude toward M-internet. H12. The perceived price level has negative impact on his/her intention to use M-internet. H13. A customer’s perceived system quality has positive impact on his/her perceived usefulness. H14. A customer’s perceived system quality has a positive impact on his/her perceived ease of use. H15. A customer’s perceived contents quality has a positive impact on his/her perceived usefulness. H16. A customer’s perceived contents quality has a positive impact on his/her perceived playfulness. The method they used was anonymous surveying. To develop the survey and question wording they ran a pilot test using IT students and then modified the questions based on those findings. It says the questions were reviewed by bilingual students. For the actual surveying the researchers employed the services of a market research company to perform an online survey. They collected 1468 replies over the course of four days of which 189 were discarded for insincere responses. I found it interesting that this is the first study I’ve chosen where the surveying was done by a third party rather than the researcher. They mentioned that they used an online survey company that offers “e-coins” to ensure voluntary participation. One of the problems with that is hinted at; they had almost 200 “insincere responses.” I participate in reward-based online surveys myself and often have to fight the temptation to try and “guess” what the “right answer” would be so that I get the most points/cash. Some of the questions they used seemed ambiguous or imprecise, but that could be a relic of translation as the original questions were in Korean. Another weakness seems to be that they did not get as broad a demographic range as they hoped for. The majority of responders were from the 30-39 year old age group, which was much larger than the 20-29 year old age group. The authors of this study admit this is a weakness of online surveys, and that this is not the ideal distribution they would hope for. The findings were that attitude towards the service was most likely to predict adoption of a technology followed by perceived playfulness. They suggest that these variables, as well as perceived cost should be added to the TAM. They also say that perceived ease of use did not have as strong of an influence on intention to use and is itself influenced by other variables. This is an interesting study and it extends a useful and well established model of technology adoption. Reference 1: Title: An empirical study on the adoption of information appliances with a focus on interactive TV. Authors: 'Hun Choi *', ' Minseok Choi', 'Jinwoo Kim', 'Hyoshik Yu'. Source: Telematics and Informatics Year: 2003 Volume: 20 Pages: 161 - 183 I chose this reference because it is another model on technology acceptance from Korea. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical model of technology adoption of new technologies. They have decided to use the relatively new technology of Interactive TV as their focus in developing this new model. It’s interesting seeing a study trying to develop a model for acceptance on a technology that is not yet adopted or refined and may not become popular. The research This study also references Davis’ Technology Acceptance Model was well as other systems for studying how and why users adopt new technology. They give brief summaries of each system and its strengths and weaknesses. The authors of this study point out that many of these focus on businesses and real users, the goal of this study is to expand to potential users in the home environment. The study had the following hypotheses and subhypotheses: h1: Attitude about interactive TV will affect behavioral intention toward technology adoption for interactive TV. h2: The subjective norm of a potential user regarding interactive TV will affect behavioral intention regarding technology adoption for interactive TV. h3: Perceived behavioral control that the subject will have over interactive TV will affect behavioral intention toward technology adoption for interactive TV. h4: Attitudinal belief that a person has about interactive TV will affect attitude toward technology adoption for interactive TV. h4-1: Perceived usefulness of interactive TV will constitute attitudinal belief of the potential user. h4-2: Trialability for interactive TV will constitute attitudinal belief of the potential user. h4-3: Result demonstrability for interactive TV will constitute attitudinal belief in the potential user. h4-4: Image regarding interactive TV will constitute attitudinal belief in the potential user. h4-5: Enjoyment of interactive TV will constitute attitudinal belief in the potential user. h5: A person_s normative belief about interactive TV will affect the subjective norm of technology adoption for interactive TV. h5-1: Expectation of family members about interactive TV will constitute normative belief in the potential user. h5-2: Expectation of friends about interactive TV will constitute normative belief in the potential user. h6: A person_s control belief about interactive TV will affect perceived behavioral control of technology adoption for interactive TV. h6-1: Rapid change in technology and/or fear of obsolescence will constitute control belief in the potential user. h6-2: Cost of interactive TV will constitute control belief in the potential user. h6-3: Ease of use of interactive TV will constitute control belief in the potential user. This study also gathered its data through an online survey. The authors created their own site, and so unlike the authors of Mobile Internet Acceptance did not use a third party system and seemed to offer no “reward” for participation. They put up banner ads on three famous Korean portal sites to attract respondents and gathered a total of 2291 useful responses. This was a much larger sample size than the previous study, and they also did not have the problem of the 30-39 age group outnumber the 20-29 age group. The largest group of responders was males age 20-29. Their sample is then much more representative of the internet using population. They found that all their hypotheses were supported, and that enjoyment was one of the most important factors. They admit that this may be because their focus was TV instead of something like a refrigerator and further studies are needed to see if enjoyment is as important to the adoption of general information devices. The authors of the study point out that using an internet survey introduces a slight bias into the results as people who are comfortable taking a survey on the internet already have a certain degree of technological acceptance. They believe that they minimized this somewhat by checking social security numbers, filtering out dishonest responses, and having a very large sample size, but admit that more research needs to be done to further minimize the bias. Reference 1:1 Title: Determinants of the intention to use Internet/WWW at work: a confirmatory study. Authors: Chang, M. K. and Cheung, W. Source: Information and Management Year: 2001 Volume:39 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-14 I chose this paper because it relates very closely to the first paper. While Mobile Internet Acceptance was more specific in its focus on mobile internet, this is a study about use of the internet at work. The study’s goal is to develop an improved model of the Triandis model of choice that is more applicable to studies of modern technology adoption. This paper, like the first one, references the TAM almost immediately. However, they decide to use the Triandis model instead of the TAM. Their reasoning is that the Triandis model has always included enjoyment and other factors that they view as important while the TAM has been added onto and modified. They follow with a brief but thorough explanation of the Triandis model and how they have altered and improved the model for their research. The sample was gathered by distributing questionnaires to 320 MBA and diploma students at 2 universities in Hong Kong. They received 255 usable responses. The surveys measured complexity, near term and long term consequences, affect, social factors, facilitating conditions, and intent as variables. The sample size was small and limited in scope and that is a weakness of the study that the authors admit. The authors found that their altered Triandis model showed a more detailed and nuanced and therefore more accurate view of what real intention of use was. The main way they altered the study was by changing the “flow” of variables. In Triandis all variables move towards one: intention. The newer model proposed by the study authors shows the interrelation between variables as well as how they affect intention. They were therefore able to show not only how each variable affects intention directly, but also how it affects intention indirectly through other variables. One of the findings that stood out was that perceived complexity (the opposite of “ease of use” used in the first study and other studies such as ones using the TAM) did not have a significant direct effect on intention but had a large indirect effect because of how it affected the near and long term consequences and affect variables. They interestingly found that enjoyment did not affect internet usage but that it did affect intent to use the internet. It is an interesting study that, though using a different model, supports ideas found in the other studies. In some ways it is more nuanced, but it was also, I’ll admit, a little difficult to understand at first. The finding that enjoyment was more a factor in intent to use than actual usage was interesting, but somehow not surprising as this is a study about internet usage at work. Mobile Internet Acceptance was looking at technology adoption in a more general way and found enjoyment to be most important and An empirical study on the adoption of information appliances specifically was looking for information about the home user. For its weaknesses it does support a need for a more detailed model of technology adoption behaviors and attitudes and gives interesting insight into how to go about creating such a model. Reference 1:2 Title: The influence of persuasion, training and experience on user perceptions and acceptance of IT innovation. Authors: Xia, W. and Lee, G. Source: In Proceedings of the Twenty First international Conference on information Systems Year: 2000 Pages: 371 – 384 I chose this paper because it shows yet another aspect of technology adoption research, and one that may be especially relevant to the LIS field. Instead of simply studying determinants of use they are researching what effects of change of attitude towards IT innovation. The authors want to know what is most effective at convincing someone to change their attitudes and adopt new technology. This is important in the LIS field because as a library adopts new technology they have to convince users to adopt it. It’s one thing to know factors that affect technology adoption and attitude, but it is important to look at how to change the attitudes of people who might otherwise not adopt a technology. The authors have the following hypotheses: H1: The quality of persuasive arguments will have a significant effect on user perceptions, attitudes, and intentions about an IT innovation. H2: Training will have a significant effect on user perceptions, attitudes, and intentions about an IT innovation. H3: User perceptions, attitudes, and intentions about an IT innovation will change significantly as the user’s direct-use experience increases over time. The authors selected commercial CASE software for the study. The sample was 92 undergraduates who were selected and screened to make sure they had no existing knowledge of the software. The students were divided into four groups. Two went just read persuasive messages and then took a T1 questionnaire, and two groups went through training, then read persuasive messages, and then took the questionnaire. Subjects were assigned either a high quality or low quality persuasive message. Independent Variables were Argument Quality, Training, and Direct-Use Experience. Dependent variables measured in this study included perceived innovation characteristics (relative advantage, ease of use, visibility, result demonstrability, compatibility, and trialability), attitudes toward and intention to use the CASE software. (p 376) The study found their hypotheses supported. Direct-use experience had a very significant effect on a users attitudes, perceptions, and intentions to use software. They did find that training didn’t affect perceived usefulness as much as perceived ease of use and at this point directly referenced Davis’ TAM. They also found that persuasion was a very effective tool and suggested that it would be useful to facilitate technology adoption. Training and persuasion could be well used in libraries, but I’m not sure how direct-use experience would be synthesized. During what was defined as training the students were given exercises to complete, and direct use took place as part of a class where they have assignments to complete using the program. Though, perhaps direct use experience occurs naturally in a library environment where technology such as MARC or Interlibrary Loan applications are mandatory. Reference 2: Title: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. Author: Davis, F. D. Source: MIS Quarterly Year: 1989 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 319-340 I chose this paper to research as a reference because it is the source of the TAM that was referenced in all three papers in the first “tree.” It is an obviously important piece of research, as the initial paper was attempting to create a better version of it and other studies on technology adoption reference it, whether they use the TAM or some other model. The study begins by citing other studies that the author feels outline the idea that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are the two main variables in adoption of innovation. He brings up several interesting points, including tying cost-benefit theory into the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use paradigm and cites a wide variety of studies. The purpose of the investigation is not only to prove the hypothesis that perceived usefulness and ease of use are determinants of computer usage, but to create a new scale to measure these variables. As such, the methods used in this study are incredibly detailed and methodical, moreso than can be described here. The scale was refined first with a small pretest followed by two research studies. The first was a survey of 120 workers at IBM’s Toronto development lab. They received 112 responses, 109 of which used electronic mail and 75 used XEDIT. The researchers found their hypothesis that perceived usefulness and ease of use correlated with usage. They did find some of their questions were invalidated due to common method variance, and that those were only the questions phrased negatively. From those results they were able to refine the scale for the second study. The second study was a lab study involving 40 voluntary participants who were paid $25 for their involvement. The participants used two different programs, Pendraw and Chart-Master, in a one hour hands on experience with a guided workbook stripped of value judgments. They were then given a questionnaire. They found correlation between ease of use and usefulness again, though they did find that flexibility does not correlate with ease of use. They were able to refine their scale and confirm that ease of use and usefulness do influence usage. He then discussed how ease of use might have a causal relationship with perceived usefulness which then leads to more usage. He points out the need for more research to uncover more variables that affect usage. This study was interesting and very strong and tight, where it was weak it was acknowledged by the author, often before I managed to think of it. One aspect that was probably unavoidable in 1989 that is a concern now is that his sample size was heavily biased towards the professional. That may be why perceived playfulness was left out of the study, which is a weakness that other studies have pointed out that the TAM has. If at that time microcomputer usage was simply not viewed in the same way it is easy to see why it would have been overlooked. It is also easy to see why this study has held up over the years despite the speed at which technology has been changing. The paper can easily be used as a blueprint to design and refine a new study, it would seem natural to use it as a launching and reference point in the study of technology adoption behaviors. Reference 2:1 Title: Why Interactive Computer Systems are Sometimes Not Used by People Who Might Benefit from Them Author(s): Raymond S Nickerson Source: International Journal of Man-Machine Studies Year: 1981 Volume: 15 Pages: 469 483 This is a qualitative study that addresses several complaints and problems about microcomputer usage and suggests ways to solve these problems. I chose this study because while it's called a research study, the author isn't actually very clear about his methods. While most of the other studies I have chosen, even the least "statistical" have detailed their research methods in great detail this one does not. Despite its weaknesses, it contains much valuable information and advice. The date also seems like it would excuse the qualitative theorhetical tone of the paper somewhat as in 1981 microcomputer usage was not as wide-spread so this paper could be viewed as a starting point for more detailed research on technology adoption. Another reason is because while we’ve technically been reviewing and critiquing studies all semester, I’ve tried to choose studies that are “good” and clear about their methods of sampling. Before this class I might not have noticed the weaknesses of this paper and instead focused on the “good ideas” presented. This is a study could have been a lot better if there were more references as to where they were getting their “complaints” from. Granted, I’m sure each of those complaints was (and to a point still is) a valid obstacle in technology adoption, giving sources for this information would have made this a stronger study. Though, to be fair, the author does state in the introduction that the literature is cited in only a “few” instances and that he will not avoid speculation. The variables in this study were “Functionality,” “Accessibility/Availability,” “Start Stop Hassle,” “System Dynamics and Response Time,” “Work Session Interrupts,” “Training and User Aids,” “Documentation,” “Command Language,” “Consistency and Integration,” “User Conceptualization of the System,” and “Miscellaneous Other Issues.” The author of the paper concludes that attention should be paid to these areas to help increase usage. It’s interesting that some of these have been “taken care of” to a point by the current day. This study is dealing with professionals and technology usage at many professional jobs is mandatory. “Command languages” as such barely exist anymore for the average professional. The author studied complaints about users who were frustrated about system integration – that different programs had vastly different commands for such thing as deleting characters. That is no longer as much of a concern as it was. Granted, if you translate it out such issues still exist, but the age of this paper makes it difficult to use for current research. While I did say that this paper has some good practical advice for people who are wondering how to increase microcomputer technology adoption, and a paper like this wouldn’t be out of place in a modern discussion of the subject, this paper in particular is probably of less interest to a modern audience except in an assignment like this or for someone researching the field to exhaustion. It would be better to go with a more methodical study if one is looking at the history of technology adoption study. Even if this is preliminary qualitative research it could be more methodical and detailed. Reference 2:2 Title: An Empirical Study of the Impact of User Involvement on System Usage and Information Satisfcation Author(s): Jack J. Baroudi, Margarethe H. Olson, and Blake Ives Source: Communications of the ACM Year: 1986 Volume: 29 Number: 3 Pages: 232 – 238 I chose this paper because it begins with a detailed description the problems of other studies on technology adoption and user involvement, and follows well after reviewing flawed study. The authors make a good point about the use of terminology. At the time this paper was written the field of computers and studying their usage was still developing, and he points out that some confusion arises because definitions are imprecise, conflicting, or different words are used to describe the same construct. Other weaknesses of previous research, according to these authors, include studies that don’t take into account the reliability or validity of scales used, studies that are too focused to one system and situation that cannot be applied widely, and a failure to ground hypotheses in an existing theory or developing a new theory. (p. 232) The variables they were studying were user involvement, by which they mean how involved the user is in developing the system, system usage, and user information satisfaction. The study lists several hypotheses. One hypothesis that as user involvement increases satisfaction and system usage increases. Another is that as satisfaction increases system usage will increase, and if satisfaction is low further use will be avoided. A third hypothesis is that system usage increases users become familiar with the system and therefore more satisfied. To get their sample they mailed out 800 surveys to a mailing list of production managers of manufacturing organizations. They received a response rate of 200 total usable questionnaires back. They said the mailing list was old and the forms were long and so they expected a low response rate. This points out a weakness about surveys in general. The studies using internet surveys have pointed out that respondees are opting in and therefore it’s a limited sample. This survey was also limited to middle management of one mailing list, so it is in some way a very narrowly defined group of people. They found that what they called the “traditional model” hypothesis: that user involvement leads to increased system usage and satisfaction was supported. They also found that user information satisfaction led to system usage. However, they found that system usage did not lead to increased satisfaction. This is an interesting paper in that it is looking at problems of research in a thendeveloping field. It’s interesting that information system adoption has been an issue for twenty years now. One thing that’s interesting is so far all the studies have been researching voluntary system usage. In libraries we often have involuntary systems once we switch to automated systems. In ILL at our library there is no way to do it offline, or to receive offline notifications. This is also a business system, and the authors of the study An empirical study on the adoption of information appliances with a focus on interactive TV pointed out that this is a weakness of many existing models. It’s not surprising that this was an issue in 1986, but I am surprised that it persisted until 2003. Reference 3: Title: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in internet usage. Author: Teo, T. S. H., Lim, V. K. G., & Lai, R. Y. C. Source: Omega Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Year: 1999 Pages 25-37 I’ve chosen this paper because it is another paper examining internet adoption, which is directly related to the first study’s use of M-Internet. The authors of this paper are defining “extrinsic motivation” as variables such as perceived usefulness and ease of use, i.e. the TAM variables and “intrinsic motivation” as “performance of an activity for no apparent reinforcement other than the process of performing the activity per se” in other words: enjoyment. They point out that the TAM and many other studies on technology adoption were developed in the United States and that results might be different in other countries. They are working off a study by Finnish researchers and modified it to reference internet usage rather than microcomputer usage. They also were questioning whether their findings would remain valid in Asia, specifically Singapore. The study had the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1a. Perceived usefulness is positively related to frequency of Internet usage. Hypothesis 1b. Perceived usefulness is positively related to daily Internet usage. Hypothesis 1c. Perceived usefulness is positively related to diversity of Internet usage. Hypothesis 2a. Perceived enjoyment is positively related to frequency of Internet usage. Hypothesis 2b. Perceived enjoyment is positively related to daily Internet usage. Hypothesis 2c. Perceived enjoyment is positively related to diversity of Internet usage. Hypothesis 3a. Perceived ease of use will positively affect frequency of Internet usage directly through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. Hypothesis 3b. Perceived ease of use will positively affect daily Internet usage directly through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. Hypothesis 3c. Perceived ease of use will positively affect diversity of Internet usage directly through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. Hypothesis 4b. Perceived ease of use will positively affect daily Internet usage indirectly through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. Hypothesis 4c. Perceived ease of use will positively affect diversity of Internet usage indirectly through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. The authors of this study used an internet survey they designed. They advertised it on newsgroups, in the newspaper, and on Singapore websites with high traffic flows. They offered free $2 phone cards to the first 100 respondents. They received a total of 1370 responses, 89% of which were male and 11% of which were female. This is different from later studies where the genders are more equal. They did have a similar age range to other studies with the 21-29 age group having the highest number of responses. Hypotheses 1a – 1c were supported. Hypotheses 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3c were supported, but hypotheses 2c and 3b were not. Hypotheses 4a – 4c were supported. The authors found that usefulness was a more important factor than enjoyment in this study in determining usage. They also found that ease of use did not positively affect daily internet usage and said that this may be because once someone learns how to use the internet the concept of “ease of use” becomes a non-issue. This paper is an important step in technology adoption study because it begins to widen the research into other cultures rather than North American and European. It’s easy to see why researchers in Korea would want to cite a study from Singapore in addition to studies from the US since attitudes can be different depending on the culture of respondents. The gender difference of the sample could be a weakness of this study, but the sample size is large. And those demographics may indeed accurately reflect the internet user profile of Singapore at this time. Reference 3:1: Title: Microcomputer Applications an Empirical Look at Usage Author(s): Magid Igbaria, Francis N Pavri, Sid L Huff Source: Information and Management Year: 1989 Volume: 16 Pages: 187 – 196 I chose to review this paper because was written by the authors that created the model that the authors of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation were modifying to obtain their results. This paper was written around the same time as Davis’s TAM and does not reference it. Aside from the papers in the chain under the Davis paper, this is the only paper to not reference Davis in some way. The research question of this study is “What is the current state of microcomputer usage?” Specifically they looked at usage in five “dimensions” Actual time spent on a computer, frequency of use, number of packages used, level of sophistication of usage, and relationship between microcomputer usage and the person’s background or characteristics. The authors sent surveys to 766 people in 54 large corporations across North America. They received 519 completed surveys and 471 useful responses. Like the previous study this one showed a majority of men at 84%. Again, this likely reflected the actual distribution at this time and can’t really be viewed as a “weakness” of the study. They measured system usage, computer anxiety, quality of the system, and experience and training. Though only studying five dimensions the researchers broke down system usage much farther and discussed the results at length. According to their research most people use microcomputers for planning and most people used microcomputers for 1 to 2 hours per day. They called this a “significant amount of time.” While the findings under system usage were interesting and important at the time, they are a bit out of date and not worth spending much time discussing anymore. What was interesting was their research on computer usage vs individual variables. They found that more educated people used computers more. And that contrary to their expectations women did not show more computer anxiety or less computer usage. They did find that older people had more anxiety and less usage, and that with increased usage anxiety went down. They also found that increased training went along with higher rates of computer usage. Quality of the system was important to success. This study was quite broad and seemed in some ways harder to follow than the Davis study even though Davis had more “math” in his paper. The organization seems a bit off and they spend a lot of time talking about system usage which was broken down into variables that were not clearly stated in advance. Perhaps at the time that was more important, but I found the other sections of the study to be more interesting and more relevant to the present day. Still, it’s good to look at an alternative to the TAM that reinforces why it simply has the staying power. Reference 3:2: Title: Microcomputer Playfulness: Development of a Measure with Workplace Implications Author(s): Jane Webster, Joseph J Martocchio Source: MIS Quarterly Year: 1992 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Playfulness has been an important variable that was mentioned in the primary study, as well as several of the secondary and tertiary studies I have reviewed. Therefore, I didn’t think a review through the past of technology adoption research would be complete without examining at least one study on playfulness and computer usage. What was interesting about this study is that it studies playfulness with workplace implications, which to me was an interesting focus as thinking of someone “playing” at work with computers leads one to think of the office slacker who plays minesweeper while on the phone1. However, the authors define playfulness in this case as “an individual’s tendency to interact spontaneously, inventively, and imaginatively with microcomputers.” (p 202) They study playfulness as more of a state of mind than a personal trait or inherent characteristic. The study had the following hypotheses: H1: There will be a positive relationship between computer attitudes and microcomputer playfulness H2: There will be a negative relationship between computer anxiety and microcomputer playfulness. H3: There will be a positive relationship between computer competence and microcomputer playfulness. H4: There will be a positive relationship between computer efficacy beliefs and microcomputer playfulness. H5: Hodling computer experience constant, microcomputer playfulness and gender will not relate. H6: Holding computer experience constant, microcomputer playfulness and age will not relate. H7. Microcomputer playfulness will exhibit discriminant validity from computer attitudes. H8: Microcomputer playfulness will exhibit discriminant validity from computer anxiety. H9: Microcomputer playfulness will be positively associated with involvement in the microcomputer interaction. H10: Microcomputer playfulness will be positively associated with positive mood. H11: Microcomputer playfulness will be positively associated with satisfaction. H12: Microcomputer playfulness will be positively associated with learning. H13: Microcomputer playfulness will have greater predictive power than computer attitudes with respect to the outcome measures of a: involvement, b: positive mood, c: satisfaction, and d: learning. H14: Microcomputer playfulness will have greater predictive power than computer anxiety with respect to the outcome measures of a: involvement, b: positive mood, c: satisfaction, and d: learning. Data was gathered from five studies, three of which were survey studies and two were training studies. Studies 1 and 2 surveyed students in a large private Northeastern University with a sample size of 61 in study 1 and 158 in Study 2. Study 3 was undertaken as part of a larger training program of undergraduate students training to use Lotus 123 with a sample size of 95. Study 4 was a survey study of MBA students to capture test-retest reliability with a sample size of 32, and Study 5 like Study 3 was part of a larger training program, this time for employees of a large public Midwestern University training to use WordPerfect. The study seems to be a list of adjectives and respondents were to circle how much they agreed each described them while they used microcomputers. I’ve seen surveys like this before 1 Only during boring calls, honest. and they always struck me as a bit odd, granted it’s not as bad as “if Product Y were a person what would their personality be like” but I’d be concerned at the ability of the surveyed to take the study seriously. However, the authors of the study found support for all their hypotheses and had strong test-retest reliability. An interesting study, and while not one that attempts to add potential playfulness to the Technology Adoption Model itself they do cite Davis as a reference and provide a detailed methodology and scale for studying microcomputer playfulness. Conclusion: It was interesting to see how studies related to each other, and how one major study can have a huge impact in a field. Also, when looking at a large variety of closely related papers at one time the strengths and weaknesses of certain papers are easier to see than when picking one or two papers from individual assignments. The field of technology adoption has changed drastically from the 1980s but the main foundations are still referenced. Earlier studies were not as strict with terminology. While one later paper did use the terms “extrinsic” and “intrinsic” to essentially refer to existing constructs, they did provide us with the more widely used terms. This terminology problem was a complaint in the paper An Empirical Study of the Impact of User Involvement on System Usage and Information Satisfcation and seems to be reduced as people see the need for consistency. All papers but three referenced the Davis paper Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. Two of those papers were under Davis in the “tree” and the other was written the same year that his paper was published so was likely started before. Studies on technology adoption past the 1990s seem to reference Davis, even if to simply explain why they chose a model that is not his Technology Adoption Model. Lack of perceived playfulness in the TAM was seen almost immediately. How highly enjoyment effects usage varies by time, situation, and perhaps location – more research may be needed, but noone now would deny that it is important. Early studies focused mostly on business users while later studies seem to focus on the general user or the home user specifically. Also, earlier studies were biased towards males, and the highly educated. This may come naturally out of the spread of technology from business and schools to homes and widespread use. Later studies show a more balanced gender distribution and in general highest usage in the 20 – 29 age group. That is a slow creep downwards in age from the mid-80s. The original focus of studies was in North America but that also spread until there are worldwide studies on Technology Acceptance allowing people to compare how different cultures’ behaviors are affected by their perceptions of technology. Considering that the main paper is essentially trying to develop a more comprehensive model of TAM as one of its stated goals it is not too surprising that Davis was widely referenced. And the authors of Mobile Internet Acceptance did extend the TAM with variables that they thought were important including perceived playfulness and perceived cost. But, one thing I’d question is the TAM seems to already be largely altered and discussed, with so many additions and discussions, using any one particular new study as the definitive replacement as a comprehensive TAM seems unlikely. It is, however, a great starting point for someone who wants to research changes in the Technology Adoption Model. Someone looking to alter the TAM for their own use would certainly want to refer to others who have done likewise.