ELSC 6301: Class One / Two Scientific Management School of Thought Frederick Taylor: Prime theme was that managers should study work scientifically and identify the “one best way” to perform a task. Taylor’s 4 principles: 1. Scientific job analysis: Observe, collect data, careful measurement 2. Selection of personnel: Scientifically select, then train, teach and develop 3. Management cooperation: managers cooperate with workers in task 4. Functional supervision: Managers plan, organize and make decisions; workers perform their jobs. Classical Management School of Thought Focus was on the management of an entire organization, not just jobs. 1. Henri Fayol: identified 5 basic functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Also, identified 14 principles of management. 2. Luther Gulick (1930s) identified seven functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. 3. Max Weber: first described the concept of bureaucracy. His work is closely aligned with Fayol’s: the efficiently designed job and organization Human Relations School of Thought Focus was on human relations as a means to increase productivity 1. Elton Mayo conducted the classical studies at the Hawthorne Plant in 1927-33 2. Kurt Lewin: emphasis on democratic/authoritarian groups 3. Jack Moreno: developed sociometric technique to study group behavior 4. William Whyte: studied selective preferences among restaurant workers Behavioral Science School of Thought A melding of the classical and human relations models 1. Chester Barnard (Pres. NJ Bell) emphasis on effectiveness / awareness 2. Getzels / Guba:2 classes of phenomena that are independent and interactive 3. Maslow: needs hierarchy 4. Others include: MacGregor, Herzberg and Likert Leadership theory An outgrowth of behavioral science school of thought 1. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton: two dimension measurement of behavior 2. Fred Fielder: Contingency theory 3. Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard: developed situational leadership 4. Over 3000 empirical studies on leadership 5. General agreement that leadership implies that followers must consent to being influenced Five distinct sources of leader power (or influence): 1. Legitimate Power 2. Reward Power 3. Coercive Power 4. Expert Power 5. Referent Power Two studies that are closely related to the sources of principal power: 1. US secondary schools 2. Canadian elementary schools Major defect in studies: failed to measure overall school performance or student growth rate as measured by test scores. Trait Theory (Ralph Stodgill) Classified 5 traits and skills under the following headings: 1. Capacity 2. Achievement 3. Responsibility 4. Participation 5. Status Warren Bennis identified human skills needed for leadership as the ability to 1. create and communicate a vision of what the organization should be 2. communicate with and again the support of multiple constituencies 3. persist in the desired direction even under bad conditions 4. create the appropriate culture to obtain the desired results. University studies: 1. Iowa Studies: authoritarian, democratic and laissez faire 2. Ohio State Studies: Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire and its two dimensions: “initiating structure” and “consideration 3. Michigan Studies: identified behaviors of effective and ineffective leaders Situational Leadership Management: The act, manner, or practice of managing, handling, supervising or controlling. The person or persons who control or direct an organization Management competencies: planning, organizing, motivating and controlling Management skills necessary to be a successful manager Technical Skill Human Skill Conceptual Skill Leadership: The process of working with and through others to accomplish organizational goals. Leadership Competencies: diagnosing, adapting and communicating Other related vocabulary: Self perception: patterns of my behavior as perceived by me External perception: patterns of my behavior as perceived by others. Position Power: the extent to which the leader controls the rewards Personal Power: the extent to which persons follow a leader because of personal charisma Autocratic: a high concern for task accomplishment. The leader is focused on telling people what, when and where to accomplish the task Democratic: High concern for people. The leader involves others in decision making. His/her power is based on mutual trust/respect. Theory X: Most people find work distasteful, are lazy and need to be directed Theory Y: Most people find work as natural as play, want a sense of achievement, seek responsibility, can be self directed and can creatively solve problems. Task Behavior: The extent to which a leader engages in one way communication by explaining what each follower is to do as well as when, where and how tasks are to be accomplished. Relationship Behavior: The extent to which a leader engages in two-way communication by providing socio-economic support, “psychological strokes” and facilitating behaviors.