MANA 6383
Office Hours:
Phone Number:
Fax Number:
Dusya Vera, Ph.D.
310E Melcher Hall
4:00-5:30 pm Wednesday and Thursday, or by appointment
(713) 743-4677
(713) 743-4652
[email protected]
Course Description
This course is about how an enterprise achieves and sustains a high level of success and the
role the general manager plays in this process. How success has been or will be achieved is the
enterprise’s strategy. It requires both analysis and action. The cases and concepts of the course
take the total enterprise as the unit of analysis and the general manager as the key actor.
Developing the general management perspective is at the core of what we do in this course.
A general manager is responsible for a multi-functional group (business, division, profit center,
etc.) and is accountable for the strategic performance of that unit. But what we will learn has
utility not just to the person at the “top” of the enterprise. Increasingly general management
responsibility is shared. All members of the management team and the organization need to
appreciate how their actions contribute to the overall success of the enterprise.
Instead of focusing on a particular functional area (e.g. finance, operations, marketing,
accounting, etc.), this course provides you with a process for problem-solving and decisionmaking that requires you to build on, integrate, and apply the knowledge gained from those
disciplines in order to develop an overall general management perspective. Because strategic
issues are characterized by ambiguity, complexity and uncertainty, this course is as much about
asking the right questions as it is about having the “right” answers. We will reach consensus on
some issues, yet many among you will have differing interpretations on the most appropriate
course of action. Such is the nature of strategy issues. Those of you with the need to reach the
“right” answer may find yourself frustrated by the lack of definitive answers and multitude of
reasonable courses of action. This is a reflection of the real world!
The course covers analytical tools and conceptual frameworks that aid in the development of
judgment. The primary objective of the course is to develop expertise in formulating (analysis)
and implementing (action) strategy. Although the course progresses from formulation to
implementation, one cannot presume to fully understand strategy formulation without the
realization of what it takes to implement strategic change.
Ultimately strategic choices represent a tension between what an organization needs to do
given its competitive and market environment, what it can do given its resources and
capabilities, and what it wants to do given the values and preferences of key stakeholders. The
overarching framework that guides this course is provided below. The flow of the course is
sequenced around this framework.
Resources & Capabilities
Industry Analysis
Course Objectives
1. To understand the factors which affect a firm's overall competitive position.
2. To develop an appreciation of the complexity of the issues facing managers with business
unit responsibilities.
3. To learn how to formulate and implement strategies aimed at achieving and sustaining
superior competitive performance over the long term.
4. To develop the analytical and persuasion skills needed to convince others of this strategy.
Assumptions and Expectations
Studying the experiences of real companies and the actions of practicing general managers
develops insight into, and good judgment about complex strategy situations. We do this through
the case method. To the extent possible we must place ourselves into these situations; decide
what we would do in the circumstance and be prepared to explain our proposed course of action.
To get the most from this course you must actively engage the learning process. This means
devoting time and energy to preparation before class and then, during class, listening to others,
and being willing to put forward and explain your point of view.
The study questions assigned with each case are designed to guide and stimulate your
analysis and preparation. They are not “assignments” to be handed in.
The textbook and readings assigned are your responsibility. They will not usually be
covered in detail during class but will be utilized as they apply to the issues at hand.
‘Lecturettes’ may be used throughout the course to supplement the case discussion.
The case discussion process works best if we are prepared to observe some basic ground
rules. Most of the case studies we will be working on in this course are undisguised. We will be
dealing with real people and the real company. This encourages engagement in the case
situations and facilitates follow-up on developments subsequent to the case events. It also
creates some potential disadvantages that I would like to ensure we minimize.
The process of analyzing, discussing and learning from cases depends in a significant way on
discovery - discovering what the real opportunities and problems in the case are as it currently
stands, discovering and evaluating the possible ways of dealing with them, and discovering the
lessons that can be drawn for continuing use. The value of this process is diminished if we shortcircuit it by jumping ahead to find out ‘what happened’ before we have done our best to
understand the case. Similarly, we lose something when someone with special knowledge of the
situation does not respect the necessary process of analysis.
Ground Rule #1. Do not call the company, go on the net, talk to students in other sections, or
otherwise attempt to find out ‘what happened’ in the case situation. Naturally, it is not just the
subsequent events that matter but your thoughts and comments on their implications for our
analysis and learning.
Ground Rule #2. If you already know something about the industry, the company, or even the
case events, use this knowledge carefully with your colleagues (and for that matter, test it
carefully before you use it yourself!). If you do have special knowledge please let me know and I
will call on you to help us out in class at an appropriate time.
Ground Rule #3. During class your attention should be focused on the discussion taking place in
the classroom. I will provide you with copies of the overheads used in class. You are encouraged
to take a few minutes at the end of class, or at the end of the day and reflect upon what you
learned from the class.
To assist in class participation and knowing your names, name cards will be used for each
student. Except for emergency situations, please turn off all pagers and cellular phones.
You are reminded that plagiarism (representing another person’s ideas, writings, etc., as
ones own) is a serious academic offence; the penalty can be as severe as expulsion. Whenever
you take an idea or a passage from another author, you must acknowledge your debt by
appropriately citing your source(s). Academic dishonesty of any kind will not be tolerated.
Required Texts
Crossan, M.M., Fry, J.N. and Killing, J.P. 2002. Strategic Analysis and Action (5th edition),
Toronto: Prentice Hall.
Case package available at the bookstore
Additional materials will be assigned through WebCT
Note: The UH bookstore sells a MANA 6383 custom-package that includes both the book and
the cases. Another option for students is to buy the book directly from or, and buy the cases directly from Harvard Business School, Ivey School of Business,
and the Business Enterprise Trust.
Use of the WebCT tool
WebCT is a password-protected online course management system. In this course, the
instructor will use WebCT to:
1. Upload class handouts for students to download.
2. Assign additional readings.
3. Post grades. Each student will view his/her individual grades.
To get a WebCT ID and log on to WebCT please go to
The first time you log on to WebCT your password will be your birthdate (mmddyyyy). You may
change your password after you log on to WebCT.
Class handouts and readings will be uploaded every Friday.
Tentative Course Evaluation
Class Contribution
Group Midterm Exam
Final Exam
30 points
30 points
40 points
100 points
below 60
Class Contribution: It is expected that you will be present and prepared for every class, and
willing to share your views in the classroom discussion, both voluntarily and when called upon to
do so. You have an obligation to learn the material and to assist in the learning of your
classmates. To do so, you must make a meaningful contribution when you have the floor.
Summarizing case facts, repeating points already made, or simply agreeing with your classmates’
arguments does not constitute a meaningful contribution. Your goal should be to provide insights
that pass the "so-what" test. This can range from helping to sort out the key facts in a complex
case and to develop an analysis that builds on prior comments, thereby moving the class
discussion forward.
Every student is important to the class discussion. It is equally important that we listen to
one another and attempt to build upon or constructively critique prior comments. Try to resist the
temptation to jump to topics that are not specifically open for discussion. Some of the things that
will have an impact on effective participation and on which you will be evaluated include:
 Are you a good listener?
 Are your contributions relevant to the discussion? Do your comments relate to the
comments of others and to the themes that the class is exploring together?
 Do your comments add to our understanding of the situation? Are you incisive? Do you
cut to the core of the problem?
 Are you willing to challenge the ideas that are being expressed?
 Are you willing to test new ideas or are all your comments “save”? (For example, do you
repeat case facts without analysis or conclusions or repeat comments already made by
someone else?)
 Do you integrate material from past classes or case discussions where appropriate? Do
your comments reflect cumulative learning over the course and the entire curriculum or
do you merely consider each case in isolation?
The individual cases vary in their analytic difficulty, ranging from evaluating decisions
already made (simple) to recommending a decision for a specific issue (more difficult) to
defining the issue(s) to be addressed and then recommending a specific choice (most difficult).
For these latter two types of cases, you will often find that your understanding of the issues is
improved if you put yourself into the position of the protagonist in the case. Cases also vary in
their conceptual difficulty, ranging from a single framework that is easily understood (easy) to
multiple frameworks or one challenging framework (more difficult) to multiple and challenging
frameworks (most difficult). Understanding the cases along these dimensions will help you to
prepare more effectively and to allocate your time appropriately.
Preparation for the case discussion should begin with a quick reading of the assigned text
chapters and the case material. Then, it is worthwhile to review the assignment questions for
clues as to what issues require special attention. The next step is to reread the case carefully,
taking notes that sort information, facts, and observations under a number of relevant headings.
Most cases require that you perform some quantitative analyses. Finally, preparation will include
notes that can be used to guide your contribution to class discussions. Please ensure that you have
used in your analysis the frameworks, tools, and ideas from the readings and the previous class
discussions as appropriate. Doing the reading(s) first is advised. Also ensure that you have
exploited the material in the case exhibits as much as possible. Many cases will have a question
or two for which you have to make a specific decision recommendation. Your recommendation
should be realistic, actionable, and supported by analysis (including numerical where
appropriate). You should understand the decision criteria, formulate and evaluate (quantitative
and qualitative assessments) alternatives, and select a choice. You should also understand the
assumptions that underlie your recommendation. Finally, your recommendation should consider
implementation: who should carry out your suggestions, when they should do it, and how.
During class, you should be prepared to lead off the discussion of any question in a
significant way as well as to discuss salient issues which are not addressed per se in the assigned
questions. As in any case discussion, it is crucial that you are well-prepared, listen carefully to
others, and build on/critique previous comments. Clearly, you must participate in class if you are
going to share your ideas with others. Occasionally, students find that it is easier to participate
effectively from the point of view of a particular person or functional area, or to take on the role
of devil’s advocate or expert (if expertise is possessed) on the topic. It may be impossible for all
students to participate in each class. It is the quality of comments, not the quantity, that is
germane. In grading class contributions, I will be assessing the extent to which you have
established a meaningful presence in the classroom, over the course of the semester, by making
solid contributions on a regular basis. Feedback about class contribution will be offered to
students during office hours.
Since so much of the learning from a case-based course occurs in the classroom, class
attendance and participation is critical. You should understand that frequent absence will
seriously damage your class contribution grade. The reasoning behind this apparently very
stringent policy is that case classes demand active participation and attendance. If you must miss
a class it is your responsibility to arrange with your classmates for briefings, announcements, etc.
Below are examples of how your class contributions will be calibrated:
Outstanding contributor: Contributions in class reflect exceptional preparation. Ideas offered
are always substantive, yield one or more major insights, and provide direction to the class.
Arguments are well-substantiated and persuasively presented. If this person were not a class
member, the quality of discussion would diminish significantly.
Good Contributor: Contributions reflect thorough preparation. Ideas are usually substantive,
provide good insights into the topic under discussion, and sometimes provide direction for the
class. Arguments reflect clear thinking. If this person were not a member of the class, the quality
of discussion would be diminished.
Adequate Contributor: Contributions in class reflect satisfactory preparation. Ideas are
sometimes substantive, provide generally useful insights, but seldom offer a major new direction
for the discussion. Arguments are sometimes presented, and are fairly well-substantiated and
sometimes compelling. If this person were not a member of the class, the quality of discussion
would be somewhat diminished.
Non-participant: The person has said little or nothing in this class to date. Therefore, there is
not an adequate basis for evaluation. If this person were not a member of the class, the quality of
discussion would not be changed.
Unsatisfactory Contributor: Contributions in class reflect inadequate preparation. Ideas offered
are seldom substantive, are often off-point, provide few (if any) insights, and give no
constructive direction to the class. Clear argument on the topic at hand and/or integrative
comments are absent.
Occasionally, some students find it difficult to participate effectively in class because of
language or other challenges. Please speak with the instructor if class participation is a significant
concern for you.
Group Midterm Exam (Take-home Case): I will assign a case as a take-home exam. The class
will be divided into groups of 5 students for the group midterm exam. You will have 2 weeks to
form your own groups and to give me lists of the requested members - after that time, I will form
the groups.
Your group will have 1 week to analyze the case and submit one response per group. Your
response must respect the following guidelines: maximum 5 pages (excluding exhibits etc.),
times new roman 12-point font, double line spacing, and 1-inch margins.
To analyze the case, the following structure will help push your thinking:
A. Use the Diamond-E framework to identify all of the pertinent problems/issues that
management needs to address.
B. Perform whatever analysis and evaluation is appropriate.
C. Propose an action plan and set of recommendations addressing the issues you identified.
Please note that your written report does not have to follow this format. The expectation of
the written report is that it will be a memo to the key decision-maker in the case.
Final Exam (Take-home Case): There will be a take-home final examination. It will be similar
to the midterm exam, in that it will also be a case. It will be different from the midterm exam in
that it will be an individual exercise.
Deadlines and Length Limits
If for extreme circumstances you are going to be late in submitting an assignment, you are
expected to contact me. Lateness will result in a penalty in the grade for the project. The
penalties are as follows:
Minor delay (<1 week)
Major delay (1 week or more)
-10 points
you receive 0 points for the assignment
A similar policy is in place for projects that exceed length limits. Minor excesses (10% or
less) will normally result in penalties of -5 points, and significant excesses (more than 10%) in a
penalty of -10 points.
The quality of achievement in the course is measured as follows: "A" indicates superior
achievement; "B," indicates average or satisfactory achievement; and "C" represents a passing
grade with very disappointing performance. Plus and minus grades will also be assigned.
Accommodations for Students with Disabilities
The Center for Students with Disabilities provides a wide variety of academic support
services to all currently-enrolled UH students who have any type of mental or physical disability
or either temporary or permanent nature. If you feel you may need assistance of this nature, you
may wish to call the Center at 3-5400. In addition, you should let me know about any special
needs as soon as possible.
Instructor Evaluations
The CBA has a policy that requires all of its instructors to be evaluated by their students. The
results of these evaluations are important to provide feedback to instructors on how their
performance can be improved. In addition, these evaluations are carefully considered in
promotion, salary adjustment, and other important decisions. We openly encourage students to
provide constructive feedback to the instructors and to the CBA through the evaluation process.
Module 1:
Introduction to Strategy
In this section, we consider the role of the general manager in the success of the organization and
introduce the basic concepts of strategy.
Jan 21/22
Module 2:
Overview of Diamond E framework
Readings: Chapters 1, 2, 3
Environmental Analysis
This module explores how the firm’s environment affects company performance. Overall, there
are two concerns that are central to business unit strategy. The first is the structural
characteristics and attractiveness of the industry in which the firm competes. A central premise is
that all industries do not offer equal opportunities for sustained profitability. The second concern
is the firm's position within its industry. Competitive position determines the firm's long-run
performance against the industry average. Superior competitive positions are the result of many
factors, but ultimately derive from investments in resources, assets, and other capabilities that
generate superior value for customers. In the long run, however, above average profits are only
sustainable where they involve activities that are difficult for competitors to imitate or substitute
for, and where the value of those activities can be appropriated by the firm.
Jan 28/29
Case: Cola Wars Continue: Coke vs. Pepsi in the 1990s
Readings: Chapters 4, 5
Feb 4/5
Case: Matching Dell
Feb 11/12
Case: Wall Street Journal: Print vs. Interactive
Deadline to form teams for the midterm case exam
Module 3:
Resources and Capabilities Analysis
In the resource section we lower the microscope on how resources and capabilities are utilized in
a strategic context. There are many lenses that we could apply including understanding the
distinction between tangible and intangible assets as sources of competitive advantage,
understanding the internal value chain of the business, understanding how opportunities can
drive capabilities, and how unique resources and capabilities can be leveraged. Finally, we will
try to gain an understanding of how resources and capabilities change, or fail to change in light of
changes in the industry.
Feb 18/19
Case: Harlequin Enterprises Limited
Readings: Chapter 6
Feb 25/26
Case: Starbucks
Module 4:
Management Preferences Analysis
This module further develops the notion of success. In building value for the firm, management
often has a number of choices. Their personal preferences and those of their stakeholders
(shareholders, customers, and employees) often shape their decisions. This module recognizes
the importance of management preferences, the potential for competing interests, and how these
preferences can shape organizational success.
March 3/4
Case: Merck
Readings: Chapter 7
Module 5: Organizing to Deliver Strategy
This module examines the components of organization (structure, systems, staffing and
leadership) to understand how they support or fail to support strategy.
March 10/11
Case: Lincoln Electric
Readings: Chapter 8
Midterm case exam will be assigned
March 17/18
No class: Spring holidays
Module 6:
Scope of the Firm
This section examines the leveraging of resources and capabilities that expand the scope of the
firm, vertically, horizontally, or geographically.
March 24/25
Case: Labatt-Femsa: Amigos for Growth?
Midterm case exam is due
Module 7:
Comprehensive Analysis
In this final formulation module, we will integrate the previous modules to formulate a firm’s
strategy. In doing so, you will need to decide:
1. What does the firm need to do (environmental analysis),
2. What can the firm do (resources and capabilities analysis)
3. What does the firm want to do (stakeholders).
March 31/April 1
Case: Nestle-Rowntree
Readings: Chapter 9
Module 8:
Managing Strategic Change
This module puts the strategy that you formulated in the first part of the course into action. We
focus on how change in either the environment or the firm makes the strategy dynamic. The
need for change is tied back to the success of the enterprise and we examine the general
manager’s role in implementing strategic change.
April 7/8
Case: Westmills Carpets Limited
Readings: Chapter 10
April 14/15
Case: Silent Witness
Module 9: Personal Action
The final module brings strategy down from the level of the CEO to the lower echelons of the
organization. This view from the middle presents a more challenging perspective on strategy as
it co-mingles the day-to-day operating issues with strategic issues. This module surfaces the
challenges of getting the job done with a strategic perspective. Having developed a fuller
understanding of what it takes to implement strategy throughout the organization we can cycle
back to strategy formulation with a better sense of what is possible.
April 21/22
Case: GE Energy Management Initiative
Readings: Chapter 11
Final case exam will be assigned
April 28/29
Case: Sabena Belgian World Airlines, Weytjens’ First Assignment
May 5/6
Final case exam is due
1. Why is the soft drink industry so profitable?
2. Compare the economics of the concentrate business to the bottling business: Why is the
profitability so different? Why do concentrate producers want to vertically integrate into
3. How has the competition between Coke and Pepsi affected the industry’s profits?
4. Will Coke and Pepsi sustain their profits through the late 1990s? What would you
recommend to coke to insure its success? To Pepsi?
1. How and why did the personal computer industry come to have such low average
2. Why has Dell been so successful despite the low average profitability in the PC industry?
3. Prior to the efforts by competitors to match Dell (1997-1998), how big was Dell competitive
advantage? Specifically, calculate Dell’s advantage over the team of Compaq and a reseller in
serving a corporate customer.
4. How effective has competitors been in responding to the challenge posed by Dell’s
advantage? How big is Dell’s remaining advantage?
5. What should each of Dell’s major rivals do now?
1. Evaluate the print and electronic publishing industries. How has technology altered the
structure of the industry? How are the two industries likely to change in the future?
2. What does it take to be successful in print publishing and in electronic publishing?
3. As Peter Kann, the CEO of Dow Jones, how would you evaluate the potential for the
interactive Journal to substitute or complement the print edition? Given this, how would you
position, price and promote the two editions in the short and long-term in order to maximize
returns for both editions?
1. What are the opportunities for growth and profit in the romance novel business? What key
success factors must a firm meet to be successful in the business?
2. Assess and account for Harlequin’s performance to date. Prepare a five year “no change”
scenario for the company’s activities in the romance novel business.
3. What pressures will Larry Heisey be feeling in the early 1980s?
4. As a shareholder, what advice would you offer to Larry Heisey?
1. What is Starbucks’ strategy?
2. Giver your assessment of its competitive premise, how should it leverage its resources and
capabilities to achieve its growth objective?
3. How will you respond to McDonald’s offer?
1. How are the individuals (groups) with an interest in the decision to invest in research toward
a treatment for river blindness?
2. What do you expect would be the positions taken by these individuals (groups) and what
would be their arguments for/against funding the research?
3. As Roy Vagelos how would you weigh the positions of the individuals (groups)? What is
your decision on the investment proposal?
1. Why has Lincoln Electric been so successful? Point specifically to contributory factors in
Lincoln’s environment, strategy, and organization. Of these, which do you believe has been
of greatest importance?
2. How well do you think Lincoln will fare in the next 15 years? What, if any, changes do you
think will be essential for a positive forecast? What obstacles do you anticipate in making
those changes?
Please prepare this case first, from the general perspective suggested in Questions 1 and 2, and
second, from the specific perspective assigned to you in the class.
All participants:
1. What are the essential realities of the brewing industry and economics in the three countries the U.S., Canada, and Mexico - market trends, competition, regulatory matters, and so on?
2. What are the implications of the emerging international alliance structures among the major
brewers in North America for Labatt, Miller and FEMSA?
Labatt Management Perspective:
Please take the position of the Labatt management. You will be asked to ratify or change the
proposal under development and respond to feedback on it.
1. Review your motivations for pursuing an equity alliance with FEMSA Cerveza. What do you
expect to achieve through such an arrangement? Are you comfortable that your expectations
are realistic and defensible?
2. Review the terms of the provisional approach that has been developed to propose to FEMSA.
Are you comfortable with the financial and managerial elements of this approach? What, if
any, elements of this approach would you change before a presentation to FEMSA?
3. If FEMSA were to ask, for whatever reason, for improvements in the terms of the
arrangement, what enrichments, if any, would you be prepared to accept?
From the Miller Perspective:
Please take the position of Miller Brewing management. You will be asked whether you want to
enter into negotiations with FEMSA and, if so, what your proposal would be.
1. Are you interested in pursuing some form of alliance with FEMSA Cerveza? What would
you expect to achieve through such an arrangement? What would such an arrangement be
worth to you?
2. If the Labatt initiative and the general terms of their proposal became known to you, what, if
anything, would you do? Would you be inclined to propose a transaction of you own, or
would you sit this out? If you do go forward, what would be the essential financial and
managerial elements of your proposal?
From the FEMSA Perspective:
Please take the position of FEMSA/FEMSA Cerveza management. You will be asked to decide
whether, with whom, and under what terms you would proceed into an alliance agreement.
1. Why are you interested in pursuing an equity alliance with Labatt (or Miller, for that matter)?
What do you expect to achieve through such an arrangement? Are you comfortable that your
expectations are realistic and defensible?
2. Is the proposal that you understand Labatt will be putting forward acceptable to you? Are you
comfortable with the financial and managerial elements of the approach? What, if any,
changes would you seek?
3. Would you be inclined to invite a proposal from Miller? Why? What is the ultimate outcome
(as between Labatt and Miller) that you are trying to achieve?
1. Evaluate Nestle’s strategy and performance in the chocolate business to this point in time.
How important is the Rowntree acquisition to Nestle? What are the consequences for Nestle
if Jacob Suchard succeeds in acquiring Rowntree?
2. Evaluate Rowntree’s strategy and performance in the chocolate business. Why has Rowntree
become a take-over target?
3. How important is a friendly acquisition to Nestle? To Rowntree? What are the obstacles in
the way of such an event?
Assume that you are Derek Mather and that you have just taken over as president of Westmills.
Despite your misgivings you want to give this company your best shot.
1. What were the key elements of Morrison’s turn-around strategy for Westmills? What were
the key assumptions supporting this strategy?
2. Do a careful analysis of plan versus actual numbers. Morrison’s strategy has gone wrong.
3. What are the problems/obstacles that have to be addressed to get Westmills on the survival
track? Is there any hope? What would you focus on if you were Mather?
Will SWE be able to achieve its aggressive growth goals? Why/Why not?
What is propelling Rob Bakshi’s new vision for the company?
What are the key issues in making this vision a reality?
How should Bakshi proceed?
Take the position of Raj Bhatt:
1. Review your assessment of the attractiveness of the energy management industry and the key
success factors for operating in it. Are you comfortable and confident with your conclusions
that this is an attractive industry and business opportunity?
2. How does the GE management system work? How does GE Canada fit into this picture?
What are the implications of these observations for the development of the energy
management business?
3. As of the end of the meeting with the GE Supply executives, what are your options for
proceeding and what do you intend to do?
Read Sabena Belgian World Airlines (A) and Weytjens’ First Assignment.
1. What personal, business and environmental factors influence Erik Weytjens’ decisions and
actions? In what way?
2. What is your assessment of the situation at Sabena catering and how ready is the organization
for change?
3. What actions should Weytjens take to resolve the problems in dishwashing?
Name: ______________________________
Student Number: _________________
E-mail Address: ____________________________
Work Phone: __________________
Home Phone: ___________________
May your social security number (last 4 digits) be used for grade posting?
Social Security Number: __________________
Signature: ___________________
Educational Experience:
Degree: ___________________________
Date: _______ School: _______________________
Current Degree Program: _____________________ Major/Specialization: _________________
Number of hours taking this semester: __________ Expected graduation date: ______________
Work Experience:
Current Position: _______________________________ How long? __________________
Current Employer: ______________________________ How long? __________________
Nature of duties: ____________________________________________________________
Previous Position: _______________________________ How long? __________________
Previous Employer: ______________________________ How long? __________________
Nature of duties: ____________________________________________________________
Career/Personal goals: ______________________________________________________
List of countries in which you have lived and how long: