# PROGRESSION IN CALCULATIONS MULTIPLICATION Mental

```PROGRESSION IN CALCULATIONS
MULTIPLICATION
Mental Skills
Vocabulary
• Recognise the size and position of
numbers
• Count on in steps of 2, 5, 10
• Double numbers up to 10
• Recognise multiplication as repeated
• Quick recall of multiplication facts
• Use known facts to derive
associated facts
• Multiply by 10, 100, 1000 and understand the effect
• Multiply by multiples of 10
MULTIPLICATION
Children are taught to understand multiplication as repeated
addition and scaling. It can also describe an array.
2x4=
Each child has two eyes. How many eyes do four
children have?
2
+
2
+
2
+
2
5x3=
There are 5 cakes in a pack. How many cakes in
3 packs?
Use pictures and
equipment to count
2s.
Dots or tally marks
are often drawn in
groups. This shows
3 groups of 5.
2x4=
A chew costs 2p. How much do 4 chews cost?
Drawing an array
gives children an
It also helps develop
the understanding
that 2 x 4 is the
same as 4 x 2.
6x4=
There are 4 cats. Each cat has 6 kittens. How
many kittens are there altogether?
Children can
represent arrays on
a numberline
counting on in equal
steps. This shows 6
jumps of 4.
6x4=
This can be done on
an unnumbered
number line,
with multiplication
and repeated
4 jumps of 6.
0
6
12
18
24
13 x 4 =
There are 13 biscuits in a packet. How many
biscuits in 7 packets?
(+40)
(+12)
10 x 4
0
3x4
40
52
When numbers get
bigger, it is inefficient
to do lots of small
jumps. Partition 13 in
to tens and units (10
and 3). This gives you
two jumps (10 x 4 and
3 x 4).
13 x 4 =
This can also be
represented using
place value apparatus
and partitioning. Each
number is multiplied,
together.
13 x 4 =
When children have
secured their
understanding through
the use of equipment
they will be able to
record it as the grid
method.
A secure
understanding as to
what is happening
when we multiply
larger tens numbers is
crucial and may also
be supported by
apparatus.
23 x 4 =
33 x 14 =
Multiplying two digit x
two digit. Partition
the numbers and
multiply each part.