Race and Ethnicity Comprehensive Exam Fall 2010 Day 2: Race/Ethnicity and Immigration Write essay responses for any two (2) of the five questions below. You are encouraged to be thorough in your essay, developing the discussion in detail and giving examples and illustrations. 1. U.S. society has been experiencing continuous large-scale immigration since the late twentieth century. More immigrants have been admitted into the United States in each of the two decades since 1990 than in any other decades in U.S. history. What are the new questions and issues that this large-scale immigration raises for the sociology of race and ethnicity, and how are sociologists framing research to understand the impacts of new immigration on racial and ethnic relations in U.S. society? 2. Taking an immigration perspective, discuss the concept of “racialization” as it relates to specific racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the United States or elsewhere. Based on the literature you have read address the questions as to when and why certain group and individual characteristics or practices become racialized and why (or why not) this may be related to high levels of immigration? 3. Immigration and the out-migration of non-Hispanic whites from central cities have increased the concentrations of groups of color (Asians, African Americans, Latinas/os, etc.) in the same U.S. urban areas (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, etc.). This increases the opportunities for intergroup interaction among the different groups of color. From the perspective of one such group, describe and explain dimensions of these newly evolving intergroup relations, and discuss how these changing relations offer new challenges and opportunities for research on race and ethnicity. 4. In Remaking the American Mainstream (2003), Richard Alba and Victor Nee argue that the process of assimilation continues in U.S. society, albeit into a society that is changing due to the impacts of new cultures. Develop a discussion in which you challenge this argument, or support it, or offer qualifications for it, from the perspective of research reported for immigrant groups that have arrived in the society since the late twentieth century. 5. Recent immigration research by Portes, Rumbaut, Zhou, Waters, and other sociologists focuses on conditions of the second generation (the U.S.-born children of immigrants). Identify and describe this emerging research and explain how the sociological findings lead to new conceptualizations, or support established theories and concepts, of race and ethnicity in U.S. society.