Chapter 9 Study Guide

Chapter 9 Study Guide
People to Know:
Innocent III
Joan of Arc
Louis IX
Marco Polo
Thomas Aquinas
William the Conqueror
Words to Know:
Common law
Flying buttresses
Ideas to Understand:
The development of an early jury system took place in England during the reign of
Henry II.
The Magna Carta was important because it asserted that nobles and freemen had rights
and the monarch must obey the law.
A major conflict between the Holy Roman emperors and the popes concerned who would
appoint bishops.
The chief goal of the Crusades was to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.
The Reconquista refers to the campaign to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
Medieval cathedrals helped to educate people who could not read by featuring sculptures
and stained glass that portrayed biblical stories.
The first universities evolved in the Middle Ages.
During the late Middle Ages, the Church grew weak and divided.
The plague in Europe resulted in economic decline.
Compare the Romanesque style of architecture with the Gothic style:
I. Romanesque
A. Low buildings
B. Thick walls
C. Tiny window slits
D. Heavy, barrel-vaulted roofs
E. Towers
F. Dark, gloomy interiors
II. Gothic
A. Tall and graceful
B. Thinner walls, supported by flying buttresses
C. Lofty ceilings
D. Large stained-glass windows depicting religious scenes
E. Tall spires
F. Interior light that symbolized God’s presence
Identify and explain 3 long-term effects of the crusades:
I. Economic expansion
A. Increased trade—new products, ships to carry goods
B. Growth in use of money
C. Undermined serfdom
II. Increased power for monarchs
A. Rights to collect taxes
B. Some led crusades, increasing their prestige
III. Increased power for popes
A. Papal power grew to greatest height
B. Power increase did not last long, due to conflicts with feudal monarchs
C. Crusades hardened Byzantine resentment toward the West
IV. Wider worldview
A. European Christians realized many people lived in faraway places they didn’t
know about
B. Some curious Europeans, like Marco Polo, traveled to distant lands
C. Led to new age of exploration