Tool box diffusive sampling v2

Related to WP 2.2
Version 20 Nov. 09
Tool title and potential use
Diffusive sampling techniques directed at “available exposure”
Novelty and background
The poorly defined “bioavailability” term was parameterized into three chemically
defined exposure parameters, that can be measured by means of diffusive sampling
techniques and that subsequently can be applied within the environmental risk
assessment and management of chemicals and polluted sites. The three types of
parameters are:
1. chemical activity, freely dissolved concentration or fugacity. These
parameters quantify the potential of a chemical for spontaneous processes
such as diffusion and partitioning.
2. accessibility, which describes the quantity of a chemical that is or can become
available. It will always be operationally defined.
3. diffusive conductivity that characterises the diffusive property of an exposure
media for a specific analyte.
The “diffusive flux towards a sink” was also included as a measure that integrates the
primary availability parameters and that is very suited to mimic and predict dynamic
mass transfer phenomena.
Description of tool and current state
A wide range of diffusive sampling techniques have been developed for the
measurement of the available exposure parameters. Some of these methods are ready
for use, some are under development and more research is needed to extend the
applicability domain of these techniques.
1. Jahnke A, McLachlan M S, Mayer P (2008). Equilibrium Sampling:
Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Selected
Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) from Lipids into Polydimethyl-siloxane
(PDMS). Chemosphere 73: 1575-1581.
2. Jahnke A, Mayer P, Broman D, McLachlan M S. (2009). Equilibrium
sampling using polydimethylsiloxane in fish tissue – possibilities and
limitations. Chemosphere 77: 764-770.
3. Legind C N, Karlson U, Burken J G, Reichenberg F, Mayer P (2007).
Determining chemical activity of (semi)volatile compounds by headspace
solid phase microextraction. Anal Chem 79: 2869-2876.
4. Magnér J A, Alsberg T E, Broman D (2009) Evaluation of poly(ethylene-covinyl actetate-co-carbon monoxide) and PDMS for equilibrium sampling of
polar organic contaminants in water. Environ Toxicol and Chem 28: 18741880.
5. Magnér J, Alsberg T, Broman D. (2009), Bag-SPE—a convenient extraction
method for screening of pharmaceutical residues in influent and effluent water
from sewage treatment plants. Anal Bioanal Chemi, 395: 1481-1489.
6. Magnér J, Alsberg T, Broman D. (2009), The ability of a novel sorptive
polymer to determine the freely dissolved fraction of polar organic
compounds in the presence of fulvic acid or sediment., Anal Bioanal Chem
395: 1525 –1532.
7. Mayer P, Fernqvist M M, Christensen P S, Karlson U, Trapp S (2007).
Enhanced diffusion of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in artificial and
natural aqueous solutions. Environ Sci Technol 41: 6148-6155.
8. Mayer P, Toräng L, Glæsner N, Jönnson J Å (2009). Silicone Membrane
Equilibrator – measuring chemical activity of non-polar chemicals with PDMS
micro-tubes immersed directly within tissue and lipids. Anal Chem 81: 15361542.
9. Mayer P, Karlson U, Christensen P S, Johnsen A R, Trapp S (2005)
Quantifying the effect of medium composition on the diffusive mass transfer
of hydrophobic organic chemicals through unstirred boundary layers. Environ
Sci Technol 39: 6123-6129.
10. Ossiander L, Reichenberg F, McLachlan M S, Mayer P (2008) Immersed
Solid Phase Micro Extraction to measure chemical activity of lipophilic
organics in fatty tissue samples. Chemosphere 71: 1502–1510.
11. Reichenberg F, Smedes F, Jönsson J Å, Mayer (2008) Vials with polymer
coatings of multiple thicknesses for equilibrium sampling of hydrophobic
organic compounds in soil. Chemi Centr J, 2: 8.
12. Reichenberg F, Mayer P (2006) Two complementary sides of bioavailability:
accessibility and chemical activity of organic contaminants in sediments and
soils. Environ Toxicol Chemi 25: 1239-1245.
13. Tian Y, Wang X R, et al. (2008). "Evaluation of Holistic Approaches to
Predicting the Concentrations of Metals in Field-Cultivated Rice." Environ
Science & Technology 42(20): 7649-7654.
14. Witt G, Liehr G A, Borck D, Mayer P. (2009). Using solid phase
microextraction to measure freely dissolved concentrations and chemical
activities of PAHs in sediment cores of the western Baltic Sea. Chemosphere
74: 522-529.
Responsible scientists:
Organic chemicals: Philipp Mayer, Aarhus University,
Metals: Hao Zhang, Lancaster University,