Background_info_ Buccoo_Reef

advertisement
1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This Administrative Record discusses the reasons and issues involved in the proposed
action of designating Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) and a
National Park under the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
The administrative record is designed to demonstrate the process and justification for the
selection of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area, and to share this
information with the public of Trinidad and Tobago, while soliciting their input and
contributions.
The significance of Buccoo Reef and its biodiversity has been recognised for many
years as a proposed National Park in the 1980 report on a Systems Plan for National
Parks and other Protected Areas for Trinidad and Tobago.
The Buccoo Reef was first declared a restricted area referred to in section 2 of the
Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement Act), Chap. 37:02, Legal Notice No. 140
of 1973.
Its importance has long been recognised and a management plan for the area was
developed in 1995 by the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA).
The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules of 2001, seeks to award protection to certain
areas of Trinidad and Tobago that contain threatened and remarkable representations of
this country’s biodiversity. Criteria laid down in the ESA Rules guide the selection and
justification of the areas to be declared. A copy of the ESA Rules 2001 is in Appendix 1.
The intention of the Environmentally Sensitive Species Rules, 2001, (ESS) is to provide
added protection to certain species. The ESA and ESS Rules are complementary, and
intended to support conservation efforts throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
2
2.0 BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT OF THE PROPOSED ACTION
2.1 Biodiversity of Trinidad and Tobago
Biological diversity or biodiversity is the variety of life in all its forms on the earth, and
the diverse kinds of habitats in which these plants and animals live together. The word
originates from the words “Bios” which is Greek for life, and “diversity” which means
variety. Biodiversity includes genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
An ecosystem is the complex interacting web of living organisms and their non-living
environment. Examples of ecosystems are swamps, reefs, savannas, tropical forests or deserts.
Within these large ecosystems are habitats. Habitats are smaller components of ecosystems
where plants and animals live - an earthworm will live in the soil or a scorpion under a rock.
Ecosystem diversity is the variety of different habitats or ecosystems. In Trinidad and Tobago
we have a very rich ecosystem biodiversity, with different kinds of terrestrial or land, marine
and freshwater ecosystems.
Species diversity or the variety of species, allows us to tell the difference between living things
that make them distinct from each other. We can tell the difference between a dog, a fish, and
a beetle, and we can also tell the difference between different kinds (species) of fish. We can
identify a carite, a shark and a flying fish, as three separate species of fish.
Genetic diversity is the variety within each species. If we look at the human family, each one
of us is different from each other, although we are all human. We can identify individuals
amongst ourselves because of our different genetic makeup. This difference in genetic makeup
has enabled us to use the technologies of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) testing to solve crimes
and determine the parenthood of people1. This is possible due to the differences in our genes,
which therefore, contribute to make us unique.
The importance of biodiversity has held the world’s attention over the last several decades,
because of the recognition of the dependent relationship humans have with all biodiversity of
the Earth. Its value can be looked at in three broad aspects: Economic, Ecological and Cultural
values.
1. The economic value of biodiversity is often underrated but is demonstrated in all that
we consume from food to medications. It has been estimated that the monetary value
of the benefits derived from nature can be estimated to be at least US $ 33 trillion
every year!
2. The ecological value hinges on the fact that all living organisms are supported by the
interactions between different components of the environment. The water that we
drink is constantly replenished by the water cycle, where plants play an important part
of the process. Light from the sun, water and nutrients are used to produce
carbohydrates, which we consume either directly from plants or through the animals
that eat the plants2.
1
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
2
David Suzuki Foundation. 2004. Why Biodiversity is Important. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.davidsuzuki.org/WOL/Biodiversity/Importance.asp (Accessed on June 01, 2004).
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
3
3. Biodiversity also has a strong cultural value, especially in Trinidad and Tobago, where
recreation is closely linked to the river or beach lime, our eating of wildmeat, leaves
and other forest produce spice up our culinary habits, and artistic inspiration comes
from our natural environment.
Provisioning
Goods produced or
provided by ecosystems
Food
Freshwater
Fuel wood
Fiber
Biochemicals
Genetic resources
Biodiversity &
Ecosystem
Services
Regulating
Benefits obtained from
regulation of ecosystem
processes
Climate regulation
Disease control
Flood control
Detoxification
Cultural
Non-material benefits
obtained from
ecosystems
•Spiritual
Recreational
Aesthetic
Inspirational
Educational
Communal
Symbolic
The islands of Trinidad and Tobago have a complex geological history due to the islands’
recent separation from the northern portion of South America, only some 11-15,000 years
ago, at the end of the last Ice Age3. Trinidad and Tobago are merely offshore islands of
the South American mainland retaining the diversity of flora (plants) and fauna (animals)
of the continent.
In Trinidad and Tobago, few species have evolved, adapting to local conditions, resulting
in new species or sub-species/ varieties that are different from similar variations on the
South American continent. The local Pawi (Pipile pipile) from the forests of the North
East, including Matura, is believed to be a sub-species of a South American variety and
therefore endemic to Trinidad. An endemic species is a species, which is found native to
a particular habitat or region and occurs only there4.
Other sub-species and species for Trinidad and Tobago include the Blind Cave Fish
(Rhamdia quelen), Oilbird (Steatornis caripenesis), Golden Tree Frog (Phyllodytes
auratus).
Although there are roughly 4,174 known species of flora and fauna in the country, there
remain many undocumented and un-described species, especially among the lower
groups of organisms, for example invertebrates. Information on the country’s genetic
3
4
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1997. State of the Environment Report 1997. EMA, Port
of Spain, Trinidad.
Kricher, J. C. 1997. A Neotropical Companion: An Introduction to the Animals, Plants, and
Ecosystems of the New World Tropics. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Princeton University
Press, New Jersey, United States of America.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
4
diversity is largely confined to the agricultural sector such as the Cocoa Gene Bank in
Centeno, the genetic stock of sugar cane and commercial timber species5.
2.2 Threats to Trinidad and Tobago’s Biodiversity
Habitat loss in Trinidad and Tobago has led to the erosion of precious biological
diversity. The country is the most industrialised of the Commonwealth Caribbean. The
expanding population has placed increasing pressures on the islands, which have a
limited land space of only 5,123 km2. The consequence of these demands means that the
natural resources experience pressures that impact on the environment, including the
pollution of land, marine and freshwaters, oil spills, deforestation and the
overexploitation of fisheries wildlife and forest resources6.
Globally, biodiversity is under threat from human civilization, expansion and
consumption. Human beings, having the ability to modify their environment have done
so on a scale unknown in human history today. Human activities have had a dramatic
effect on the natural environment and resources to the extent that species extinctions have
become common occurrences; pollution is affecting human health, water resources,
livelihoods and the well-being of humans. Environmental degradation has become a
serious challenge to our survival, health and civilization as the biodiversity on which all
life depends is depleted.
The loss of biodiversity holds unique concerns for islands of the Caribbean. Trinidad and
Tobago are small islands and the erosion of biodiversity means that residents will feel the
implications directly. Biodiversity contributes in significant ways to the economic
development of the country through tourism, recreation, and resources harvested from the
natural environment7.
2.3 Overview of the History of the System of Protecting Areas in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago has had a long history of reserving lands for their environmental
and biodiversity goods and services to people. However, present day management and
legislation has not kept abreast of recent knowledge and developments in biodiversity
conservation and management, especially in the protection of the marine habitat. The
history of reserves and conservation is predominantly terrestrial or land based.
5
6
7
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999b. The Administrative Record for Environmentally
Sensitive Areas Rules 1999. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
Bacon P.R. 2000
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
5
After Independence in 1962, the Forestry Division was charged with the responsibility of
protecting the country’s the flora and fauna. However, ever-increasing levels of
exploitation and degradation proved to be too much for existing legislation and policy8.
In 1973, four sites that were identified as being suitable as National Parks: the Caroni
Swamp, Navet Dam, Valencia Dam and Chaguaramas. These sites were chosen based
mainly on the provision of recreation for the population, rather than the protection of
their resources. Of these, Chaguaramas was designated a National Park in 1974 under the
Chaguaramas Development Act.
In 1977 the Government of Trinidad and Tobago requested the Organisation of American
States (OAS) to assist the country in establishing a plan for a system of National Parks
and Protected Areas and create a policy from which legislation could be developed9.
The approach was based on the conservation and preservation of vegetative communities
and the protection of endemic and native species of wildlife10. The size of existing
sanctuaries was taken into consideration as they needed to be adequate to fully support
conservation efforts of any particular ecosystem. Thelen and Faizool (1980a) identified
61 sites that required protection. Of these, the following were proposed in six categories
of Protected Areas:






13 Scientific Reserves;
8 National Parks;
8 Natural Landmarks;
13 Nature Conservation Reserves;
6 Scenic Landscapes, and;
13 Recreational Parks.
The policy document11 developed from this project, was only agreed to in principle, but
the legislation necessary to effect it lagged behind.
The Systems Plan of 1980 identified Buccoo Reef as one of the proposed National Parks
selected for protection due to the nature of the floral and faunal composition of the area.
8
9
10
11
Leach, M., and J. Fairhead. 2001a. Science, policy and national parks in Trinidad and Tobago.
Working Paper from the Project ‘Forest Science and Forest Policy: Knowledge, Institutions and Policy
Processes’. The Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/env/PDFs/TrinidadNationalParks.pdf
Fairhead, J., and Leach, M. 2001. Sustainable Forestry in Trinidad? Natural Forest Management in
the South-East. Working Paper from the Project ‘Forest Science and Forest Policy: Knowledge,
Institutions and Policy Processes’. The Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom. Available
at the Internet URL: http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/env/PDFs/TrinidadSustainableForestry.pdf
Leach, M., and J. Fairhead. 2001a.
Thelen, K.D. and S. Faizool. 1980b. Policy for the Establishment and Management of a National Park
System in Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Port
of Spain, Trinidad.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
6
This study also indicated that such a Park would require special management objectives
that would ensure that the Park be maintained in a natural and undisturbed state, to allow
the biotic processes of the ecosystems to continue unimpeded.
This systems plan of protected areas was not implemented and management of some
small areas remained ad hoc. At present, there are three main legal categories of protected
areas in Trinidad and Tobago. These are:
1. Wildlife or Game Sanctuaries;
2. Prohibited Areas;
3. Protected Marine Areas.
However, it is interesting to note that the first reserve of the country and indeed one of
the first of the western hemisphere was the Main Ridge of Tobago, declared in 1776 for
protection of the watershed that fed agricultural lands and therefore the economy of the
island. The importance of maintaining forests to attract rain had long since been
recognised, and the downstream effects on the whole economy of the island of Tobago.
The history of the reservation of state lands for conservation and production for Trinidad
and Tobago includes the following landmarks:
1765
The Main Ridge Reserve in Tobago, was set aside as
“Woods for the protection of the rains”
1922-1960
A system of 43 Forest Reserves declared for managing
timber resources
1934-1968
A system of 11 Wildlife or Game Sanctuaries declared for
the protection of wild animal species.
Chaguaramas Development Act, for the protection of the
Chaguaramas peninsula
1972
1973
Marine Preservation and Enhancement Act used to declare
Buccoo Reef a Protected Area.
1987- 1999
Prohibited Areas declared under the Forests Act, to
prevent entry into sensitive areas at specific times of the
year. Increasingly used to protect nesting animals and
Forest Reserves from fires.
Wildlife sanctuaries
An interest in the protection of wildlife began to take shape in Trinidad and Tobago as
early as 1928, when the first game sanctuary was established. Subsequent designation of
wildlife sanctuaries continued from 1933. The Conservation of Wildlife Act (67:01) was
enacted in 1953 with the aim of protecting the wildlife of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
7
Between 1928 -1968, thirteen (13) Game Sanctuaries were declared to prohibit hunting in
specific locations. It is interesting to note that of the thirteen areas, six (6) were
specifically dedicated to the protection of nesting or roosting bird species. Five are in fact
small islands, islets and rocks where breeding colonies of seabirds were to be protected
from poaching and hunting.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Kronstadt Island
Little Tobago
Saut d'eau
Soldado rock
St. Giles Islands
Caroni Swamp
5 Hectares
101 Hectares
10 Hectares
6 Hectares
29 Hectares
200 Hectares
Of the seven remaining Game Sanctuaries, three were located in the hilly and
mountainous terrain of the island, also representing a geographical spread, i.e. the
Northern Range, Central Range and Southern Range. Although the selection of
sanctuaries appears to have been partial to bird habitat, the value of wildlife was
recognised and an effort made to have a geographical spread of habitats and diversity12.
Forest Reserves
Between 1922 and 1960 a series of 43 Forest Reserves were declared in the country.
Although Forest Reserves are for the management and exploitation of forest resources,
some of these reserves have also been about the conservation and sustainable utilization
of the forest resources. Trinidad and Tobago has actually developed forest management
systems that are world renowned for their sustainability. While exploitative of the forest
resources, biodiversity values were recognised early, and efforts were made in some
Forest Reserves to conserve habitats.
Prohibited Areas
More recently, during 1987 - 1997, nine (9) prohibited areas under the Forest Act were
declared (see Table 1 below).
Key objectives for declaring Prohibited areas during this period were:
1. To confer added protection by restricting entry without a permit;
2. The protection of an individual species, e.g. the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys
coriacaea) during their nesting season on selected beaches on Trinidad. This latter
reason accounts for three of the prohibited areas13.
12
13
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
8
Table 1: Prohibited Areas in Trinidad and Tobago14
Prohibited
Area
Previous
Designation
Date Declared
Prohibited
Aripo Savannas
Long Stretch Reserve
1987
Caroni Swamp
Wildlife Sanctuary and Caroni Swamp
Reserve
1987
Northern Range
Wildlife Sanctuary
1989
Bush Bush
Wildlife Sanctuary
1989
Trinity Hills
Wildlife Sanctuary
1989
Matura Beach
Manzanilla Windbelt Reserve
1990
Fishing Pond
Manzanilla Windbelt Reserve
1990
Nariva Swamp
Wildlife Sanctuary and Windbelt Reserve
1993
1997
Grande Riviere
Beach
23 Forest
Reserves
Forest Reserves
1998
Wildlife
Sanctuaries
Wildlife Sanctuaries
1999
Protected Marine Areas
There has only been one such area, declared thus far, Buccoo Reef. This area was
declared in 1973 under the Marine Preservation and Enhancement Act. The Fisheries
Department of the Tobago House of Assembly is responsible for the management of the
Buccoo Reef Marine Park.
2.4 Efforts to protect Buccoo Reef
Buccoo Reef has been the subject of a number of studies and research programmes over
several years, however the implementation of the management plan (IMA 1995) is
largely outstanding. The area will be proposed as a Ramsar site under the Articles of the
Ramsar Convention (International Convention on the Importance of Wetlands Especially
as Waterfowl Habitats)15.
14
15
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
http://www.ramsar.org/index_about_ramsar.htm
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
9
Buccoo Reef is complex ecosystem of seagrass beds, mangrove, and coral, is home to a
vast array of life forms and is considered to be among the more outstanding corals in the
country16. A number of the species that thrive on the coral reefs are listed on the SPAW
Protocol (The Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife to the
Cartagena Convention)17. In recognition of the importance of Buccoo Reef, it was
selected for the designation as an “environmentally sensitive area” under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001 (ESA Rules).
The designation will be the culmination of work and planning that began decades ago.
Under the ESA Rules, another foundation will be laid for the protection and rehabilitation
of the Reef and the protection of species whose declining population levels have made
them threatened in Tobago.
In selecting areas in need of protection, the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules of
2001 identify certain criteria that proposed areas should fulfil that make it worthy of
protection. The ESA Rules criteria, include:
















16
17
Uniqueness, rarity or important biological features;
Habitat of any environmentally sensitive species;
Meeting the Government’s international obligations under any of the International
Conventions;
Good representation of a naturally-occurring ecological system or type;
Particularly good representative of an ecosystem characteristic of one, or common
to more than one biogeographical region;
Rare or unusual habitat, ecosystem, or community attributes in a biogeographical
region;
Critical importance to the survival or recovery of endangered, endemic or
vulnerable species/communities of plants or animals;
An appreciable or significant assemblage of endangered, or threatened species of
plants or animals;
Special value as a habitat for plants or animals at a critical stage of their
biological cycle;
Provision of appreciable social recreational or economic benefit to local
communities or to wider areas;
Forest for purely conservation purposes;
Unique geological features;
High in aesthetic value;
Regarded by the scientific community as having significant value for nondestructive research;
Potential for fostering environmental awareness, appreciation or education;
Performing an integral role in the functioning of the wider ecosystem;
Thelen, K.D. and S. Faizool. 1980a. System of National Parks and Other Protected Areas in Trinidad
and Tobago. Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
SPAW Protocol is further explained in Section 3.1.3
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
10


Representative example of coastal and marine ecosystems18.
Representative example of all wetland types19.
See Appendix I for the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules 2001.
3.0 DESCRIPTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE PROPOSED BUCCOO REEF
NATIONAL PARK
3.1 Geomorphological Features
The south-western portion of the island of Tobago consists of Pleistocene limestone,
covering an area of about 27km2. The proposed ESA, Buccoo Reef lying just north of
this platform, and west of the village of Buccoo. The skeletal material making up this
limestone is mainly coral and calcareous algal material. Much of the sediment in the area
is calcareous in nature, and the offshore reefs themselves are a great source of
sedimentary material. The sediment is deposited on the sea floor as well as the
surrounding beaches, producing alluring white sand beaches20.
3.2 Oceanographic Parameters
3.2.1 Tidal Influence
Trinidad and Tobago has a complex oceanographic system, thus is does not show a
homogenous pattern around the islands. In Tobago, the Orinoco River also has a great
deal of influence of the water currents, and sediment load of the water around the
northern and southern coasts of the island. The flow from the Orinoco, brings a great
degree of nutrients and fresh water, in addition to sediment (as described above). These
all affect coral growth by inhibiting it. Trinidad is more greatly subjected to the
influences of the Orinoco, hence there is only limited coral growth around the island.
Tobago, because less influenced, has a greater degree of coral growth21.
3.3 Biological Features of Buccoo Reef
The marine life of Buccoo Reef and Bon Accord Lagoon are constantly undergoing stress
from anthropogenic and natural reasons. One of the natural causes of the stress for the
18
19
20
21
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. 2001. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001. The Laws of
the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Government Printery, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. 2001. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001. The Laws of
the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Government Printery, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs. 1995. IMA/ THA Coral Reef Project Phase Two. The Formulation of
a Management Plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park: Volume II – The Management Plan. Final
Report, Document prepared for the Tobago House of Assembly.
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs/ UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme. 1999. CEPNET/
IDB Project. State of the Marine Environment Report: Trinidad and Tobago.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
11
organisms of the reefs is the influence of the Orinoco River on the oceanographic systems
of the island of Tobago.
3.3.1 Bon Accord Mangrove Swamp
Although the Bon Accord swamp is an integral part of the ecological complex of Buccoo
Reef, it lie4s outside of the proposed boundaries of the ESA. The proposed boundaries lie
entirely in the marine area.
The mangrove of the Bon Accord swamp is predominantly Red Mangrove (Rhizophora
mangle), with White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) interspaced. It forms a wide
belt several hundreds of meters wide. The root system of the mangrove is the home to a
wide variety of organisms. Some of the species that are found within this habitat includes
sponges, hydroids, algae (Dictyota sp., Ulva sp. or “Sea lettuce”, Padina sp.,), anemones
(Aiptasia sp.), and bivalve molluscs (Isognomon alatus, Pinctada radiata)22.
Higher groups of organisms are also found. These include the crabs (Cardisoma
guanhumi, Aratus pisonii and Uca sp. There are a wide variety of fish, and the Hawksbill
turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has been observed there. There is also a fairly good
representative bird population, including the brown pelican (Pelicanua occidentalis),
green heron (Butorides virescens), snowy egret (Egretta thula), common gallinule
(Gallinula chloropus) and night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea)23.
3.3.2 The Bon Accord Lagoon
This lagoon is bordered by mangrove swamp to the south and reef lagoons to the northern
portion. The sea floor reaches a maximum depth of 6m. The type of substratum on the
floor varies from mud in its eastern end to muddy sand in its western end. The organisms
inhabiting the eastern portion is predominantly macroalgae (i.e. large forms of algae
which is visible to the naked eye), in particular, Acetabularia sp. To the west, sea grass
beds dominate the sea floor. The sea grass species, Thalassia testudinum is extensive.
Within the sea grass community, there are also algal associations consisting of Bryopsis
sp., Dictyota sp., and Chaetomorpha sp. In addition, there are sea urchins (Lytechinus
variegatus), molluscs (Strombus sp.), Atlantic pearl oysters (Pinctada radiata) and sea
cucumbers (Holothuria mexicana)24.
22
23
24
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the Buccoo Reef/
Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested Student Exercises. Resource
Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas Management. Consortium of Caribbean
Universities for Natural Resource Management Association of Caribbean University and Research
Institutes.
Agard, J. 1994.
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the Buccoo Reef/
Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested Student Exercises. Resource
Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas Management. Consortium of Caribbean
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
12
3.3.3 The Reef Lagoon
The majority of the shallow areas of the Buccoo Reef complex occurs within this lagoon.
A broad arc of reef flats exists on its seaward side. This particular lagoon has three main
features:
1. Sediment substratum;
2. Reef patches; and,
3. the Blue Hole25.
3.3.4 Sediment substratum
Most of the sea floor is made up of sediment. The sediment is carbonate in nature and
came from corals, molluscs and calcareous algae (particularly Halimeda sp.). The sea
floor has the appearance of white sand that is best typified by Nylon Pool26.
3.3.5 Patch Reefs
In the reef lagoon, there are formations of corals. There are to date, four identified reef
patches.
In the south, and the Bon Accord lagoon, the reefs consist of Finger coral (Porites
porites) and coral rubble covered by the alga Halimeda sp.
In the west, the predominant coral is the Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis).
In the east, the reef flat consists of Staghorn coral and Fire coral (Millepora sp.).
In the north, the coral formations are much larger. The coral life there includes “bouldertype formations”. These are actually referred to as Star coral (Montastrea sp.) and brain
coral (Diploria sp.). This reef also has sea-fans (Gorgonia sp.). There are colourful
species of fish, and other types of smaller corals. The whole area, is remarkably beautiful
and is referred to a “Coral Gardens”27.
25
26
27
Universities for Natural Resource Management Association of Caribbean University and Research
Institutes.
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the Buccoo Reef/
Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested Student Exercises. Resource
Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas Management. Consortium of Caribbean
Universities for Natural Resource Management Association of Caribbean University and Research
Institutes.
Agard, J. 1994.
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the Buccoo Reef/
Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested Student Exercises. Resource
Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas Management. Consortium of Caribbean
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
13
3.3.6 The Blue Hole
This “Blue Hole” is located at the eastern end of the reef lagoon, between Nylon Pool and
the Coral Gardens. It may be a relict of an earlier channel from the lagoon. The channel is
postulated to have closed up by reef proliferation. It has a depth of 10m at its deepest
points, and has a sandy sea floor bed. Different types of corals characterise the channel,
including Brain coral (Diploria sp. and Colpophyllia sp.), Porous coral (Porites
astreoides) and Starlet coral (Siderastrea siderea)28.
3.3.7 The Reef Flats
There are five reef flats, which form an arc from Pigeon Point to Buccoo Bay. These
reefs are known as:
 Pigeon Point Reef;
 Western Reef;
 Northern Reef;
 Outer Reef; and,
 Eastern Reef.
The reefs are subject to extensive wave action, and as such, the coral species present are
only wave-resistant species, particularly Stony corals. Star coral is dominant on Pigeon
Point, Western and Northern Reef flats, while Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) occurs
on all of the reef flats29.
3.3.8 The Fore Reef Slopes
The western portion of the arc of reef flats is referred to as the fore reefs. The fore reefs,
gently slope to a depth of about 20m. This area of the reef is home to a number of
different species of corals. The species grow at different depths along the reefs. In the
shallow part of the fore reef, Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) is common. In the deeper
portions of the reef, Brain coral (Diploria sp.), Starlet coral (Siderastrea sp.) and Star
coral (Montastrea sp.) thrive30.
28
29
30
Universities for Natural Resource Management Association of Caribbean University and Research
Institutes.
Agard, J. 1994.
Agard, J. 1994.
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the Buccoo Reef/
Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested Student Exercises. Resource
Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas Management. Consortium of Caribbean
Universities for Natural Resource Management Association of Caribbean University and Research
Institutes.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
14
3.3.9 Socio-Economic Features
Income received by residents in Tobago from tourism-generated opportunities is
significant. Within close proximity to the proposed National Park is Buccoo Village.
This village is predominantly a fishing village. Many of the traditional methods of fishing
are still employed, such as line fishing, fish pots and seines. It is in this village that glassbottoms operated tours began in the 1930s. Today, this trade has been expanded and now
Store Bay and Pigeon Point act as original points of embarkation31.
4.0 THE MAJOR THREATS TO THE ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF BUCCOO
REEF
The threats to the reefs illustrated in this section, have severe ecological implications and
also reduce the amount of income the island receives through tourism. A decline in the
attractiveness of Buccoo Reef, a popular tourist destination can have serious implications
for the Tobago’s gross income. Loss of the ecological integrity of the reefs will be
detrimental to vast number of people in Tobago who receive their incomes from tourismderived opportunities.
4.1 Reef Walking and Uncontrolled Recreational Activities
Some of the most serious threats to the reef include uses that are in conflict with the
recommendations of the management plan as designed by IMA (1995)32. The Outer Reef
flat and Coral Gardens at Buccoo are currently being used for reef walking, anchoring of
boats, collection of species. The corals area killed and broken, and can quite often
become overgrown with algae. These activities result in the death of coral, and can
ultimately reduce the diversity of corals in the reefs33.
The reefs are stressed naturally because of the type of environment in which they survive;
however, additional stress is added by the numbers of tourists and recreational activities
that occur in the Buccoo Bay. The other communities such as the sea grass beds, coastal
lagoons and mangroves, which are all ecologically interdependent are also suffering. The
31
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs. 1995. IMA/ THA Coral Reef Project Phase Two. The Formulation of
a Management Plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park: Volume II – The Management Plan. Final
Report, Document prepared for the Tobago House of Assembly.
32
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs. 1995. IMA/ THA Coral Reef Project Phase Two. The Formulation of
a Management Plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park: Volume II – The Management Plan. Final
Report, Document prepared for the Tobago House of Assembly.
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the Buccoo Reef/
Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested Student Exercises. Resource
Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas Management. Consortium of Caribbean
Universities for Natural Resource Management Association of Caribbean University and Research
Institutes.
33
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
15
over-exploitation of the reefs, will lead to a decline in the associated fisheries, since,
these ecosystems all serve as nurseries for species, at varying points in their
development34.
4.2 Over-exploitation of Fisheries
In the coastal of islands, fisheries are important for the livelihoods of residents. Such is
the case of the villages that surround Buccoo Bay and Bon Accord Lagoon. Assessments
of resources of finfish show that they either are being optimally- or over-exploited. The
mollusc fishery is already over-exploited, with oyster fishery having collapsed some time
ago, and the Queen conch (Strombus gigas) fishery is over-exploited35. The fishes of the
reefs are being removed unsustainably, and this will ultimately reduce the biodiversity of
fishes that inhabit the reefs. In addition to the fishes, turtles are also being killed when
they reach the shores of Tobago or they are caught in the trawling lines/net of shrimp
trawlers.
4.3 Decreasing Water Quality
Partially treated or untreated domestic waste water is discharged into the Buccoo Bay and
Bon Accord Lagoon from malfunctioning water treatment plants. Other sources of
wastewater are from neighbouring farms and fish-processing facilities36. In Buccoo
Village, many residents have soak-away septic systems, which was built into the coralline
limestone which is present in that part of Tobago. This limestone is porous, and nutrients
from sewage filter down through the rocks into the water table and then enter the water
Buccoo Bay37. In addition to grey water, these sources have contributed to the poor water
quality and high quantities of faecal coliforms recorded for Buccoo Bay by the IMA
(1995).
Coral reefs are fragile ecosystems and require clear water so that light can penetrate the
water column and can be utilised for photosynthesis. Sewage will lead to algal blooms in
a process known as eutrophication, and will reduce the amount of light that is received by
the reefs, causing death of the corals.
Sedimentation is also another important consideration. High levels of sediment, reduces
the amount of light that can penetrate the water, to reach the photosynthesising coral.
High sediment load can occur, naturally as described in the previous sections, or through
34
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs/ UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme. 1999. CEPNET/
IDB Project. State of the Marine Environment Report: Trinidad and Tobago.
35
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs/ UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme. 1999. CEPNET/
IDB Project. State of the Marine Environment Report: Trinidad and Tobago.
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs. 1995. IMA/ THA Coral Reef Project Phase Two. The Formulation of
a Management Plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park: Volume II – The Management Plan. Final
Report, Document prepared for the Tobago House of Assembly.
BRT: Buccoo Reef Trust. 2004. Threats. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.buccooreeftrust.org/threats.htm
36
37
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
16
activities of man, for example, through the construction phase of developmental
operations on the land offshore of Buccoo Bay and Bon Accord Lagoon.
4.4 Coastal Development
As mentioned above, coastal developments have reduced the quality of the water entering
the Bay. In Bon Accord, there exists the potential for impending hotel developments to
further threaten stressed sea grass beds, and coral reefs.
5.0 EXISTING LEGISLATIVE AND POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR BUCCOO REEF
NATIONAL PARK
5.1 Local Legislation
Formal protection was afforded to Buccoo Reef in 1973, under the Marine Areas (Restricted
Area) Order. This Order is subsidiary legislation to the Marine Areas (Preservation and
Enhancement Act) Chap 37:02. The Marine Areas (Restricted Area) Order was made under
Section 3 of this Act.
The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001, were made under Sections 26 (e) and 41 of
the Environmental Management Act, 2000 (EM Act). Under the EM Act, Rules may be
passed for protection of different aspects of the environment.
The Environmentally Sensitive Species Rules, 2001, can also afford protection to the species
that are deemed threatened. These species often occupy habitats which are themselves
undergoing some state of degradation due to various undesirable activities. Recent media
attention to the plight of marine turtles in Tobago demonstrated the need for legislation and
enforcement to protect these species. Marine turtles occupy the waters of Buccoo Bay,
including the Green turtle, and the Hawksbill turtle. Designation of Buccoo Reef as an ESA
will assist in protecting them within the boundaries of the Park.
5.2 Policy and Management Challenges
The boundaries of Buccoo Reef to be declared under the ESA Rules, does not include
privately held lands, thus, the mangrove forests will not be declared as part of the ESA.
The surrounding land is now owned by CLICO, Angostura Limited, Ansa McAl, Mt
Pleasant Credit Union and the National Housing Authority (NHA)38.
The management now lies with the Department of Fisheries of the THA, Natural
Resources and Environment and the Ministry of the Public Utilities and Environment in
38
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 2003. Buccoo Reef Dossier. Unpublished Report. EMA,
Port of Spain, Trinidad.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
17
Trinidad and Tobago39. The role of NGOs expanded in Tobago in the 1990s, with
Environment Tobago (ET), and the Buccoo Reef Trust (BRT) emerging in environmental
education, protection and conservation of the island’s ecosystems. They have been highly
successful in highlighting the challenges facing Buccoo Reef, and have conducted
scientific research in the area. In meeting the challenges of management of Buccoo Reef,
interested stakeholders need to be involved in a formal and substantial way to enhance
the resources available for management.
5.3 International Agreements
Being signatory to various international treaties and conventions confers upon Trinidad
and Tobago national obligations to develop and enact national policy guidelines and
legislation. Some of these treaties have been reflected in the ESA and ESS Rules of 2001.
These actions assist the country in fulfilling agreements for the protection of biodiversity
This Section looks at some of the more important International Agreements.
5.3.1 The Ramsar Convention40
The Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty adopted in 1971 in the
Iranian city of Ramsar. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
especially as Waterfowl Habitat – reflects its original emphasis on the conservation and
wise use of wetlands primarily to provide habitat for waterbirds. Over the years, however,
the Convention has broadened its scope to cover all aspects of wetland conservation and
wise use, recognizing wetlands as ecosystems that are extremely important for
biodiversity conservation in general and for the well-being of human communities. The
Convention entered into force in 1975 and as of September 2003 has 138 Contracting
Parties. The Nariva Swamp is the country’s only Ramsar site, however there are plans to
include the Buccoo Reef and the Caroni Swamp as Ramsar sites.
Wetlands are defined as:
"areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial,
permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish
or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does
not exceed six metres".
"may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and
islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying
within the wetlands".
5.3.2 CITES
39
40
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 2003. Buccoo Reef Dossier. Unpublished Report. EMA,
Port of Spain, Trinidad.
http://www.ramsar.org/index_about_ramsar.htm
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
18
Trinidad and Tobago is a signatory to the Convention on the International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and it entered into force in the
country in 1984. Its primary goal is to provide protection for plant and animal species that
may become threatened due to the activities of international trade by controlling the
international trade of specimens of certain species of wildlife. The species listed under
the CITES Convention require a Licence for export, import, re-export and introduction
into a new area. The species of CITES are listed in three Appendices:
Appendix I is inclusive of all species that that are threatened with extinction, and trade is
completely restricted and allowable only in exceptional circumstances;
Appendix II are those species that are vulnerable or rare and as such their trade is incompatible
with their survival; and
Appendix III covers the species that are protected in at least one country, the CITES Parties
are asked to help control their trade41.
The signatories to CITES are mandated to set up Management Agencies that administer
the licences needed for species trade, and Scientific Authorities to act as advisors on the
effects of trade on the status of certain species. Under this treaty, funding was provided
for conservation projects. Although the Forestry Division is the Management Agency for
CITES, the designation of protected species often requires the coordination of more than
one governmental department. Many of the species that warrant protection under CITES
are yet to be safeguarded nationally. The proposed Buccoo Reef ESA is the habitat for
species that fall under the CITES listing of threatened and endangered species, including
the Queen Conch, and species of stony corals.
5.3.3. The Convention on Biodiversity (CBD)
Trinidad and Tobago became signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity at the
historic Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The CBD was the first convention that
specifically addressed the issues of conservation and sustainable usage of the Earth’s
biological diversity. It was formed out of a need for the provision of a broad approach to
sustainable development. Sustainable development is the process whereby the needs of
humans are met without sacrificing environmental integrity. The most important aspects
of the Convention were the protection and conservation of biological diversity, the
sustainable use of the resources of the environment and the equitable division of the gains
earned from the use of the earth’s genetic resource42.
41
42
CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 2001b.
How CITES Works. Geneva, Switzerland. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.CITES.org/eng/disc/how.shtml
CBD: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2000. Sustaining Life on Earth: How the
Convention on Biological Diversity Promotes Nature and Human Well-Being. Available at the Internet
URL: http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/guide.asp
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
19
As a signatory Government, Trinidad and Tobago formulated the National Biodiversity
Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP)43 in 2001, in keeping with Article 6 of the
convention44. The NBSAP was officially recognised by this country’s Cabinet and is
freely available from the EMA. The NBSAP is a framework for enhancing the
management of natural resources of the country and serves to effectively highlight the
key issues involved in achieving these.
Article 8 of the Convention requires each party country to establish protected areas and
prevent species eradication. Public participation and education and awareness are
encouraged with regards to planning for and managing biological resources and
diversity45.
5.3.4. The SPAW Protocol
The Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife to the Cartegena
Convention (the SPAW Protocol) was formulated to provide protection to the particular
habitats and threatened species. It entered into force in Trinidad and Tobago in May
2000. It is a regional agreement that includes countries located in the Gulf of Mexico, the
Caribbean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. This Protocol specifies the protection of
threatened and endangered wildlife species, the establishment and management of
protected areas and species conservation through national, co-operative processes46.
As a contracting Party to the SPAW Protocol, the Government is obligated to protect
areas of the country under its jurisdiction as specified by Article 4, and to enact national
legislation to do so. There is also a mandate to prevent the trade in species that are
included in its listing of threatened or endangered species, complementing the CITES
agreement47.
Under Article 11 of the Protocol, there were three species Annexes and the contracting
Parties are to adopt all necessary measures to protect and recover species listed in
Annexes I, II and III. The Annexes are:
Annex I: includes floral species as identified by SPAW as requiring total protection and
recovery;
43
44
45
46
47
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
Refer to Appendix V
CBD: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2000. Sustaining Life on Earth: How the
Convention on Biological Diversity Promotes Nature and Human Well-Being. Available at the Internet
URL: http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/guide.asp
UNEP: The United Nations Environment Programme. 2000. International Trade in Species Listed in
Both the Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) and the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Ninth Intergovernmental Meeting on the Action
Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme and Sixth Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the
Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean
Region. Kingston, Jamaica, 14-18 February 2000.
Refer to Appendix IV.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
20
Annex II: includes faunal species as identified by SPAW as requiring total protection and
recovery;
Annex III: includes faunal and floral species whose usage must be regulated48.
5.3.5. The IUCN Red List
The IUCN has voluntary academic and technical contributions from a host of brilliant
scientists and experts from more 180 countries. It has contributed to environmental
conventions, global standards and disseminated a wealth of scientific of scientific
knowledge49.
The IUCN formulated the renowned Red List to draw attention to the importance and
vulnerability of the world’s biodiversity. The Red List is deemed by the IUCN as being
the most exhaustive catalogue of the current status of plants and animals in the world.
Criteria is generated for the evaluation of the status of a particular species with regard to
its risk of extinction. It can be used to determine how threatened a particular species is,
and identify the priority species that need to be elevated for dedicated conservation
efforts and further protection. It is also used to provide information to the policymakers
of the CBD and CITES50.
5.3.6 CARICOMP
The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP51) Programme was launched in
response to the need for long-term, region-wide comparative studies of the biodiversity
and productivity of Caribbean coastal ecosystems within the COMAR (Coastal Marine)
project, established by the general Conference of UNESCO in 1980. CARICOMP is a
regional scientific effort to study land-sea interaction process, to monitor for change, and
to provide appropriate scientific information for management. The programme focuses on
understanding the productivity, structure and functions of three important coastal
ecosystems: mangroves, seagrasses and reefs, throughout the region.
48
49
50
51
UNEP: The United Nations Environment Programme. 2000.
IUCN: The World Conservation Union), 2003. What is IUCN? Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.IUCN.org/about/index.htm
IUCN: The World Conservation Union), 2000a. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:
Background. Gland, Switzerland. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.iucn.org/redlist/2000/background.html
CARICOMP website is access via www.ccdc.org.jm
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
21
6.0
JUSTIFICATION FOR DESIGNATING
ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREA
BUCCOO
REEF
AS
AN
Buccoo Reef is unarguably among the best reefs of Trinidad and Tobago. It has had a
long history of poor management, and failed attempts of protection. It has been
recognised as for its broader ecological aspects, its intrinsic values and functions as well
as for its potential for direct material benefits.
The purpose of declaration will allow for the maintenance of the significance of the area
in the national, regional and international context, as well as the preservation of the
biological diversity of the ESA.
The declaration of Buccoo Reef fulfils some of the government’s mandates under various
articles under international conventions and agreements. These specifically include the
SPAW Protocol, the CBD and CITES. One, Buccoo Reef is declared an ESA.
ESA designation can allow for the conservation of natural resources and the protection of
the environment, including the protection of species that are threatened and are listed
under the Annexes of the SPAW Protocol and the Appendices of CITES. These species
are:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas)
Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
Queen Conch (Strombus gigas)
Fire Coral (Milleporidae spp.)
Finger Coral (Porites spp.)
Staghorn and Elkhorn Corals (Acropora spp.)
Boulder Star Coral (Montastrea annularis)
Brain Corals (Colpophyllia spp.; Diploria spp.)
Leaf Coral (Agaricia spp.)
Gorgonians, Sea Fans (Gorgonia spp.)
Turtle Grass (Thalassia testudinum)
Black Corals (Antipathes spp.)
It will now be possible for the area to be managed, rehabilitated and the Management
Plan as conceptualised by the IMA in 1995, can be updated, and used for management.
This management will also mean that resources can be used in a sustainable manner so
that human activities are regulated, and harmonised with economic needs of the island
and its people.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
22
7.0 LITERATURE CITED
Agard, J. 1994. Implementing Management Plans for a Protected Area. The Case of the
Buccoo Reef/ Bon Accord Complex in Tobago. Instructors Manual and Suggested
Student Exercises. Resource Materials for Module on Parks and Protected Areas
Management. Consortium of Caribbean Universities for Natural Resource
Management Association of Caribbean University and Research Institutes.
BRT: Buccoo Reef Trust. 2004. Threats. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.buccooreeftrust.org/threats.htm
CBD: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2000. Sustaining Life on
Earth: How the Convention on Biological Diversity Promotes Nature and Human
Well-Being. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/guide.asp
CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora. 2001a. What is CITES? Geneva, Switzerland.Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.CITES.org/eng/disc/what.shtml
CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora. 2001b. How CITES Works. Geneva, Switzerland. Available at the Internet
URL: http://www.CITES.org/eng/disc/how.shtml
CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora. 2003. Priority Species Listing for Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division,
Ministry of Agriculture, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
David Suzuki Foundation. 2004. Why Biodiversity is Important. Available at the Internet
URL: http://www.davidsuzuki.org/WOL/Biodiversity/Importance.asp
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1997. State of the Environment Report
1997. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1998. State of the Environment Report
1998. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999a. Biodiversity Strategy and Action
Plan for Trinidad and Tobago. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999b. The Administrative Record for
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules 1999. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
23
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 1999c. State of the Environment Report
1999. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
EMA: Environmental Management Authority. 2003. Buccoo Reef Dossier. Unpublished
Report. EMA, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
Hayes, F. E. 2003. Personal Communication.
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs. 1995. IMA/ THA Coral Reef Project Phase Two. The
Formulation of a Management Plan for the Buccoo Reef Marine Park: Volume II –
The Management Plan. Final Report, Document prepared for the Tobago House of
Assembly.
IMA: Institute of Marine Affairs/ UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme. 1999.
CEPNET/ IDB Project. State of the Marine Environment Report: Trinidad and
Tobago.
IUCN (The World Conservation Union), 1992. Threatened Birds of the Americas. The
ICPB/ IUCN Red Data Book. Third Edition. International Council for Bird
Preservation (ICPB). Cambridge, United Kingdom.
IUCN (The World Conservation Union), 2000a. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species: Background. Gland, Switzerland. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.iucn.org/redlist/2000/background.html
IUCN (The World Conservation Union), 2000b. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria
Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. Gland, Switzerland, and
Cambridge, United Kingdom. Available at the Internet URL:
http://www.uicn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/equid/docs/appendix2.pdf
IUCN (The World Conservation Union), 2003. What is IUCN? Available at the Internet
URL: http://www.IUCN.org/about/index.htm
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. 2000. Environmental Management Act, 2000. The
Laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Government Printery, Port of Spain,
Trinidad.
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. 2001. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
The Laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Government Printery, Port of
Spain, Trinidad.
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. 2001. Environmentally Sensitive Species Rules, 2001.
The Laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Government Printery, Port of
Spain, Trinidad.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
24
SPAW: The Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife to the
Cartegena Convention (The SPAW Protocol). 2002. List of Species in the SPAW
Protocol. The Secretariat of the SPAW Protocol, Kingston, Jamaica.
Thelen, K.D. and S. Faizool. 1980a. System of National Parks and Other Protected Areas
in Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and
Fisheries, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
Thelen, K.D. and S. Faizool. 1980b. Policy for the Establishment and Management of a
National Park System in Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division, Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
The Administrative Record for the Designation of Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area under the
Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001.
Download
Related flashcards
Extinct plants

80 Cards

Create flashcards