2nd Semester Review

2nd Semester Review
1. What are the levels of a food pyramid? Name each level and
give an example.
Producer - grass
primary consumer – grasshopper
secondary consumer - mockingbird
tertiary consumer - Snake
2. Describe the types of organisms that belong to each of the 5
kingdoms and give an example of each.
Can move from
place to place
cell walls
Some cause
disease and
some are
Cell walls have
Move with cilia
or flagella.
Usually live in
3. In order from smallest to largest, where is the world’s water
Freshwater lakes, groundwater, Ice caps/glaciers, Oceans
4. What type of energy is not useful at night or on rainy days?
Solar energy
5. What is Biological Oxygen demand?
Biological Oxygen demand is the depletion of oxygen in the
water by decomposers.
6. In DNA, which bases pair with each other? Which bases pair in
mRNA? DNA- A & T, C&G
mRNA- A&U, C&G
7. When classifying organisms, what 2 levels of taxonomy give an
organism its scientific name? genus and species
8. What are some differences and similarities between bacteria
and Viruses?
-Antibiotics can be used to
treat them
-Aid in digestion
-cell walls
-causes strept throat,
tuberculosis, salmonella
-Antibiotics have no effect
-cause the common cold
-Most are harmful
-causes chicken pox, AIDS,
herpes, influenza
-Can cause disease
-Contain DNA or RNA
-Vaccines are effective
against them
9. How is a reservoir used to create an alternative energy?
A reservoir is formed when a river is dammed up. The water
from the reservoir flows through the dam which turns turbines
inside the dam that generate electricity. This is called
hydroelectric power.
10. What is DNA made up of?
Phosphate groups, Deoxyribose sugars and nitrogen bases (A,
T, C, G)
11. Using a Punnett square, show a cross between a homozygous
recessive female for eye color (bb), and a Heterozygous (Bb)
male. What are the genotypes of the offspring?
The offspring genotypes are Bb and bb
B b
b Bb bb
b Bb bb
12. What is thermal pollution?
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any
process that changes ambient water temperature.
13. Describe the 3 ways that heat is transferred.
Convection, Conduction and Radiation
14. What are Newton’s 3 Law of motion?
1st Law: An object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an
outside force, and an object in motion will stay in motion unless
acted on by an outside force.
2nd Law: The force applied to an object is equal to its mass
times acceleration.
3rd Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite
15. What is the net force on the object?
The object is pulled 20 N to the left.
32 N  12 N
16. What type of waves are sound waves?
Compression or longitudinal waves
17. A car is traveling at 6 m/s, it speeds up to 14 m/s after 8
seconds. What is the cars acceleration?
A= (Vf-Vi)/t
14m/s-6m/s = 1 m/s2
18. If a light bulb uses 65 watts of power, and does 234 J of work,
how many seconds was the light bulb on?
65 watts = 234/t
19. What is cloud seeding?
Cloud Seeding is a technique where scientists fly over certain types of
clouds and sprinkle them with silver iodide crystals, which causes the
formation of ice crystals and water droplets.
20. What are Hydrogen Fuel Cells and how do they work?
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy from a
fuel into electric energy. Electricity is generated from the reaction between
a fuel supply and an oxidizing agent. The reactants flow into the cell, and
the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it.
Fuel cells can operate continuously as long as the necessary reactant and
oxidant flows are maintained.
21. What does oligotrophic mean?
Nutrient poor
22. Describe the processes of DNA replication, Transcription and
DNA replication -> making copies of DNA, takes place in the
Transcription-> using DNA as a template for making mRNA,
happens in the nucleus
Translation-> using mRNA as a template for make proteins,
takes place in the cytoplasm on ribosomes. tRNA is also
23. Describe the flow of water through a wastewater treatment
barscreen--primary clarification--secondary treatment--disinfection
24. Describe Transverse waves, compression waves, and
longitudinal waves.
Transverse waves move up and down
Compression or longitudinal waves move back and forth
25. What is inertia?
The resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion
26. Elements in the same group or column on the periodic table
have similar properties or characteristics
27. How many protons does Arsenic have? How many neutrons
and electrons does it have?
Atomic # is the # of protons, Protons and electrons are equal,
protons + neutrons= Atomic mass
33 protons, 33 electrons, 42 neutrons
28. Where are the metals located on the periodic table? Where
are the non-metals located?
Metals are located to the left of the staircase and non-metals
are located to the right of the staircase
29. Describe how nuclear power plants generate electricity.
Nuclear power plants use a fission reaction which causes the
fuel to release large amounts of energy in the form of heat.
This heats the water inside the reactor to produce steam which
powers the steam turbines that generate electricity.
30. Why is sea water not a usable type of water for us?
The salt content is too high to be used as drinking water
because the salt water would kill people and it could cause
major damage to pipes and other plumbing.
31. What does the respiratory system do?
The respiratory system is responsible for gas exchange (
oxygen and carbon dioxide). It supplies the blood with oxygen
and removes carbon dioxide
32. What charge does a Magnesium ion have?
33. How does a solar panel work?
Light is absorbed into a semiconductor (silicon) and the energy
absorbed knocks an electron loose and allows them to flow
freely. There is an electric field that forces the electrons to flow
in a certain direction. This flow of electrons is electricity.
34. What are fossil fuels? Why are we trying to develop
alternatives to fossil fuels? Coal, oil and natural gas
Alternatives to fossil fuels are being developed because most
fossil fuels pollute the earth as well as that they are not
renewable resources
35. Describe the water cycle?
The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle describes
the continuous movement of water on, above and below the
surface of the Earth. Water can change states among liquid,
vapor, and ice at various places in the water cycle