REPORT Eremchenko V. K. - National Expert

advertisement
REPORT
Eremchenko V. K.
- National Expert-Herpetologist
Bishkek, 2007
Contents
Introduction
Chapter 1. Material and method.
Main results and discussion.
Chapter 2. List and main habitats (short description).
2.1. List localities.
2.2. Short description main localities.
Chapter 3. Amphibians and Reptiles PATCA area (Alai): specific composition
3.1. Class Amphibians – AMPHIBIA
3.2. Class Reptiles – REPTILIA
Chapter 4. Quantitative describe to Amphibians and Reptiles in Alai area (May, July and
August, 2007).
Chapter 5. Short description: Amphibians species.
5.1. Order Tailed amphibians – Caudata
5.2. Order Anurans (Frogs and toads) – Anura
Chapter 6. Short description: Reptiles species.
6.1. Suborder Lizards - Sauria
6.1. Suborder Snakes - Serpentes
Chapter 7. Protection aspect.
7.1. Whether it could be used as an indicator.
7.2. Main conservation threats to the species.
Illustrations and significance it.
Literature.
Introduction
Investigation of Amphibians and Reptiles of Alai start in end 19 century by expeditions
Russian Geographical Society, results that was published by A. M. Nikolskii (1915-1916).
In soviet period time Amphibians and Reptiles of Alai area study by А. A. Andrushko
(1951), B. P. Luzin (1955), V. P. Karpenko (1958), O. P. Bogdanov (1960), I. D Yakovleva
(1964), N. N. Szczerbak (1974),E. M. Pisanetz (1978). The row expedition to Pamir and Alai
was organizer by authors. Results of this expeditions published in monographs (Еremchenko et
al., 1984, 1992) and row papers (Еremchenko, 1983, 1987, 1989; Eremchenko et al., 1988, 1990,
and others).
For all period time in Alai area was establish for sure distribution the one species
Amphibians and five species Reptiles. Systematic and distribution some from it (Bufo viridis,
Hinobius turkestanicus, Asymblepharus alaicus, Eremias multiocellata) was study insufficiently
and need of closer definition. These questions with a new data, which was obtained course of
expeditions of PATCA Project, bring in effective part present report. The author also anticipates
that this work will require serious revision and addition in the future.
Chapter 1. Material and method.
PATCA area in ALAI border was investigation during May (6-8), July (6-11) and August
(19-25), 2007 year. Amphibians and Reptiles covered in 28 localities of Alai and Zaalai
Mountains (Zaalaiskii Khrebet) and Alai Valley. We visited the West, Central and Eastern Alai
(see section: “2.1. Localities list” and “2.2. A short of description the main localities”.
For certain covered and captured for continue (in laboratory) investigation – one species
Amphibian (see list Amphibians and Reptiles of PATCA area, and Chapter 5) and 8 species
Reptiles (see Chapter 6).
Registration of Amphibians and Reptiles in transects carry out on methodic by Daniel
Bennet (1999) and N. N. Szszerbak’s (1989) with some additions. Select of specimens was study
in laboratory on accepted methods (Guide on study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 1989). At
Amphibians (toads of specimens) was study karyology (Orlov, Bulatova, 1983; Pisanetz, 1989).
Lizards which captured in transects was determined (species, sex, age), marked and let out in
nature. In terrarium condition was continue observation for behaviour (inter-population
relationship) and reproduction [(birth of baby of skinks (Asymblepharus alaicus), and racerunner
(Eremias yarkandensis)].
The author thanks for leaders of Project for possibility visit of Alai and study of
Amphibians and Reptiles this region.
The main results and discussion.
Chapter 2. List and main habitats (short description).
2.1. List localities.
No
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24
25
26.
27.
28.
Locality
District
Tengizbai Pass
Alaiskii
Tengizbai Pass
Alaiskii
Tengizbai Pass
Alaiskii
Tengizbai Pass
Аlaiskii
Tengizbai Pass
Alaiskii
Kyzyl-Eshme –
Daraut-Kurgan vil.
Alaiskii
2 km W to DarautKurgan vill.
Аlaiskii
Daraut-Kurgan vill.
Alaiskii
8 км. Зап. Sary-Tash
АLaiskii
3 км. west Nura vill.
Аlaiskii
5км. west. Nura vill
Alaiskii
E. Alai, Char-archa loc.
Alaiskii
Kara-kindik loc.
Аlaiskii
10 км east. SaryTash vill.
Аlaiskii
Foothills, Zaalaiskii
Mount.: Aral, Кaman riv. Аlaiskii
Камаn – Аrаl riv.
Аlaiskii
W. Alai, Kundoloi cany. Аlaiskii
Кundoloi kanyon
Аlaiskii
Кundoloi kanyon
Аlaiskii
Мing-jar
Аlaiskii
Upper Nura river
Аlaiskii
Upper Nura river
Аlaiskii
Char-Archa loc. (above)
Аlaiskii
Orto-Chukur lakes.
Аlaiskii
Тulpar -kol
Аlaiskii
Daraut canyon
Аlaiskii
Аltyn-Dara canyon
Аlaiskii
Аltyn-Dara canyon
Аlaiskii
Date
7.05.07; 10.07.07
7.05.07
7.05.07
7.05.07
7.05.07; 10.07.07
7.05.07; 10.07.07
7.05.07
7.05.07
8.05.07
6.07.07
6.07.07; 20.08.07
7.07.07; 21.08.07
7.07.07
Latitud e
Longitude
Altitude
3200
3000
3000-2850
2845
3000-2900
2630-2640
2500
2500
2460
3000
3000
3075-3110
3200
7.07.07
3198
8.07.07
8.07.07
9.07.07
9.07.07
9.07.07.
11.07.07
19.08.07
19.08.07
21.08.07
22.08.07
23.08.07
24.08.07
24.08.07
25.08.07
3200-3230
3200
2750-2550
2550
2550
2820
3155
3140 -3100
3200
3200
3200
3050
3100
3100
2.2. Short description main localities.
Localities:
1. Marshy plot in the lower part of slop SE exposition; springs; marsh and field vegetation.
2. Marsh of the plot about 5 gа, SE exposition of slop.
3. Solid plot of marsh between springs brooks and small of river about foot slop SE exposition.
4. Separate pool near farm and road; size of pool: 1.2 х 0.9 х 0.25 м. (depth).
5. Stone and broken stone of slop NW exposition with small bush.
6. Rocky of slop foothills Alai Mountain with rare vegetation.
7. 2 artificial reservoirs (quarry) 5.0 х 25, 6.0 х 27 м. and 50 cm. of depth.
8. Small canal along main street Daraut-Kurgan Village.
9. Marsh bank with springs along right bank of Kyzyl-Suu river.
10. Stone exposition south slops along left bank of Nura river; here carry out collection stones
for erection of houses.
11. Clay-stone terrace along of the left bank Nura river; near have marsh plots with springs.
12. Stone slop west exposition along brook (Artemisia, Rosa).
13. Channels, springs, brooks, fields, marsh plots along small river.
14. Pool about road (with turbid water, scrap, plastic bottle).
15. Stone, partly marsh plot between Kaman river and Aral river (lower stream Kungyr-Suu
river, Zaalai Mountain).
16. Stone bank of Kaman river (plots with granite stones, that “lay up” around among field.
17. Slopes NW exposition; Prangos, Ferulla, Rosa; sometimes pebble.
18. Terrace along left bank of the Ak-Suu river, between road and river; big boulders, bush and
meadow.
19. Marsh plot along spring with с slowly flowing spring water.
20. Semi-desert with sand-hills; Efedra, Erimurus эфедра, эфедра, эримурус and others bush;
stone and broken stone каменист-щебнистые cover with draft Efedra.
21. Brook from spring along pebble lower terrace of Nura river.
22. Clay-stone cliff of terrace Nura river.
23. Stone slope with step vegetation along spring.
24. Lakes along hills area (Chukurs); steps.
25. Lakes (Tulpar lakes complex) among hills with step vegetation and colony Microtus
karruthersi.
26. Stone bank along Daraut river; rocky slops.
27. Stone incline (slope) with rarefied vegetation (Altyn-Dara canyon).
28. Stone slope about nomad encampment (Altyn-Dara canyon).
Chapter 3. Amphibians and Reptiles PATCA area (Alai): Specific composition
3.1. Class Amphibians – AMPHIBIA
* = species for certain covered and specimens captured for laboratory analyses.
5.1. Order Tailed amphibians – Caudata
Turkestanian salamander - Hinobius turkestanicus Nikolsky, 1909 (in addition see “Remark
in description”).
5.2. Order Anurans (Frogs and toads) – Anura
Pewzow’s toad - Bufo pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898*
Toad (specific status need in closer definition) – Bufo sp.* (see “Remark in description”).
3.2. Class Reptiles – REPTILIA
* = species for certain covered and specimens captured for laboratory analyses.
Order Squamata
6.1. Suborder Lizards - Sauria
Himalayan rock agama (laudakia) - Laudakia himalayana (Steindachner, 1869) *
Alai asymblephar - Asymblepharus alaicus (Elpatjevsky, 1901) *
Аsian snake-eyed skink - Ablepharus pannonicus (Lichtenstein, 1823) *
Yarkend racerunner - Eremias yarkandensis Blandford, 1875*
Kirgiz, or Alai racerunner - Eremias nikolskii Bedriaga, 1905 (see “Remark” in
description”).
6.2. Suborder Snakes - Serpentes
Fish snake - Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) *
Dione snake- Elaphe dione (Pallas, 1773) *
Mountain racer - Coluber ravergieri (Menetries, 1832), (see “Remark” in description).
Halys viper- Agkistrodon halys (Pallas, 1776)*
Chapter 4. Quantitative describe to Amphibians and Reptiles in Alai area (May, July and
August, 2007).
Significance: population (pop.), roe (r), tadpoles (t), juveniles (j), subadultus (sad), adultus
(ad).
Table 1. May, 2007
Localities /
species
Bufo sp.
Bufo pevzowi
Asymblepharus
alaicus
Laudakia
himalayana
Eremias
yarkandensis
Elaphe dione
Coluber sp.
Natrix
tessellata
Agkistrodon
halys
1
2
3
4
Pop.
Pop.
Pop
Pop.
Pop.
Pop.
Pop.
Pop.
5
6
2
14
7
8
9
Pop.
5
Pop.
Pop
Pop.
=350
>100
J:6/1m.
3
1
1
4
In all:
А.: r
<500
t
j
sad
ad
R.: J
sad
ad
>600
> 300
>10
>100
>10
2
1
.>100
=380
2
3
11
3
2
3
1
2
3
Тable 2. July, 2007.
Localities /
species
Bufo sp.
10
Bufo pevzowi
Asymblepharus
alaicus
Ablepharus
pannonocus
Laudakia
himalayana
Eremias
yarkandensis
Elaphe dione
Coluber sp.
Natrix
tessellata
Agkistrodon
halys
5
11
12
13
Pop>10
1
Pop.>10
Pop: 5/
10 м.
14
Pop:~300
15
Pop:25/
1 м²
16
7
17
Pop
Pop
Pop.
1
Pop>20
Pop>10
Pop>10
1
5
1
1
1
In all:
А.: r
t
~300
25
12/10 м.²
20/2 м²
j
sad
ad
R.: j
sad
ad
4
1
2
2
1
1
5
1
10
3
1
2
1
6
14
20/2 м²
1
1
9
1
Table 2 (continue)
Localities
/species
Bufo sp.
Bufo pevzowi
Asymblepharus
alaicus
Ablepharus
pannonicus
Ablepharus
18
19
5
3
4
Pop.
2
Pop
Pop
11
1
6
220
20
Pop
2
7
pannonicus
Laudakia
himalayana
Eremias
yarkandensis
Elaphe dione
Coluber sp.
Natrix
tessellata
Agkistrodon
halys
10
2
1
1
In all:
А.: r
t
j
sad
ad
R.: J
sad
ad
~100/1 m.
~15/1 m.
20/1 m.
40/10 m.
~100
>300
2
7
5
1
1
2
8
1
1
1
Тable 3. August, 2007.
Localities/
species
Bufo sp.
Bufo pewzowi
Asymblepharus
alaicus
Ablepharus
pannonicus
Laudakia
himalayana
Eremias
yarkandensis
Elaphe dione
Coluber sp.
Natrix
tessellata
Agkistrodon
halys
In all:
A.: r
t
j
sad
ad
R.: j
sad
ad
21
22
10
Pop
1
5
10
19
12
25
23
24
25
26
Pop
2
3
44
10
35
27
28
2
24
20
3
1
1
1
1
шкурка
1
12/1м²
7/1м.
18
1
5
2
3
7
4
4
11
1
2
2
2
8
4
14
14
5
16
12
7
25
3
3
10
8
2
14
6
3
10
Chapter 5. Short description: Amphibians species.
Summary. From four species of fauna Kyrgyztan’s, in Alai during expeditions find green
toad from “Eastern Central Asian Tetraploids” (Stöck et al., 2006). For this group toads,
including it Pamiro-Alai area, we use nomenclature recent investigation (Stöck et al. 2001). The
toads of east Alai (Tarim Basin) determined as Bufo pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898. Toads of west Alai
(Amu-Dajya Basin) is tetraploids too (4n=44), but they on phenotypes difference from
polyploidy (tetraploids) toads of east Alai. Result of the karyologycal analysis demonstrated
presented triploids specimen (3n=33) among toads of west Alai. This fact can testify about
hybridization between genetic different forms toads distributed in Alai area.
Remarks. 1. It is known, in fauna Kyrgyztan’s no tailed amphibians – Caudata:
Salamanders (Hinobiidae and etc.) and newt (Triturus). However, recent investigations (Kuzmin
and Dunayev, 2000) indicate, that in bound Alai area can be cover Turkestanian Salamander Hinobius turkestanicus Nikolsky, 1909 (see “Remark” on this species).
2. Report of local inhabitants about existence in west Alai (Karamyk Village district) of
“croaking frogs” (=Rana ridibunda) now not confirmed ours investigations, and, evidently, is
mistaken.
5.1. Order Tailed amphibians – Caudata
Hinobius turkestanicus Nikolsky, 1909
Family. Hinobiidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Туркестанский углозуб, ?, Winkelzahmolche, Echte,
Distribution. Acording to Kuzmin and Dunayev (2000) area this species may be a narrou –
along northern slops of the Zaalaiskii Ridge, Alai Valley and the Alaiskii Ridge in Osh
Province in Kyrgystan (see Remarks).
Habitats. It is not known. Evidently, it is damp biotopes about Mountain springs, or halfflowing water.
Activity Pattern. No information.
Reproduction. No information.
Clutch Size. No information.
Status. It is not known. It’s may be short-area species with point area. It is not exclude, that
this salamander might disappear in result climatic measuring and disappearing essential habitats.
Remarks. In indicated the above-mentioned authors (Kuzmin and Dunayev, 2000) localities
(Taldyk Mountain pass; Daraut-Kurgan Settlement; Daraut river canyon to Tengizbai Mountain
pass; near Bordoba locality) we can’t find of Hinobius turkestanicus. It is not find and other
point Alai area, which we visited during our field observation. Unfortunately, because of limited
time field works and have not essential equipment (boat and etc.) not remain investigated of
Tulpar-Kol lakes and other lakes about foothills Zaalaiskii Mountain. These habitats may be
more perspective for continue the most enigmatic amphibian of the Central Asia.
References. Kuzmin and Dunayev (2000); Nikolskii (1909, 1918); Кuzmin (1999).
5.2. Order Anurans (Frogs and toads) – Anura
Bufo pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898 – Pewzow’s toad* (Photographs: 061 jpg, 066 jpg, 074 jpg,
Family. Bufonidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages: жаба
Певцова, курбака (Певцовдун тустогу кур бакасы), Echte Kroten, Pewzow’s toad.
Subspecies. In East Alai, evidently live nominative subspecies B. p. pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898
[(type locality: China, Xinjiang, Kokyar, (= Pishan): 37 25’ N, 77 10 E)], или B. p.
taxkorensis Fei, Ye & Huang, 1999 (type locality: China, Xinjiang, Taxkurgan: 37 40’ N, 75
12’ E).
Distribution. According to recent research (Stock et al., 2001; 2006), area this species
include of West Uzbekistan, Kyrgyztan, SE Kazakhstan, West China and Mongolia. In the
study area of PATCA this toad distributed in East Alai (see list localities). Determination
specific belong toad Central and West Alai need in closer definition. (see Remarks.).
Habitat. These toads was find in all water streams (flowing and stagnant water, included in
pools about roads up to 3600 м. elevation (Photographs: 055 jpg, 062-063 jpg, 078 -079 jpg,
090 jpg, 1107-108 jpg, 143 jpg, 362 jpg, 385 jpg, 406 jpg, 427 jpg).
Activity pattern. Diurnal and night.
Reproduction. Oviparous, May – July.
Clutch Size. 1904-4485 eggs.
Status. Fairly common.
Remarks. In ours data of karyologycal analisis the specimens toads from West and Central
Alai is poliploids (4n = 44 chromosomes). Find triploid toad can indicate in probable hybrid
it origin from pair different (but relatives) species. Up to elucidation systematic status, all
specimens of West and Central Alai we regard in status Bufo pewzowi sensu lato.
Reference): Eremchenko et al. (1992); Stock et al. (2001; 2006).
Chapter 6. Short description: Reptiles species.
Summary. In Alai areaВ Алае at the present find 8 species Reptiles: 4 вида ящериц (3
family, 4 genera) and 4 species snakes (2 family, 4 genera).
Among species, which present conservation and taxonomy interests can named
Himalayan rock agama - Laudakia hivalayana and Alai asymblephar - Asymblepharus alaicus.
Within the species the last it, which present in Alai area two subspecies (A. a. alicus and A. a.
yakovlevae) may be revise in the next reason, that by author for the first time was establish the
sympatric between populations these subspecies without some signs introgression. Expected, that
nominative form (type locality is Tengizbai pass) and it “yakovlevae” (type locality is Kyrgiz
Mountain, Alamedin canyon) is independent species. About this evidence and some cytogenetic
distinction, which was revealed before (Eremchenko, Panfilov,1988; Panfilov, Еremchenko,
1992). Specifically, we described distinctions in location NORs of lizards of nominative form
and “yakovlevae”.
Interests in sphere investigation geographical inconstancy and conservation of genetic
diversity present Himalayan rock agama - Laudakia hivalayana. In row diagnostic signs (feature
morphology, behavior when keep in terrarium) was были reveal distinction between local
populations west (Kundoloi canyon) and central part of Alai area (Daraut-Kurgan district). This
fact can be take in attention in continue research genetic diversity this very rare species of
reptiles with the purpose conservation it in extreme conditions of high-mountain.
Among species, which not been meet in period field works, but can be find in Alai, it
should be indicated Eremias nikolskii (type locality is Tengizbai pass, Alai Mountain).
Thanks to expeditions PATCA Project, toward before known in Alai five species reptiles
added more four species : Ablepharus pannonicus, Elaphe dione, Natrix tessellate и Coluber
ravergieri.
6.1. Suborder Lizards - Sauria
Laudakia himalayana (Steindachner, 1869)* (Photographs:
Family. Agamidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Гималайская агама (лаудакия), гималай агамасы, Himalaya-Agame, Himalayan rock
agama.
Subspecies. According to Ananjeva and Peters (1990) this species is monotype.
Distribution. Area this species include Himalayan, Trans-himalayans, Karakorum, SW
Pamir, Badakshan, Kugitang and Gissaro-Alai Mountain. In Kyrgyztan find on north and
south slopes Alai Mountain and north slopes Turkestan Mountain too. In East Alai and slopes
Zaalaiskii Mountain Agama absent. A new location agama find in Kundoloi canyon (West
Alai).
Habitat. This species keep rock and rocky conglomeration on dry slopes Alai Mountain. In
West Alai (Kundoloi canyon) agamas was find for the first time. They observed in first
terrace Ak-Suu river on separate block of stone and big boulders.
Activity Pattern. Diurnal.
Reproduction. Oviparous.
Clutch size. 2-7 eggs.
Status. Scarce.
Remarks. Before this species include in Agama, or Stelio Genera.
References. Yakovleva (1964); Bannikov et al. (1977); Eremchenko et al. (1992); Ananjeva
and peters (1990); Ananjeva et al. (1998); Sindaco & Eremchenko (2007).
Asymblepharus alaicus (Elpatjevsky, 1901)*. (Photographs: 045 jpg, 052 jpg, 447 lpg, 449
jpg, 453 jpg).
Family. Scincidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Асимблефар алайский, Алай кеселдирик (Алай кескеги), Alaisches Natterauge, * suitable equivalent in England languages not cover.
Subspecies. According to V. K. Eremchenko (1983), this species content 3 subspecies:
nominative A. a.alaicus Elpatjevsky, 1901; A. a. yakovlevae Eremchenko, 1983 and A. a.
kucenkoi Nikolsky, 1902. Two first subspecies distributed in study area.
Distridution. Mountain systems of Tien-Shan and Pamiro-Alai.
Habitats. Populate of slopes Mountain with step vegetation, subaplpine and alpine grasslands
(meadows), forest meadows, shores of lakes and river Valleys, rocky and pebbles
conglomeration. Asymblepharus alaicus is the most high-mountain species reptiles of
Kyrgyztan: 1500-4000 m elevation (Photographs: 030 jpg, 050-051 jpg, 081-082 jpg, 087
jpg, o92 jpg, 116 jpg, 119 jpg, 131 jpg, 140 jpg, 888 jpg, 395 jpg, 389 jpg, 395 jpg, 412-414
jpg, 428 jpg, 435 jpg, 449 jpg, 453 jpg)
Activity pattern. Diurnal.
Reproduction. Viviparous.
Reproduction. 2-7 young.
Status. Very common.
Death-rate. We find under stone of remainder lost specimens of A. a. yakovlevae in East Alai
(tributary Kok-Suu river); perhaps, these lizard was lost in winter, or in time spring flood
(Photographs: 054 jpg, 389 jpg).
Remarks. Before, this species was included to Ablepharus Genus. According taxonomy
revision (Eremchenko, Szscerbak, 1980, 1986; Panfilov, 1998) nominative subgenus
including 2 species which distributed in Pamiro-Alai and Tien-Shan, and seven Himalayan
species, before included to Scincella Genus was described in volume subgenus
Himalblepharus (Eremchenko, 1987, 1992; Eremchenko et al.,1998; Das et al., 1998; Anders
et al., 2002; Sindaco & Eremchenko, 2007).
References. Eremchenko(1983); Eremchenko, Szzcerbak (1986); Panfilov (1998);
Eremchenko (1987, 1992); Eremchenko et al. (1998); Das et al., (1998); Anders et al. (2002);
Sindaco & Eremchenko (2007).
Ablepharus pannonicus (Lichtenstein, 1823)*
Family. Scincidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Азиатский гологлаз, азиянан жайдак, Asiatisches Natterauge, Asian snake-eyed skink.
Subspecies. Monotype species.
Distridution. Middle East, Iran, Afganistan, Иран, Афганистан, Pakistan and NW India, S.
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and S. Kyrgyztan. In study area find for the first time
(West Alai, in hills alond road about Karamyk Village).
Habitats. Slopes by the river terrace with step vegetation including Prangos lipskyi and
Ferula sp.
Activity pattern. Diurnal.
Reproduction. Oviparous.
Clutch size. For lizards of Alai it’s unknown. According to others authors (По данным
автора и других исследователей (Eremchenko, Szszcerbak, 1986; Said-Aliev, 1979;
Sattorov, 1993) in clutch size 4-6 eggs.
Status. In study area very rare species.
Referencee. Eremchenko, Szscerbak, (1986); Eremchenko et al. (1992); Anderson (1999);
Sindaco & Eremchenko (2007).
Eremias yarkandensis Blandford, 1875* (Photographs: 034-035 jpg)
Family. Lacertidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Ящурка яркендская, яркенд кескегы, ?, Yarkend racerunner.
Subspecies. Unknown. Probably, monotype species.
Distribution. Basic area: West China (Sinjian, Kashgaria). In Kyrgystan: East Alai only.
Habitats. Mountain species, populate of semiarid and arid rocky slopes to 3000 м. elevation
(Photographs: 030 jpg, 385 jpg).
Reproduction. Viviparous.
Clutch size. 3-5 young.
Status. Scarce. This species is extremely poor in special measures conservation.
Remarks. Before this species include to species Eremias multiocellata (Günther, 1872),
widely distributed in N-West China and Mongolia. According to taxonomic revising
(Eremchenko, Panfilov, 1999) draw conclusion about species valid показана E.
yarkandensis.
References. Bannikov et al. (1977); Eremchenko, Panfilov (1999); Sindaco & Eremchenko
(2007).
Eremias nikolskii Bedriaga, 1905
Family. Lacertidae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Ящурка Киргизская (Алайская), кыргыздын кескегы, Kirgisischer [Nikolskys]
Wüstenrenner, Kirghiz racerunner.
Subspecies. Monotype.
Distribution. Mountain systems of Tien-Shan and Gissaro-Alai - within south Kyrgyztan,
Uzbekistan (Fergana Valley) and North Tajikistan. Indication by K. P. Paraskiv’s (1956) of
distribution this species in East part of Kazakhstan (Terskey Mountain) is mistake
(Eremchenko et al., 1992).
Habitats. Typically Mountain species, populate semiarid rocky and step slopes with desert,
step vegetations and bush and forest glade too (Rosa, Cerasus, Pistacia, Juniperus); in
Mountain distributed to 3000 м. (Alai Mountain, north slopes).
Activity pattern. Diurnal.
Reproduction. Oviparous.
Clutch size. 2-5 eggs.
Status. In study area is unknown. In other area is common.
Remarks. This species together with others 7 species Middle Asia, Afganistan and Iran,
included in subgenus Dimorphea Eremchenko, 1999.
References. Yakovleva (1964); Szszcerbak (1974); Tzarinenko et Eremchenko (1992);
Eremchenko (1999); Sindaco & Eremchenko (2007).
6.1. Suborder Snakes - Serpentes
Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768)*
Family. Colubridae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Уж водяной, Сары суу жылан / Кызыл боор суу жылан, Gefleckte Wassernatter, Fish
snake (tessellated /water/ snake).
Subspecies. For Kyrgystan not fully ascertain (see Remarks).
Distribution. In Eurasia is common species. In study area find for the first time (West Alai,
Kundoloi canyon ).
Habitats. Ak-SU river and spring with bush about river (Photographs: 116 jpg, 119 jpg, 131
jpg).
Activity pattern. Diurnal and night.
Reproduction. Oviparous.
Clutch size. 4-18 eggs (for snakes Alai unknown).
Status. In study area is seems scarce. In other area is common.
Remarks. In opinion by N. N. Szszcerbak’s (2003) this species is monotype, however in
Europe known description some subspecies.
References. Yakovleva(1964); Eremchenko et al. (1992); Ananjeva et al. (1998); Szczerbak
(2003); Sindaco & Venchi (2006).
Elaphe dione (Pallas, 1773)*.
Family. Colubridae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Полоз узорчатый, auda сойлок, Steppen-Natter, Dione snake.
Subspecies. It is considered that this species is monotype, however populations in East
Russian selected as Elaphe. d. Czerskii (Nikolsky, 1914). Acording to opinion some
systematic-specialists this species deserve taxonomy revision (Schulz, 1996).
Disribution. Widely distribution snake of Eurasia – from Europe to Central Asia, China and
to Korea. In Alai in the first time find Nura canyon (3250 м elevation).
Habitats: Steps, forest (Coniferous и Junipers), rocky slopes, rocky conglomerations and
alpine meadows. скалистые склоны, осыпи и альпийские луга. In Alai find in slope
among Junipers forest, rocky conglomeration and river terrace with bushes (Photographs:
116 jpg, 119 jpg, 131 jpg, 385 jpg, 395 jpg, 428 jpg).
Activity pattern. Diurnal and night.
Reproduction. Oviparous.
Clutch size. 5-24 eggs (for snakes Alai unknown).
Status. In study area is seems scarce. In other area is common.
References. Yakovleva (1964); Schulz (1996); Szczerbak (2003)
Coluber ravergieri (Menetries, 1832)
Family. Colubridae.
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Разноцветный полоз, Aла сойлок, Bunte Zornnater, Mountain racer.
Distribution. A single specimen was observer in West Alai (Kundoloi canyon).
Habitat. Slope canyon (west) with bushes and Prangos lipskyi, and Ferula sp. (Photographs:
116 jpg, 119 jpg, 131 jpg).
Activity pattern. Diurnal (on by us observation).
Status. In Alai area, seems scarce snake.
Reference. Said-Aliev (1979), Szczerbak (2003).
Agkistrodon halys (Pallas, 1776)*.
Family. Viperidae (see Remarks).
Synonyms: name species in Russian, Kyrgyz, German and England languages:
Щитомордник, audate щитомордник, Уу жылан (заарду жылан, Паллас калкан
тумшук, кадимки калкан тумшук), halysschlange, mamushi.
Subspecies. In Kyrgystan distributed one in five known - A. h. karaganus (Eichwald, 1831).
Distribution. Widely distribution snake of Asia: from Kaspii to Central Asia and Mongolia.
In Alai find Kok-Suu basin, Daraut canyon, Altyn-Dara canyon.
Habitats. Varied biotopes: rocky conglomeration, rocky slopes, bushes, among fores glade
(Juniperus); in colony rabbits (Microtus carruthersi, Marmota сaudate). (Photographs: 116
jpg, 119 jpg, 131 jpg, 050-051 jpg, 428 jpg, 453-436 jpg, 438 jpg388 jpg, 395 jpg, ).
Activity Pattern. Diurnal and night.
Reproduction. Viviparous.
Clutch size. 3-14 young.
Status. In Alai area, seems scarce.
Remarks. Some systematic-specialists (Hoge and Romano-Hoge, 1981) separate Asian
species from the genus Agkistrodon into the genus Gloidius
Referencee. Yakovleva (1964); Cernov (1959); Eremchenko et al. (1992); Ananjeva et al.
(1998); Hoge & Romano-Hoge (1981); Venchi A. & R. Sindaco. 2006.
Chapter 7. Protection aspect.
7.1. Whether it could be used as an indicator.
Amphibia
Amphibians of Alai area (toads) is indicators of soiling water. Toad presence in all water
sources to 3600 m elevation.
Reptilia
Indicator is one species only – Asymblepharus alaicus. High size of populations and
presence in varied biotopes can define this species as the most “Information” for monitoring
changing environment. It’s particularly importance count up for conservation and rational
exploitation step and subalpine and alpine vegetation associations, where located pasture-ground
for house animals.
7.2. Main conservation threats to the species.
Amphibia
As to toads, then at present do not existent special danger for vital activity population
distributed in Alai area. However, in separate local populations of anthropogenic landscape we
observed lost toads: along trunk road and near peoples (houses, farms).
Conservation genetic diversity of green toads have of scientific meaning for investigate
row questions polyploidy, speciation, phylogeography and demography of populations these
unique high-mountain amphibians.
Reptilia
Perilous situation circumstance took an unfavourable turn for live population Yarkend
racerunner - Eremias yarkandensis, distributed in slopes hills along of Nura river in further to
east to border China. Collected stones for building houses at present bring to sharp reduction size
of population this species on left bank of Nura river – high limit distribution species in Alai.
Before (data expeditions by author’s: 1988-1989 y.) here can be meet to 21 specimens
racerunner for an hour excursion. At present – 2-5 specimens only. Lower of Nura village, in
consequence aggressive (changing) river flow the river has washed away its banks and first
terrace. In result was destroyed part population racerunner. Clogging and collected stones in the
long run bring to breach demographic stability population this species in border Kyrgyztan.
Therefore we recommend include this species in Red Book KR and secure protection him area.
Condition of population Himalayan rock agama - Laudakia himalayana call trouble for
the reason destruction biotopes this species – collected stones (sandstone) in slopes and obtaining
(destroy) lime plate for building houses. Intensive building villages and separate houses about
foothills invade in area agama, which shot strip (and interrupted) from Kyzyl-Eshme village and
to Kundoloi canyon in west. Before (data expeditions by author’s: 1988-1989 y.y.) neighboring
Daraut-Kurgan village can be meet to 18 specimens agamas for an hour excursion. At present –
3-6 specimens only. In the fifties, here can been find to 40 specimens on 1 hectare (Yakovleva,
1964). For existent tempo building and destroy strip habitat (area) agama can bring into decisive
reduction size of population this species and after him disappearance. Therefore necessary think
about organize special reservation for conservation agama in Alai area.
Illustrations and significance it.
(See illustration in other file)
030. E. Alai: bank of Nura river; habitats Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae and Eremias
yarkandensis (dry slope).
034-035. Eremias yarkandensis (Nura).
044. Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae (E. Kok-Suu).
045. Agkistrodon halys (E. Kok-Suu).
050-051. Habitat Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae and Agkistrodon halys (E. KokSuu).
052. Phenotype of Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae (E. Kok-Suu).
054. Remains of Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae: find under stone (E. Kok-Suu).
055. Pool with tadpoles about road: Kara-Kindik locality.
061. Toad on snow (July): Kara-Kindik locality.
062-063. Habitats of toads: Kara-Kindik locality.
066, 074. Toads (July): Kara-Kindik locality.
078-079. Muddy pool with tadpoles about road: Kara-Kindik locality.
081-082, 087, 092. Habitat of toad and Asymblepharus a. yakovlevaes: Zaalaiskii
Mountain, Kabak - Aral rivers.
090. Habitat toads (tadpoles) in Zaalaiskii Mountain, Kabak - Aral rivers.
107-108. Habitat toads (2 km W to Daraut-Kurgan vill.).
116, 119, 131. West Alai, Kundoloi canyon: Habitats Asymblepharus alaicus yakovlevae,
Elaphe dione, Coluber ravirgieri, Agkistrodon halys.
140. Habitat Asymblepharus alaicus alaicus: Tengizbai Pass.
143. Habitat toads: Tengizbai Pass.
362. Habitat toads: Kara-Kindik.
385. Habitat Bufo pewzowi (spring, brooks) and Eremias yarcandensis (dry slope): Nura.
388, 395. East Alai, Kok-Suu: habitat Asymblepharus alaicus yakovlevae, Elaphe dione,
Agkistrodon halys.
389. East Alai, Kok-Suu: next remains of Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae: find under
stone.
395. East Alai, Kok-Suu: habitat of Asymblepharus alaikus yakovlevae (border from
stone and watering meadow).
406. Foothills Zaalaiskii Mountain, lake of Orto-Chukur : habitat for toads.
412-414. Foothills Zaalaiskii Mountain, Tulpar-Kol: habitats of Asymblepharus alaikus
yakovlevae in colony Microtus carruthersi.
427. Daraut canyon: habitat of toads.
428. . Daraut canyon: habitat of Asymblepharus alaicus alaicus, Elaphe dione,
Agkistrodon halys.
435-436, 438. Altyn-Mazar: habitat Asymblepharus alaicus alaicus, Agkistrodon halys
447, 449, 453. Adult and young Asymblepharus alaicus alaicus
Bibliography
Ananjeva N. B., L. Y Borkin, I. S. Darevsky, N. L Orlov. Amphibians and Reptiles.
Description in colour. Representation all species Amphibians and Reptiles of the former USSR
М.: 574 p.
Ananjeva N. B. and Peters G. 1990. Stellio sacer (Smith, 1935) – a distinct species of the
Asiatic rock agamas (Sauria, Agamidae). – In Proc. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR. 207. Reptiles
of Mountain and Arid Territories: Systematics and Distribution: 3-11 (in Russia).
Bannikov A. G., Darevsky I. S., Ischenko V.G., Rustamov A.K., Szszcerbak N.N.1977.
[Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Moskow: Pros Press. 414. (in Russia).
Eremchenko V.K. 1983. Distribution and Geography geography inconstancy
alaicus
(Sauria, Scincidae).Vestnik Zool.. (3): 35-42.
Eremchenko V.K., Szszcerbak N.N. 1980. About generic quality ablepharid lizards of
fauna USSR (Reptilia, Sauria, Scincidae).- Vest. Zool. (4):10-15.
Eremchenko V.K. Panfilov A.M. 1988. Kariologycal research Asymblepharus alaicus
(Elpat., 1901): Sauria, Scincidae. Izvestia Acad. Sci. Kirghiz Rep., Frunze (4): 88-92 (in
Russian)..
Eremchenko V.K. 1987. [Systematic and relative links of Indo-Himalayan Scincellas
(Sauria: Scincidae)]. Izvestia Acad. Sci. Kirghiz Rep., Frunze (2): 54-57 (in Russian)..
Eremchenko V.K., Szczerbak N.N. 1986. [Ablepharid Lizards of the USSR Fauna and
Contiguous Contries]. Frunze; Ylym Press. 771 pp. (in Russia).
Eremchenko V.K., Helfenberger N., Shah K., & Panfilov A.M. 1998. Two new species of
skinks (Scincidae: Lygosominae) from Nepal. Izvestia (Bull) Acad. Sci. Kirgiz Rep.. Bishkek
(4): 41-45 (In Russian).
Eremchenko V.K. 1999. Nomenklature of Asian racerunner Eremias Wigmann, 1834 in
connection with procedure following designate monotype (Sauria: Lacertidae). Izvestia Acad.
Sci. Kirghiz Rep., Bishkek (1): 72-73 (in Russian).
Eremchenko V.K., Panfiliv A.M. 1999. Taxonomyc situation of multiocellated
racerunner of the Eremias multiocellata complex of Kyrgyzstan and neighbour China (Sauria:
Lacertidae: Eremias). Science and new technology. Bishkek, №4:112-124.
Kuzmin S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Sofia-Moskow: Pensoft
Publ., 538 p.
Nikolskii A.M. 1909. Une nouvelle espece d’amphibie a queue de Turquestan russe
Hynobius
turkestanicus n. sp. – Trudy Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody pri Kharkovskom
universitete 43: 73-76.
Nikolsky A.M. 1918. Faune de la Russie et des Pays Limitrophes: Amphibiens
(Amphibia). Petrograd: Russ. Acad. Sci. Publ., 319 p. (in Russia).
Panfilov A. M. 1998. The inter-populationrelations and species belonging of mountain
lygosoma skinks of the Asymblepharus alaicus (Sauria, Scincidae) of North-Western and Inner
Tien-Shan, Izvestia Acad. Sci. Kirghiz Rep., Bishkek (1): 51-55 (in Russian).
Оrlov V.V. N.S. Bulatova.1983. Comparatively cytogenetic and Kariosystematics of
mammalia. М.: 405 p.
Panfilov A. M., Eremchenko V. K. 1992. Multituding NORs of Reptiles. In: Research
conspectus on cytogenetics an systematics of some Asian lizards (Scincidae и Lacertidae.).
Paraskiv K.P. 1956. [Reptiles of Kazakhstan]. Alma-Ata. 228 p. (in Russia).
Pisanetz Е. M. 1978. Systematics and geography inconstancy of toad of the fauna USSR.
Кiev, 291 p.
Pisanetz Е. M 1989. Main direction in investigation genus Bufo.- In.: Guide on research
Amphibians and Reptiles. 1989.- Kiev. 172 p.
Guide on research Amphibians and Reptiles. 1989.- Kiev. 172 p.
Said-Aliev S.A. 1979. [Amphibians and Reptiles of Tadjikistan]. Dushanbe: Donish
Press. 146 p. (in Russia).
Sattorov Т.S. 1993. Reptiles of north Tajikistan – Dushanbe, Donish Press. 289 p.
Tzarinenko E.I., Eremchenko V.K. 1992. Geography inconstancy of Kyrgyz racerunner
Eremias nikolskii
Bedriaga, 1905 (Sauria, Lacertidae). – In: Research conspectus on
cytogenetics an systematics of some Asian lizards (Scincidae и Lacertidae.). p. 80-90.
Cernov S.A. 1959. Fauna of Tadjik SSR T. 18. Reptiles. Stalinabad: Acad. Sci. Tajik
SSR. Press. 202 p (in Russia).
Szszcerbak N.N. 1989. Quantitative calculation. In: Guide on research Amphibians and
Reptiles. 1989. - Kiev. 121-125.
Руководство по изучению земноводных и
пресмыкающихся. 1989.- Киев. 172 с.
Yakovleva I.D. 1964. [Presmyrfushiesya Kirgizii].- Frunze, Ykym press. 272 p.
Anders C.C., I. Das, A. Diener, V.R. Eremchenko, U. Gruber, N. Helfenberger, K. Kabisch, V.
Kästle, T.M. Masrte, H.H. Schleich, Kalu Ram Rai, K.B.Shah. 2002. – Amphibians and
Reptiles of Nepal. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G. 2001 pp.
Anderson S.C. 1999. - The lizards of Iran. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.
442 pp.
Bennet D. Expedition Fild Techniques. Amphibians and Reptiles. 1999. Ryal Geographical
Society. London.94 p.
Das I., B. Datagupta, B. & Gaayen. 1998. Systematic status of Lygosoma himalayanum
tragbulense Alckok, “1897” 1898 (Sauria: Scincidae) collected by the Pamir Boundary
Commission, 1855.- Russ. J. Herpet. 5 (2):147-150.
Hoge A.R & R.W. Romano-Hoge. (“1979”)1981. Poisonous snakes of theword. Part 1. Check
list of the pit vipers Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae.- Mem. Institute Butantan, San
Paolo, 42-43:179-310.
Kuzmin S.L and E.A. Dunayev. 2000. – On the Problem of the Type Territory of the
Turkestanian Salamander (Hynobius turkestanicus). PTNSOFT Publishers SofiaMoskow. Advances in Amphib. Res. In the forme Sjv. Union. Vol 5: 243-250.
Schulz Klaus-Dieter. 1996. – A monograph of the Colubrid Snakes Elaphe Fitzinger. Koelts
Scientific Books CR 58001 Havlickuv Drod, Czeh Republic. 439 pp.
Sindaco R. & V.K. Eremchenko. 2007. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic. 1. Annotated
checklist and distributional atlas of the Turtles, Crocodiles, Amphisbaenians and Lizards
of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. – Soc. Herpet. Italica, Firence.
640 pp.
Stöck M., R. Günther & W. Böme. 2001. – Progress towards a taxonomic revision of the Asian
Bufo viridis group: Current status of nominal taxa and unsolved problems (Amphibia:
Anura: Bufonidae). – Zoologische Abhandlungen Staatiches Museum für Tiekunde
Dresden. B. 51. Nr18: 253-319.
Stöck M., C. Moritz, M. Hickerson, D. Frynta, T. Dujsebayeva, V.K. Eremchenko, J.R. Macey,
T.J. Papenfuss, D.B. Wake.- Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography
of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with isights intheir genome plasticity. –
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 663-689.
Szczerbak N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles the Eastern Palearctic. – Kriger Publishing
Company, Malabar, Florida. 260 pp
Venchi A. & R. Sindaco. 2006. Annotated checklist of the Mediterrnean countries with keys to
species identification. Part 2. – Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes).- Soc. Herpet. Italica,
Firence. P. 256-346.
Подписи к иллюстрациям предварительного отчета В. К. Еремченко – эксперта по
земноводным и пресмыкающимся ПАТОТ (53 фотографии).
1. Геоботаническая карта алая.
2. (030.jpg). Восточный Алай: 3-5 км западнее с Нура; пустынный склон – стация
яркендской
ящурки Еremias yarkandensis Blanford, 1875.; каменистый урез (обрыв)
террасы –
стация алайского асимблефара Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus yarovlevae
Eremchenko, 1983 и жабы Певцова Bufo pewzowi pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898.
3-4. (034.jpg; 035.jpg). Яркендская ящурка Еremias yarkandensis. В. Алай, Нура.
5-6. (044.jpg; 052jpg). Алайский асимблефар Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus yarovlevae
Eremchenko, 1983. В. Алай, приток р. Кок-Суу.
7. (045.jpg). Палласов щитомордник Agkistrodon halys (Pallas, 1776); В. Алай, приток р.
Кок-Суу.
8-11. (050.jpg; 051.jpg; 388.jpg; 399.jpg). Стации алайского асимблефара Яковлевой
Asymblepharus alaicus yarovlevae, узорчатого поза Elaphe dione и Палласова щитомордника
Agkistrodon halys. В. Алай, приток р. Кок-Суу.
12. (395.jpg). Стация алайского асимблефара Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus yarovlevae
на участке поливного луга и каменного бордюра. В. Алай, приток р. Кок-Суу.
13-14. (054.jpg; 389jpg). Остатки погибших асимблефаров, найденных под камнями; В.
Алай, приток р. Кок-Суу.
15. (055.jpg). Придорожные лужи с головастиками жабы Bufo sp. Вдоль дороги ур. КараКиндик – с. Сары-Таш.
16-18. (061.jpg; 066.jpg; 074.jpg). Неполовозрелые особи жаб Bufo sp. на снегу
заболоченного луга в колонии Microtus sp. и на галечнике у берега протоки. Ур. КараКиндик.
19-20. (062jpg; 063.jpg). Стации Bufo sp.; Кара-Киндик.
21.22. (078.jpg; 079.jpg). Придорожная лужа – стация размножения Bufo sp (головастики в
луже).
23-25. (081.jpg; 082.jpg; 087.jpg). Стации Bufo sp. и алайского асимблефара Яковлевой
Asymblepharus alaicus yarovlevae; у слияния рек Каман и Арал; вид на Алайский хребет.
26. (090.jpg). Головастики Bufo sp. в стации у слияния рек Каман и Арал.
(092.jpg). Стация Bufo sp. и алайского асимблефара Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus
yarovlevae.
27-28. (107.jpg; 108jpg). Искусственне водоёмы (канавы) у дороги: стация жабы Bufo sp. 23 км зап. с. Дараут-Курган.
29-30. (116jpg; 119jpg). З. Алай: ущ. Кундолой, р. Ак-Суу: стация алайского асимблефара
Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus yакavlevaе, Coluber sp., полоза узорчатого Elaphe dione и
Палласова щитомордника Agkistrodon halys.
31. (131.jpg). Галечноковый склон в ущелье Кундолой: стация алайского асимблефара
Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus yarovleva, полоза узорчатого Elaphe dione и Палласова
щитомордника Agkistrodon halys.
32-33. (139jpg; 140jpg). Тенгизбай: эродированные склоны в стации номинативного
подвида алайского асимблефара Asymblepharus alaicus alaicus (Elpatjevsky, 1901).
34. (143.jpg). Головастики Bufo sp.на заболоченном участке по дороге на перевал
Тенгизбай.
35. (362.jpg). Стация Bufo sp. Кара-Киндик.
36. (385.jpg). Стация Bufo pewzowi pewzowi : ручей родникового происхождения по террасе
р. Нура (верховье).
37. (406.jpg). Водоемы Орто-Чукур у Заалайского хребта: стация Bufo sp.
38.39. (412.jpg; 413.jpg). Озёра среди холмов (морен) в окрестности оз. Тулпар-Коль:
стации алайского асимблефара Яковлевой Asymblepharus alaicus yakovlevae в колонии
арчевой полёвки Microtus carruthersi.
Download
Related flashcards
Reproduction

19 Cards

Dog breeds

23 Cards

Men

14 Cards

Create flashcards