Gender Stereotypes: Gender stereotypes consist of beliefs about the gendered nature of: Psychological traits Characteristics Activities Roles are interpreted in light of stereotypes that direct us to perceive roles that reinforce stereotypes…. Historical/Theological bases for Stereotypes: Stereotype Threat—appearing to reflect “negative” attributes of a stereotype Grounded in “Cult of True Womanhood” Piety Purity Submissiveness Domesticity Masculinities Coarse Strong Wise Forceful Active Independent Doctrine of two spheres Males and females were not only different as individuals but were expected to occupy different spaces in society; men’s, women’s roles, interests, activities, and attributes are divergent. Pg. 155 No sissy stuff—no fear (2000 study of basal reading series indicates that boys are still portrayed this way) The big wheel Sturdy oak Give ‘em hell Pleck—Gender Role Strain— the tension between traditional male roles and the role “he” wants can create stress given a highly stereotyped society (feminine male) e.g. close/intimate vs. no sissy stuff and sturdy oak Connell—hegemonic masculinity— culturally sanctioned masculine roles become the standard for goodness and appropriateness Development of Gender Stereotypes First step—undifferentiated (infancy but others differentiate—pink/blue) Gender Labeling (>6years)—this allows children to begin to differentiate genders based on a set of expectations Second (>6years)—children begin to make gender assignments to children whose interests were like their own….Martin, Wood, & Little (1990)—they likely come to understand their own gender roles before they understand others’ roles Finally (<6 years)Development progresses from labeling, to understanding selfstereotype, to understanding other-stereotype, to being able to make gender exceptions Illusory correlations (Meehan & Junik, 1990)— when we see something that conforms to a stereotype we make attributions for all in the class; exceptions are not retained Durkin & Nugent (1998) as children age and experience stereotypes, they have less of an impact on broad samples of individuals. However, men’s roles are much more stereotypical than females; It is o.k. for a woman to act out men’s roles but not for men to act out women’s roles Powlishta (2000)— Children and adults attribute stereotypic characteristics to women and men, children and adults Overall, there is a reluctance to attribute feminine attributes to men; There is a tendency to associate being feminine with being childlike Hall & Carter (1999) Those who are most likely to stereotype: o Cognitively rigid o Need structure o Likely to ascribe to extreme traits Those who are least likely to stereotype o Cognitively flexible o Seeks discrepant information o Seeks knowledge of individuals, not groups o Develops first-hand knowledge in lieu of hearsay o Tends to monitor and “see” one’s environment—social cues Therefore: Sensitivity to one’s environment and being cognitively receptive leads to more accurate information regarding individuals Hoffman & Hurst (1990) o Given information about group occupations, individuals tend to attribute personality/gender traits…circumstances/environmental conditions less impact than stereotypes Other factors: Power/Control-- Fiske (1993) & Fiske and colleagues— o Powerless attend to powerful to understand motives and behaviors and predict “next step”—this reflects environmental sensitivity ala Hall and Carter o Powerful need not attend to powerless because predicting their behaviors is less important so, stereotyping is more likely and adaptive o Tendency is to use group norms to make inferences about individuals without attending to individual differences o The stereotype in itself is an assertion of power o Prejudice—negative evaluation of group o Discrimination—behavior that separates one group from another and typically from reward systems o Sexism Hostile sexism—views that create negative responses (exclusion; domination) Benevolent sexism—views that tend to create patronage Deaux & Lewis Contents of Gender Stereotypes— o Traits o Behaviors o Physical Characteristics o Occupations o Given gender labels, people tend to construct a representation about an individual that conforms to traits, behaviors, physical charac., and occupations BUT o Physical appearance led to attributions about traits, behav’s, and occupations o Given information in one domain, inferences about other domains are made o Differences and attributions are NOT discrete but probabilistic. So, we might say that men are less likely (.46) than women (.67) to be nurturing…..not that they can’t be nurturing… Over the past 40+ years, women’s rated favoritism has increased (Feingold, 1998) Spence & Hahn (1997) voer 25-30 years, attitude toward women has become more egalitarian; BUT: men still stereotype more rigidly Heilman & Chen (2005) Hypothesis 1: engaging in altruistic citizenship behavior will enhance men’s performance evaluations and reward recommendations but will not affect those of women. Hypothesis 2: withholding altruistic citizenship behavior will be detrimental to women’s performance evaluations and reward recommendations but will not affect those of men. Independent variables: o Sex of “target” employee—male/female o Altruistic citizenship behavior—report on episode in which the employee either performed or did not perform altruistic behavior: need to make copies and a male or female target either helped or did not help. A control condition of no information was also presented Dependent variables: o Performance evaluation—rating of employee performance over the last year and prospective assessment of likelihood of success. o Reward recommendation—salary increase, promotion, bonus pay, etc) o Attribute rating—competence and interpersonal civility Findings: o Performance rating: Target sex X Altruism interaction No difference in males’ performance rating across help/not help levels of altruism Men rated higher than women in helping condition Women’s ratings no difference in helping and no information Across helping and withholding help, males rated higher than females o Reward recommendations: Target sex X altruism interaction In no help condition, there was no difference in recommendations for males but in the no help condition, women were rated significantly lower than in the helping condition In help condition males significantly higher than females Interpretations: males are less likely to be penalized for withholding help and women are more likely to be penalized. Men stereotyped more negatively by women but those judgements are typically based on individual experiences—ala Hall & Carter—sensitivity to one’s environment Femininity/Mascuinity/Androgeny Bidirectional on a singular dimension (M------------F) Unidimensional for two genders (Masc: hi---------lo; Fem hi--------lo) MMPI—male heterosexual vs. male homosexual as standard for masculinity/feminity Bem—Sex Role Inventory—Culturally identified attributes Masculine, feminine, androgynous, undifferentiated Problem: based on culturally defined, not theory More recent—based on instrumentality vs. expressiveness or agentic/communal Lewin (1984) Tests measure socially accepted stereotypic attributes and behaviors not theoretically driven constructs……. Cross culturally—boys typically have more freedom than girls….