Past Paper Answers 1. Outline the aims of the 1902 Model Course? - Fitness for War – to avoid defeat or near defeat in future war to eliminate problems caused in the Boer war - Discipline – Obedience so that the working class would know their place in society - Health - better health for the working class - Weapons training. 2. Outline the aims of a lesson based on Moving and growing/ planning the Programme 1952-1954) – Physical – Learn physical skills/ body management/ gymnastic/dance/swimming skills/ to give a varied programme/varied lessons - Social – to learn social skills/ co-operation / working together/ group work. - Cognitive – learn cognitive skills / working things out - Enjoyment – Enjoyment/ satisfaction/feelings of achievement/success - Involvement – to get everyone involved and taking part. 3. Identify differences between popular recreation in pre industrial Britain and rational recreation in post- industrial Britain? Popular recreation Local Uncodified/ simple rules/limited organisation Cruel and violent Occasional/festival rural Occupational Wagering Courtly and popular/ upper class and peasant class Natural facilities Strength based/ few tactics/ no positions Rational Recreation Regional/national/international Codified/kits/team numbers/boundaries/ officials Respectable/ civilised/ sportsmanship/fair play/non violent regular Urban/sub- urban For leisure Wagering reduced Upper class and new middle class and working class Purpose built facilities Skill based/ tactics/positions 4. With reference to social change give reasons why the differences between popular recreation and rational recreation occurred. - - - Transport – improved transport improved communication, impact of railways Time – Initial loss then increased free time/ Saturday half day/ more structure free time/ machine time Revolutions – impact of industrial revolution/ urban revolution Literacy – improved literacy lead to the development of national governing bodies Law and order – improved law and order/ adverse attitudes of church/ industrialist towards gambling Class 1 – Pre industrial Britain predominately two class society. Post industrial Britain a three class society. Feudal nature of society. Class 2 - Influence of new middle class/ middle class attitudes/ the civilising process. Work/play – work was an integral part of life in pre industrial Britain whereas it became something to do after work. Impact of protestant work ethic. Technology – Purpose built facilities/ improvements in equipment 5. How did social class influence participation in sports and pastimes in both pre industrial and post industrial Britain? In Pre Industrial Britain - Two class society – Britain predominately a two class society Upper class (gentry) v lower class (peasants) - Different games – each class played different games e.g. real tennis for the upper class and mob football for the lower class. - Different roles – or had a different role within the activity e.g. patron or pedestrian - Community activities – impact of community activities e.g. wakes, fairs, opportunity for fun for all, free enjoyment. - Travel – lower class couldn’t travel far ad they had to walk and did not have transport whereas upper class had horses and coaches so had more opportunity. In Post Industrial Britain - Middle class – Emergence of the new middle class/ middle class attitudes and values - Work conditions – Changes in work conditions for working class when working class gained half day Saturday spectatorism was affected and increased. - Excursion trips – excursion trips for working class by benevolent industrialist - Holidays – holiday patterns / weeks paid holiday for the working class by late nineteenth century - Professionals/ ameaturs – Amateurs were middle or working class. Professionals tend to be working class. 6. How did provision and organisation within late nineteenth century English schools promote sports and games? - - - Time – Time/ boarding influence Money1 – Endowments, regular income, finical supports of trustees and governors Money 2 – Fee paying school, fess used to improve provision, Old Boys subscription, contributions and support Facilities 1 –Specialist facilities, swimming baths, racquets, gymnasia, lawn tennis courts Facilities 2 - Land buying land for playing field and extensive playing fields. Expertise 1 – Employment of Oxbridge blues, masters joined in team games. Played squash, fives and tennis with and against the boys Expertise 2 – Employment of lower class professionals, games professionals, cricket or racquet coaches. Role models – games masters, assistant coaches, Sixth form as role models e.g. Brooke in Tom Brown Schools days Social Control – Influence of headmaster e.g. Dr Thomas Arnold. The desire for social control and using games to get social control and discipline Regularity – Regularity of play playing more regularly increased standards of play and increased public interest. Inter house - Inter house games, house teams, important of house matches and inter school games Competition – Athletic sports days, schools often first to hold athletic sports meetings in towns, public schools competition Compulsion – Daily games compulsory in many public schools - Organisation - Highly organised systematic games programme organised by the boys themselves Old Boys - Spread of games in society. 7. Describe features of Pedestrianism in Pre Industrial Britain - Foot race – Foot race/ race running or walking - Simple – Cheap/ simple activity - Footmen – Gentry employed footmen as messengers - Wagering – Widespread wagering/ betting - Patron – Lower class runners patronised by gentry - Festival occasions/ popular spectacles/exciting contest / big occasions/ occasional special events/ large venues and huge crows associated with prize fighting and horse racing - Money – A way for a peasant to become rich, occupation for lower class professionals, prize money for winners/fame/status/occupational - Amateurs – Amateurs also raced as a challenge - Novelty – Many novelty races - Corruption – Became corrupt/match fixing/cheating - Rules – Rules established by organisers 8. Describe Features of Various forms of athletics in nineteenth century Public Schools. - Hare and Hounds – adaptation of fox hunting and paper chasing - Headmasters – were initially against it - Steeple chase - Sports Day – Athletic sports day idea taken by universities. - Social Major social occasion, prizes large crows. Opportunity for headmaster to show school at best - Status – Lower status than cricket 9. Describe features of Athletics as a rational recreation - Exclusivity – Middle class keen to separate themselves from the working class / keen to stay exclusive/ Amateurs Athletics Club formed by ex university amateurs clubs formed. - Corruption – Evidence of corruption - Non corruption – Middle classes keep to dissociate modern athletics from corruption of professional pedestrianism - Exclusion clause – Exclusion clause imposed- no mechanics, skilled workers or labourer to join. AAC enforced exclusion clause. - Money – Lower class competed for money - Middle class – Competed for intrinsic rewards to test themselves - Upper class- keen to re create public school ethics gentlemen amateurs formed their own clubs 10. Identify 2 characteristics of public schools and explain how each characteristic influenced the development of team games. - - - Boys – Energy and enthusiasm to be channelled into games Boarding – Time available Expansion/size – As numbers grew houses were formed which became the hub of games competitions Non local – Great variety of regional game adopted/adapted by schools Spartan/harsh treatment – Harsh treatment or living conditions prepared the boys for rigours of competitive sport/ violent nature of games Controlled by trustees – trustees were keen to promote school/ Trustees keen to invest in sporting success Endowed – School which received large gifts of money of property could build facilities or employ assistant masters or coaching professionals Fee Paying – Money could go towards developing facilities/ money to build gymnasia/ swimming baths or racquet courts Gentry - Influential families brought money to develop facilities/ influence on type of activities brought to the school. 11. Describe the role of the Sixth Form during stage 2 of the development when Dr Thomas Arnold was headmaster at the school? - Responsibility – Sixth form given responsibility/ status of sixth raised - Social Control – Sixth former helped to establish social control - Role models – Some became role models or heroes e.g. Brooke of Tom Browns School days - Discipline – Sixth form had power to discipline younger boys - Organisation – Sixth form central to the organisation of games/organised house games - Relationships – Better relationships with masters/ more trusting or sympathetic/ cordial relationship within school bridging the gap between masters and pupils. 12. Describe Mob football as a popular recreation - Local – Village v Village, community based - Uncoded – Simple rules, local rules, based on the word of mouth simple, natural - Violent – Uncivilised, regular deaths not skills based - Occasional – Often annual on festival days or holy days - Played by lower class males a way to show manliness - Rural – Occasional in towns - Often restricted – illegal, curtailed - Wagering – betting on the outcome 13. 14. - Describe football or rugby in public schools Usually compulsory for all Interhouse/ interschool matches Games in afternoon Part of the games cult played obsessively by some Thought to promote values e.g. courage leadership pluck or build character Melting pot of ideas/codification Development of facilities/ equipment/kit Describe association football as a rational recreation. Regional/National/International Rule based Governing Body rules Respectable, civilised/skilful/skill not force/tactics Regular, leagues, cups, competitions Gentlemen amateur teams e.g. Factory workers Working class professionals Urban/purpose built stadium Playing positions use of officials kit 15. Explain the emergence of association football from mob football by referring to the influence of changing working conditions, urban expansion, and improved transport. - Factory System, regular working times Reduction in working week ½ day Saturday early closing movement Skill manual labour first to gain ½ Saturday day Pro football a comparatively good job Workers had more money enough to pay the Saturday gate money Broken time payments (lead to professionalism - 16. - - Limited space/ loss of space means not enough space for all to play Specialist facilities developed most town built football grounds Potential business opportunities in running clubs appealed to middle classes Large numbers of people in one place needed something to do captive audience Trains/trams/buses allowed for easy travel to away games or national fixtures Allowed for regular fixtures Facilitated development of spectatorism Lead to need for standardised rules/ formation of national governing bodies Lead to development of leagues and cups and competitions Outline the features of Pre Industrial Cricket Rural – Rural village game Kit – No special kit Equipment – Special equipment, two stumps, club shaped bat Space – not set boundaries, played in fields, played in meadows Rules – Early rules articles of agreements rules locally adapted Scoring - Scoring by notching on wood Bat and ball – Game developed at Bat and Ball Inn Hampshire Fixtures – Early county games , matches often arranged on special feast days and holy days Wagering MCC – Marylebone Cricket Club founded in 1788 employed professionals as coaches and players and MCC became governing body of cricket Class – Upper and lower class played together upper class employed lower class and lower class make up the number and are needed for their skill. 17. Identify character building values and explain and explain how each of them could be developed through the game of cricket. Value Teamwork Leadership Loyalty Courage/manliness Endeavour/commitment Discipline Honesty/integrity fair play Trust How developed through cricket Everyone needed, working together, supporting each other Captain To Team, to house, to school In face of strong opposition to cope with difficult condition s when injured Training hard not giving up when score or conditions are difficult, coming back from injury, working to get into the team , always turning up for practice and having private coaching Keeping cool under pressure Admitting walking when out, admitting you have not made a catch, not cheating, keeply strictly to the rule, accepting umpire decision and respecting the opposition In team mates in captains decision and in selection 18. Explain how social changes associated with urban and industrialisation influenced the development of rationalised cricket. - Influence of new middle class increased respectability / changed attitude - Business & administrative ability of educated class influenced rules and structure - Literacy and media increased popularity - More free time increased regularity and spectatorism - Improved transport and communication the rail ways spread - The railways allowed touring team to become famous - Spread of public school ethos increased sportsmanship/skilfulness - Increased law and order lead to a reduction of gambling - Class based nature of Britain resulted in amateur/professional divide in cricket unpaid gentlemen amateurs and paid working class professionals. 19. How did the development of railways help the growth of association football? - Teams – Teams could travel further in shorter time/ more distant away fixtures possible - Supporters could travel to watch their team and supporters clubs grew - Competitions – leagues cups fixtures and competitions developed. Regular and regional competitions - Rules – Rules standardised the FA Formed in 1863) teams had to play to the same rules - Social – The train journey became a popular enjoyable social occasion 20. What factors other than improved transport influenced the emergence of rational sport after 1850? - Revolutions – Industrial and urban revolution - Time – Increased free time ½ Saturday and shorter working week and regular working patterns - Space – Less space lead to pitches and stadiums - Middle class – More middle class/ middle class influence making it more civilised - Law and order – Factory acts improved workers, Rights reformed improved working conditions, Increased government support of working class and control of wagering - Patronage – Industrial patronage, provision of facilities at factory, excursion trips to seaside - Income/health – Less poverty earnings improved enough for gate money and improved health - Literacy – Improved literary, newspapers improved business administration - Emancipation – More freedom for women to participate impact of lawn tennis - Schools – Impact of ex public school boys - Technology – Improved technology/ town baths built 21. Describe features specific to track and field athletics at 1870? - AAC – Amateur Athletics Club governing body formed (1866) club for gentlemen amateurs - Amateurs – Amateurs were middle class and participated for love or intrinsic rewards. Could not earn money or train seriously or aim to win at all costs. - Exclusion clause – No mechanic, artisan or labourer could join the governing body - Professionalism - Professional ran for a living or to make money/ professional athletics developed in cities/ sports day organised by local promoters - Corruption – Corruption or cheating in professional athletics e.g. handicapping - Facilities – Most big cities had a track by mid century large spectator attraction - Clubs – Cross country/ harrier clubs for the working class. Harrier clubs evolved from hare and hounds - Olympic games – Modern Olympic game established 22. Identify and describe two different forms of athletics in nineteenth century Public Schools. - Hare and hounds – paper chase adaptation of fox hunting - Steeple chase adaptation from steeple chase on horse back/boys ran over hedges and field e.g. cross country - Sports day – Social occasion with many spectators due to improved rail transport opportunity for head to show off school or ask for donations. 23. Explain the growth and popularity of pedestrianism? - Footmen employed as messengers or as competitive runners - Wagering, gentry bet on outcome of their employees - Patronage0 Gentry patrons looked after lower class runner set up races - Festival – Became huge festival occasions great spectacular attraction highly organised and structures - Deerfoot ( Native American) or 1000 miles in 1000 hours - Simple – Cheap simple equipment - Violence – Cheating common match fixing violence among participants bad reputation - Gentlemen amateurs competed to test themselves - Rules established by the organisers - Festival – Festival occasions popular spectacle exciting context Wagering Rewards prize money involved fame status money for food rage to riches Linked with other attractions e.g. prize fighting and horse racing 24. Why did State elementary school children not play organised team in 1902? - Lack of time - Lack of space only had yard, road and classroom - Lack of Equipment/ facilities - Lack of coaching/ teaching expertise - Lack of health, energy, malnutrition - Other aims more important, needed for fitness for war has just performed badly in Boer War/ Model Course imposed by war office. - Children to young for large team games 25. Identify and explain factors that lead to sporting excellence in the late nineteenth century Public Schools? - Time significant time boarding influence - Money – Endowed regular income old boy subscription - Money – Fee Paying school fess to improve provision - Regularity – Regularity of play Improved stands - Inter House – Inter house games importance of house matches - Inter school – Inter school games annual fixtures v other major public school - Community – Fixtures with local clubs annual matches - Compulsion – Daily games in many public school were compulsory - Facilities – Specialist facilities, swimming baths, racquets or lawn tennis courts Land buying for pitch, extensive playing field facilities often used by major associations for special occasions and competitions Expertise – Employment of Oxbridge blues impact of the gentlemen amateur Master joined in team games played squash or tennis with and against the boys Employment of lower class professional or coaches Competition – Championships/ big competitions Athletics – Athletic sports day school often first to hold athletic sport meeting in towns - Highly organised games programme Headmaster’s encouragement e.g. Dr Thomas Arnold Role models – Impact of games masters or assistant master or sixth form. E.g. brook out of tom browns school day Influence of rational sport and rules and national governing bodies 26. Identify different functions of pre industrial bathing? - Safety – Learn to swim to be safe to avoid drowning - Hygiene – Bath for a wash no facilities at home - Recreation – Recreation/ fun on a hot summer’s day. 27. What activities might have occurred at a pre industrial fair or festival? - Bathing sports/blood sports - Violent – mob games/single sticks/ wrestling - Races – Races/smock races/racing for prizes/sack races - Simple activities – fold whistling matches/jingling matches - Feasting/drinking – Feasting drinking and wagering - Courtship – Courtship/sexual activity - Hiring – Hiring of labour 28. In what way was Real Tennis different from most other popular recreations - Courtly played by elite - Rules – it has been written complex rules it was structures - Not violent it had etiquette it was high culture it was sophisticated and skilful - Regular – It was played regularly - Facilities – It had purpose built facilities/expensive court - Not local and the upper class players had transport and so could travel to play. 29. Outline features of Stage 1 both technical development of sports and games and social relationships within public schools. Technical developments - Facilities – natural or simple not specialist or purpose built facilities. Use of natural environment of surrounding countryside. - Equipment/kit - Not specialist kit or specialist equipment/used what was available/made own equipment. - Force or violence rather than skill e.g. mob games no coaching or coached low level of skill often brutal. Rules – Simple or changeable or home made rules Regularity – Occasional/not regular/ no fixture list or leagues in free time - Organisation – simple structure organised by the boys themselves no teacher involvement informal activities - Adaptations – Activities adapted from home e.g. steeplechase or hare and hounds - Institutionalised Popular recreation e.g. bare fists fights blood sports. Social Relationships - Staff boys – Poor relationships between staff and boys violent punishment lack of trust no teacher involvement out of school - Poor relationships between 6th form and young boys bully and brutality - Limited house or school loyalty/ self preservation/ no team work - Games played for enjoyment or to relive boredom game snot - played to develop character or for social control. - 30. What evidence is there of rational sport in the cricket match in Tom Browns School Days - Regularity annual matches “Great event of cricketing year” Rules, codified officials structure and organisation of the games Skill/physical prowess “well bowled or well played” non violent respectable Shots – technical names for the shots e.g. cover drive speicifc shots played Roles within the teams e.g. captain Values and sportsmanship cricket needed discipline or teamwork and leadership “skill and gentleness and firmness Little evidence of wagering in cricket Team kits/ specialist facility Spectators match played to great delight of town and neighbourhood National games MCC arrived by train/bus took them back to the station. 31. Explain the development of public baths in urban industrial communities in the second half of the nineteenth century. - Towns grew as a result of industrialisation/ overcrowding Only wealth could afford bathrooms in their homes - - Rivers or natural water supplied polluted so no longer suitable for washing Problem of disease there were 2 major epidemics in England Wash houses Act local authorities could apply for grants to provide public washing facilities (1846) so public bath house built to prevent diseases and improve public health Public baths safer to bathe in than rivers Plunge baths for swimming recreational use. Middle class influence Formation of ASA Most major town built public bath houses. 32. Discuss Physical activities in state elementary schools during the first half of the twentieth century with reference to the objectives, content, and teaching methods of lessons in 1902, 1933, and the 1950s. 1902 - Military fitness, preparation for war, avoid future embarrassment as caused by poor performance in Boer War. - Discipline for working class to know their place in society - Weapons training proficiency with guns. - Military drill/marching Static exercises e.g. press ups Weapons drill with dummy weapons - Command style/ instruction Centralised everybody doing same thing at same time/ no group work/ individuality Playground/classroom/road/specialist facility - Physical fitness Therapeutic results/health and well being Good posture and physique - Athletic skill e.g. sprint starts/ hurdling Gymnastic skills e.g. vaulting or cartwheels Games skills e.g. ball passing or ball heading - centralised and decentralised half way between 1902 method and 50’s method Group work, varied group activities Specialist kit 1933 - - Simple equipment e.g. bean bags or sticks or ropes Some specialist teachers Outdoors recommended in fresh air for health - enjoyment, having fun participation, the experience Holistic development of the whole child not just the physical benefits e.g. cognitive/social - Educational gymnastics Movement to music/dance Swimming - Decentralised, different people doing different things not all doing the same thing at the same time Problem solving, thinking, cognitive work Child centred, guidance rather than instruction In gymnasia purpose but facilities full apparatus With specialist PE teachers 1950 - 33. Describe pedestrianism and outline its attraction as a popular recreation. - Foot race Wagering/betting widespread Footmen employed as messengers/competitive runner Patrons – lower class runners patronised by gentry Became huge festival occasions/ associated with prize fighting/horse racing E.g. Robert Barclay Allardice walked 1000 miles in 1000 hours Cheating common match fixing, Violence in the crowd and brought disrepute Gentlemen amateurs competed to test themselves Challenge rules established by organisers. Festival popular spectacle exciting contest Prize money for competitors, fame, status, money for food, occupational Cheap/simple activity 34. Identify Reasons why there was a class divide in late 19th century athletics. - middle class keen to separate themselves from the working class keen to keep exclusive Keen to disassociate respectable modern athletics from old corrupt professional form Exclusion clause imposed no mechanic artisan or labourer could join AAC enforced exclusion clause Lower classes ran to make money, winnings small by pre industrial standards Middle class competed for intrinsic rewards to test themselves Keen to re create public school ethics fellowship upper class gentlemen formed their own club, AAC forme4d in 1866 35. Outline each of the three stages of development with reference to athletics in each of them. Stage1 - Hare and hounds/ adaptation of the hunt paper chase. - Institutional popular recreation/ boy culture, all recreation organised by and for the boys themselves. - Participation in free time when not in lessons - Participation for fun/recreation - Boys behaving as hooligans, bullying and brutality, emphasis on the force not the skill - Simple/Natural facilities Stage 2 - Beginning of athletics meetings/ cross country running/ adaptation of steeple chasing, some rules - Boys still organised activities, masters more supportive. - Inter House matches - Boys behaving as Christian gentlemen development of good personal qualities - Social control time of reform - Some specialist equipment - Dr Thomas Arnold as Headmaster Stage 3 - Athletics, sports day great festival occasion, governing body formalised rules - A full games and athletics programme/ full master support and involvement - Inter house and inter school matches Participation for character development e.g. leadership sportsmanship Boys behaving as Corinthians some excellent all round performers emphasis on skill not force Purpose built facilities Athleticism “cult” time of obsession for games compulsory participation in most school days. 36. With reference to objective, content and methodology, identify key features of each of the following - The 1902 Model Course - The 1933 Syllabus - Physical education in 1950s (moving and growing/ Planning the Programme) 1902 - (Objectives) Fitness for military service, training in handling of weapons, discipline - (Content) Military drill, marching, weapons training, deep breathing - (methodology) Command style e.g. attention, in ranks no individuality NCO lead. 1933 - (Objectives) Physical fitness, therapeutic results, health good physique, good posture, development of mind and body - (Content) Athletics, gymnastic, games skills, group work - (methodology) Mainly direct style, centralised, some decentralised parts, teacher led. Outdoor recommended some gymnasia 1950s - (objectives) Physical social cognitive skills, variety of experiences, enjoyment, personal satisfaction, personal development involvement of all. - (Content) Gymnastics, dance, games skills, swimming, movement to music, agility work and apparatus work. - (Methodology) Child centred, creative individual, problem solving, enjoyment orientated, progressive 37. To what extent did early swimming show the characteristic of popular recreation - Natural/simple – swimming in ponds lakes rivers Local Simple unwritten rules – Swimming mostly for cleanliness, safety and fun Occasional/ Seasonal – Frequent in Summer Courtly/popular – Both classes would swim classes would not mix Rural – Mainly rural unpolluted urban rivers also used Occupational –Just functional reason swimming masters would teach at locals rivers and lakes Wagering – local wagering informally 38. How did the industrial revolution restrict opportunities for the lower classes to take part in their traditional pre industrial sports and pastimes? - Loss of space 12 hour days no time to play longer working times Fewer holidays/holy days Poverty low wages, working class as slaves to the factory, no money to play Poor working conditions, pollution, lack of hygiene and provision. Disease, no energy or good health to play Loss of rights, Increased law and order could not take part in prevision e.g. mob games and blood sports. Effective police force by mid century 39. Identify three characteristics of 19th Century public school and explain how each of these characteristics contributed to the development of organised sports and pastimes. - Boys – Energy and enthusiasm to be channelled into games Boarding – time available Expansion/size – As number grew houses were formed which became the hub of games competitions. Non – local – great variety of regional games adopted/adapted by schools Spartan/harsh treatment – Living conditions prepared boys for rigours of competitive sport/ violent nature of games Controlled by trustees, trustees were keen to promote school, keen to invest trustees in sporting success - School which received large gifts of money or property could build facilities, employ more assistant masters, coaching professionals Fee Paying – Money could go towards developing facilities, build gymnasia, swimming baths, racquet courts Influential families brought money to develop facilities, influence on type of activities brought to the school, organisational skills. 40. Why did public baths develop in industrial towns in the late 19th century. - Size – towns grew in size as a result of industrial revolution Pollution - Housing increased, rivers polluted, poor sanitation Local councils applied for grants to build public baths, availability of facility Concern of diseases Safer to bathe in baths than in rivers Washing facility for lower class, cleanliness, prevent diseases, promote health Washing clothes in the was houses Plunge baths for swimming, recreational middle class influence, beginning of swimming clubs Reflected status of town, social reform the civilising processes 41. Briefly outline why you think a junior school Physical Education lesson of today is somewhat different to the one in 1950 - Improved facilities - More child friendly equipment colourful appropriate weight - Initiatives in primary schools e.g. TOP Sport - Emphasis on accountability in schools today - Changes as results of demands of national curriculum - Changing pressures of international sport, pressure on primary school teachers to be experts across the curriculum - New values associated with PE new emphasis on equal opportunities. 42. Describe the game of cricket as it existed in Pre industrial Britain? - Club shaped bat, under arm bowling, two stumps not three - No distinct boundaries, no special kit - Score would be kept by notching on wood - Both classes playing together, both sexes - Rural - Uneven pitch It did have some written rules Wagering on result Non violent Summer evening game, seasonal, festival, holy days Local. 43. Compare the pre industrial sporting activities of the gentry with those of the agricultural worker. Gentry - Courtly, sophisticated, expensive activities - Rule based, dress code, etiquette - Time available - E.g. Real Tennis, hunting - Patronised some sports, acted as agents e.g. pedestrianismA Agriculture worker - Popular, simple, natural, cheap activities - Limited rules, uncivilised, violent - Limited time - E.g. mob football - Took part in sports for money e.g. pedestrianism, prize fighting Similarities - Both classes played cricket together both shared a passion for pedestrianism and both class wagered on outcome. 44. Explain how Public schools and their ex pupils influenced the emergence of rational sport. Schools - Melting pot , development of rules - Organisational development, fixtures, kit, areas to play - Regularity of games afternoons, house sport, compulsory games - Curtailment of violence, cruelty, responsibility - Importance/ values attached to team games - Influenced other schools e.g. Malvern, Clifton founded as middle class copied Ex Pupil - Teaching back in original school next generation influenced - Arm, colonial service, taking passion for games abroad - Join the church needs of parishioners met 45. Identify 4 characteristics of rational sport. What were the underlying cultural factors that influenced the characteristic you have identified? Characteristics of Rational Recreation Rules/condition/governing bodies Regular Respectable/refined/non violent Regional/national/international Urban/suburban/in towns Fair play/sportsmanship Purpose built facilities improved Gambling reduced/controlled Amateurs and professionals Underlying cultural factor Literacy/business/administrative skills/ ex public school boy influence Increased free time/improved transport Influence of middle class/law changes Improved transport and communications Industrial/ urban revolution Public school influence Industrial progress/technological Increased law and order/ police force Class structure increase in spectatorism 46. Identify the 1950’s approach. Describe how a lesson based on this 1950’s syllabus would have been taught. Objectives - Learn physical skills, body management, gymnastic, dance , games , swimming skills - Learn social skills, co-operation, working together - Learn cognitive skills - Enjoyment, satisfaction, feeling of achievement - To get everyone involved, taking part - To give a varied programme, varied lessons Teachings methods - Child centred approach, emphasis on what children could do rather than what they could not do, starting with their own experience - Problem solving/discovery, individual interpretation of tasks - Apparatus used, gymnastic equipment, ropes, bars, boxes - Decentralised – Teacher as educator rather than instructor not everyone doing the same thing at the same time. 47. Describe the physical activity of the state elementary schools in 1902 and of public school boys during stage three when athleticism was fully developed. Objectives (1902) - Preparation for war - Discipline/ obedience - Fitness - Weapons training Content (1902) - military drill - Exercise e.g. lunges - Use of staves as pretend weapons - Deep breathing/breathing exercises Methodology (1902) - Command response e.g. attention - Group response, no individuality - In ranks military style - Taught by arm NCO’s - Girls and boys together - Large number in small space Objectives (Public schools) - Character development Content (Public schools) - Team games e.g. cricket/rugby - Racquet games - Individual activities e.g. athletics, swimming school sports day - Inter house /inter house matches - Office training Corps Methodology - Organised primarily by boys themselves - Master involvement - Small number in large space - Using purpose built facilities - Some specialist, professional coaches employed 48. How did these factors (Two classes Upper and Lower, A harsh lifestyle, widespread illiteracy and free times and saint days and annual holidays) influence the characteristics of popular recreation? - - Two Class Society – Courtly and popular activities some for the upper class and some for the lower class e.g. real tennis v mob football. Different roles within the same activity e.g. pedestrianism and patron. Harsh lifestyle – Cruel and violent Widespread illiteracy – Rules were simple, unwritten, local, passed by word of mouth Annual holidays – Occasional/seasonal 49. What were the aims of Dr Thomas Arnold and how did he go about achieving it? Aims - Reform – To reform Rugby School - Social control – To achieve social control, change in behaviour of boys , make school more civilised. - Values – Reduce bullying, promote desirable values - Christianity – Spread of Christianity to form Christian gentlemen - Relationship – Improve social relationships within school and neighbours. - To broaden the curriculum increase variety of subjects taught Methods - He gave the 6th form responsibility , raised status of 6th form - He used games as his vehicle for achieving social control, games afternoon - Set up houses, house competitions - He made chapel the centre of school life - He forbids trespassing, kept boys on site - Changes rules on corporal punishments 50. Why was there a delay in athleticism in girl’s public schools? - Traditional role of women Prevailing attitudes were that it was unladylike to be athletic There was a concern over the wearing of revealing clothing for games It was believed to the unhealthy, medically dangerous for women to be too physically active e.g. child bearing - 51. Many believed that girls would not be able to cope with over exertion It was thought unnecessary to give girls the same opportunities as boys Girls schools already concentrated on other things music and dancing Few leading female reformer thanks in boys schools lack of female role models Discuss the impact of the industrial revolution on sport Initial changes - Migration of lower classes from rural to urban areas/ search for regular work - Loss of space - Loss of time 12 hour days no time to play - Poverty low wages, working class as slaves to factory no money to play - Poor working conditions/pollution - Poor living conditions/ lack of health and hygiene provisions - Increased law and order prevent blood sports and mob football. Development later in the century - The emergence of the new middle class in positions of authority. The civilising process, new middle class attitudes - The impact of and influence of improved transport and communications. Leagues, cups and competitions were established. Regularity of play increased. Less time to get to places. - Increased free time. ½ day Saturday - Broken time payments, professionalism - Improved literacy levels accessibility of media - Factory acts improved conditions and opportunities for sport - Excursion trips provided by some factory owners - Purpose built faculties – Provision of public baths, initially for hygiene and later for recreation. - The influence of ex public schoolboys in industry/ the church/licalc government – new ways of and reasons for taking part/ values of athleticism being spread to lower classes. 52. Describe a typical lesson based on 1933 syllabus Content - Athletic, gymnastic, games skills taught - Group work - Syllabus set out in tables/teacher selected items from sets of tables - Very active/very varied Method - Still command/direct style for majority of lesson - Some decentralisation, not all doing same thing at the same time - Encouragement of special clothing PE Kit - Lesson to last 20 Minutes Other - In new schools gymnasia out of doors in playground - Good physique stressed/posture 53. Compare mob football and real tennis as they existed in Pre Industrial Britain? Mob Football Violent Very dangerous/many injuries/ some deaths Invasion game Occasional/annual/ on feast days/ holidays Simple/ unwritten rules/ passed on by word of mouth No set number of players/ large numbers of players Played in streets/ fields Danger Real Tennis Non violent – non contact Few injuries (Type of game) Regularity Net/court games Regular Rules Written rules/complex rules Numbers Two or four players/ set number Facilities No special clothing No clear boundary between players and spectators/ everyone involved. Lower class/low culture Dress Demarcation Special facilities purpose built Playing outfit Clear demarcation viewing area fro spectators Exclusivity Exclusive for elite (Violence/Uncivilised) Excess drinking/rowdy Emphasis on force not skill Respectability Skill v Force upper class. Respectable Emphasis on skill not force. Tactics and strategies 54. Account for the growth of Lawn Tennis as a rational recreation - Substitute for real tennis – For Upper class game of real tennis, middle class did not have the status for facilities to play real tennis. Invented became fashionable, sold to middle class Could be played by upper middle class gardens high walls and hedges to keep out prying eyes Suitable for females not too strenuous Did not require women to wear special dress Became a social occasion place for young men and women to meet and socialise Clubs formed Clubs kept exclusive so that middle class didn’t have to mix below themselves Fashion encouraged by start of Wimbledon championships Adopted by exclusive girls schools Played as informal, low status social games in boys schools Whole family could play together.