Past Paper Answers-hist

Past Paper Answers
1. Outline the aims of the 1902 Model Course?
- Fitness for War – to avoid defeat or near defeat in future war to
eliminate problems caused in the Boer war
- Discipline – Obedience so that the working class would know their
place in society
- Health - better health for the working class
- Weapons training.
2. Outline the aims of a lesson based on Moving and growing/
planning the Programme 1952-1954)
– Physical – Learn physical skills/ body management/
gymnastic/dance/swimming skills/ to give a varied programme/varied
- Social – to learn social skills/ co-operation / working together/
group work.
- Cognitive – learn cognitive skills / working things out
- Enjoyment – Enjoyment/ satisfaction/feelings of
- Involvement – to get everyone involved and taking part.
3. Identify differences between popular recreation in pre industrial
Britain and rational recreation in post- industrial Britain?
Popular recreation
Uncodified/ simple rules/limited
Cruel and violent
Courtly and popular/ upper class
and peasant class
Natural facilities
Strength based/ few tactics/ no
Rational Recreation
numbers/boundaries/ officials
Respectable/ civilised/
sportsmanship/fair play/non violent
Urban/sub- urban
For leisure
Wagering reduced
Upper class and new middle class
and working class
Purpose built facilities
Skill based/ tactics/positions
4. With reference to social change give reasons why the differences
between popular recreation and rational recreation occurred.
Transport – improved transport improved communication,
impact of railways
Time – Initial loss then increased free time/ Saturday half day/
more structure free time/ machine time
Revolutions – impact of industrial revolution/ urban revolution
Literacy – improved literacy lead to the development of
national governing bodies
Law and order – improved law and order/ adverse attitudes of
church/ industrialist towards gambling
Class 1 – Pre industrial Britain predominately two class
society. Post industrial Britain a three class society. Feudal
nature of society.
Class 2 - Influence of new middle class/ middle class
attitudes/ the civilising process.
Work/play – work was an integral part of life in pre industrial
Britain whereas it became something to do after work. Impact
of protestant work ethic.
Technology – Purpose built facilities/ improvements in
5. How did social class influence participation in sports and
pastimes in both pre industrial and post industrial Britain?
In Pre Industrial Britain
- Two class society – Britain predominately a two class society
Upper class (gentry) v lower class (peasants)
- Different games – each class played different games e.g. real
tennis for the upper class and mob football for the lower class.
- Different roles – or had a different role within the activity e.g. patron
or pedestrian
- Community activities – impact of community activities e.g. wakes,
fairs, opportunity for fun for all, free enjoyment.
- Travel – lower class couldn’t travel far ad they had to walk and did
not have transport whereas upper class had horses and coaches
so had more opportunity.
In Post Industrial Britain
- Middle class – Emergence of the new middle class/ middle class
attitudes and values
- Work conditions – Changes in work conditions for working class
when working class gained half day Saturday spectatorism was
affected and increased.
- Excursion trips – excursion trips for working class by benevolent
- Holidays – holiday patterns / weeks paid holiday for the working
class by late nineteenth century
- Professionals/ ameaturs – Amateurs were middle or working class.
Professionals tend to be working class.
6. How did provision and organisation within late nineteenth century
English schools promote sports and games?
Time – Time/ boarding influence
Money1 – Endowments, regular income, finical supports of
trustees and governors
Money 2 – Fee paying school, fess used to improve provision, Old
Boys subscription, contributions and support
Facilities 1 –Specialist facilities, swimming baths, racquets,
gymnasia, lawn tennis courts
Facilities 2 - Land buying land for playing field and extensive
playing fields.
Expertise 1 – Employment of Oxbridge blues, masters joined in
team games. Played squash, fives and tennis with and against the
Expertise 2 – Employment of lower class professionals, games
professionals, cricket or racquet coaches.
Role models – games masters, assistant coaches, Sixth form as
role models e.g. Brooke in Tom Brown Schools days
Social Control – Influence of headmaster e.g. Dr Thomas Arnold.
The desire for social control and using games to get social control
and discipline
Regularity – Regularity of play playing more regularly increased
standards of play and increased public interest.
Inter house - Inter house games, house teams, important of
house matches and inter school games
Competition – Athletic sports days, schools often first to hold
athletic sports meetings in towns, public schools competition
Compulsion – Daily games compulsory in many public schools
Organisation - Highly organised systematic games programme
organised by the boys themselves
Old Boys - Spread of games in society.
7. Describe features of Pedestrianism in Pre Industrial Britain
- Foot race – Foot race/ race running or walking
- Simple – Cheap/ simple activity
- Footmen – Gentry employed footmen as messengers
- Wagering – Widespread wagering/ betting
- Patron – Lower class runners patronised by gentry
- Festival occasions/ popular spectacles/exciting contest / big
occasions/ occasional special events/ large venues and huge
crows associated with prize fighting and horse racing
- Money – A way for a peasant to become rich, occupation for lower
class professionals, prize money for
- Amateurs – Amateurs also raced as a challenge
- Novelty – Many novelty races
- Corruption – Became corrupt/match fixing/cheating
- Rules – Rules established by organisers
8. Describe Features of Various forms of athletics in nineteenth
century Public Schools.
- Hare and Hounds – adaptation of fox hunting and paper chasing
- Headmasters – were initially against it
- Steeple chase
- Sports Day – Athletic sports day idea taken by universities.
- Social Major social occasion, prizes large crows. Opportunity for
headmaster to show school at best
- Status – Lower status than cricket
9. Describe features of Athletics as a rational recreation
- Exclusivity – Middle class keen to separate themselves from the
working class / keen to stay exclusive/ Amateurs Athletics Club
formed by ex university amateurs clubs formed.
- Corruption – Evidence of corruption
- Non corruption – Middle classes keep to dissociate modern
athletics from corruption of professional pedestrianism
- Exclusion clause – Exclusion clause imposed- no mechanics,
skilled workers or labourer to join. AAC enforced exclusion clause.
- Money – Lower class competed for money
- Middle class – Competed for intrinsic rewards to test themselves
Upper class- keen to re create public school ethics gentlemen
amateurs formed their own clubs
Identify 2 characteristics of public schools and explain
how each characteristic influenced the development of team
Boys – Energy and enthusiasm to be channelled into games
Boarding – Time available
Expansion/size – As numbers grew houses were formed which
became the hub of games competitions
Non local – Great variety of regional game adopted/adapted by
Spartan/harsh treatment – Harsh treatment or living conditions
prepared the boys for rigours of competitive sport/ violent nature of
Controlled by trustees – trustees were keen to promote school/
Trustees keen to invest in sporting success
Endowed – School which received large gifts of money of property
could build facilities or employ assistant masters or coaching
Fee Paying – Money could go towards developing facilities/ money
to build gymnasia/ swimming baths or racquet courts
Gentry - Influential families brought money to develop facilities/
influence on type of activities brought to the school.
Describe the role of the Sixth Form during stage 2 of the
development when Dr Thomas Arnold was headmaster at the
- Responsibility – Sixth form given responsibility/ status of sixth
- Social Control – Sixth former helped to establish social control
- Role models – Some became role models or heroes e.g. Brooke
of Tom Browns School days
- Discipline – Sixth form had power to discipline younger boys
- Organisation – Sixth form central to the organisation of
games/organised house games
- Relationships – Better relationships with masters/ more trusting or
sympathetic/ cordial relationship within school bridging the gap
between masters and pupils.
Describe Mob football as a popular recreation
- Local – Village v Village, community based
- Uncoded – Simple rules, local rules, based on the word of mouth
simple, natural
- Violent – Uncivilised, regular deaths not skills based
- Occasional – Often annual on festival days or holy days
- Played by lower class males a way to show manliness
- Rural – Occasional in towns
- Often restricted – illegal, curtailed
- Wagering – betting on the outcome
Describe football or rugby in public schools
Usually compulsory for all
Interhouse/ interschool matches
Games in afternoon
Part of the games cult played obsessively by some
Thought to promote values e.g. courage leadership pluck or build
Melting pot of ideas/codification
Development of facilities/ equipment/kit
Describe association football as a rational recreation.
Rule based Governing Body rules
Respectable, civilised/skilful/skill not force/tactics
Regular, leagues, cups, competitions
Gentlemen amateur teams e.g. Factory workers
Working class professionals
Urban/purpose built stadium
Playing positions use of officials kit
Explain the emergence of association football from mob
football by referring to the influence of changing working
conditions, urban expansion, and improved transport.
Factory System, regular working times
Reduction in working week ½ day Saturday early closing
Skill manual labour first to gain ½ Saturday day
Pro football a comparatively good job
Workers had more money enough to pay the Saturday gate
Broken time payments (lead to professionalism
Limited space/ loss of space means not enough space for all to
Specialist facilities developed most town built football grounds
Potential business opportunities in running clubs appealed to
middle classes
Large numbers of people in one place needed something to do
captive audience
Trains/trams/buses allowed for easy travel to away games or
national fixtures
Allowed for regular fixtures
Facilitated development of spectatorism
Lead to need for standardised rules/ formation of national
governing bodies
Lead to development of leagues and cups and competitions
Outline the features of Pre Industrial Cricket
Rural – Rural village game
Kit – No special kit
Equipment – Special equipment, two stumps, club shaped bat
Space – not set boundaries, played in fields, played in meadows
Rules – Early rules articles of agreements rules locally adapted
Scoring - Scoring by notching on wood
Bat and ball – Game developed at Bat and Ball Inn Hampshire
Fixtures – Early county games , matches often arranged on
special feast days and holy days
MCC – Marylebone Cricket Club founded in 1788 employed
professionals as coaches and players and MCC became
governing body of cricket
Class – Upper and lower class played together upper class
employed lower class and lower class make up the number and
are needed for their skill.
Identify character building values and explain and explain
how each of them could be developed through the game of
Honesty/integrity fair play
How developed through cricket
Everyone needed, working together,
supporting each other
To Team, to house, to school
In face of strong opposition to cope
with difficult condition s when injured
Training hard not giving up when
score or conditions are difficult,
coming back from injury, working to
get into the team , always turning up
for practice and having private
Keeping cool under pressure
Admitting walking when out,
admitting you have not made a
catch, not cheating, keeply strictly to
the rule, accepting umpire decision
and respecting the opposition
In team mates in captains decision
and in selection
Explain how social changes associated with urban and
industrialisation influenced the development of rationalised
- Influence of new middle class increased respectability / changed
- Business & administrative ability of educated class influenced
rules and structure
- Literacy and media increased popularity
- More free time increased regularity and spectatorism
- Improved transport and communication the rail ways spread
- The railways allowed touring team to become famous
- Spread of public school ethos increased sportsmanship/skilfulness
- Increased law and order lead to a reduction of gambling
- Class based nature of Britain resulted in amateur/professional
divide in cricket unpaid gentlemen amateurs and paid working
class professionals.
How did the development of railways help the growth of
association football?
- Teams – Teams could travel further in shorter time/ more distant
away fixtures possible
- Supporters could travel to watch their team and supporters clubs
- Competitions – leagues cups fixtures and competitions developed.
Regular and regional competitions
- Rules – Rules standardised the FA Formed in 1863) teams had to
play to the same rules
- Social – The train journey became a popular enjoyable social
What factors other than improved transport influenced
the emergence of rational sport after 1850?
- Revolutions – Industrial and urban revolution
- Time – Increased free time ½ Saturday and shorter working week
and regular working patterns
- Space – Less space lead to pitches and stadiums
- Middle class – More middle class/ middle class influence making it
more civilised
- Law and order – Factory acts improved workers, Rights reformed
improved working conditions, Increased government support of
working class and control of wagering
- Patronage – Industrial patronage, provision of facilities at factory,
excursion trips to seaside
- Income/health – Less poverty earnings improved enough for gate
money and improved health
- Literacy – Improved literary, newspapers improved business
- Emancipation – More freedom for women to participate impact of
lawn tennis
- Schools – Impact of ex public school boys
- Technology – Improved technology/ town baths built
Describe features specific to track and field athletics at
- AAC – Amateur Athletics Club governing body formed (1866) club
for gentlemen amateurs
- Amateurs – Amateurs were middle class and participated for love
or intrinsic rewards. Could not earn money or train seriously or aim
to win at all costs.
- Exclusion clause – No mechanic, artisan or labourer could join the
governing body
- Professionalism - Professional ran for a living or to make money/
professional athletics developed in cities/ sports day organised by
local promoters
- Corruption – Corruption or cheating in professional athletics e.g.
- Facilities – Most big cities had a track by mid century large
spectator attraction
- Clubs – Cross country/ harrier clubs for the working class. Harrier
clubs evolved from hare and hounds
- Olympic games – Modern Olympic game established
Identify and describe two different forms of athletics in
nineteenth century Public Schools.
- Hare and hounds – paper chase adaptation of fox hunting
- Steeple chase adaptation from steeple chase on horse back/boys
ran over hedges and field e.g. cross country
- Sports day – Social occasion with many spectators due to
improved rail transport opportunity for head to show off school or
ask for donations.
Explain the growth and popularity of pedestrianism?
- Footmen employed as messengers or as competitive runners
- Wagering, gentry bet on outcome of their employees
- Patronage0 Gentry patrons looked after lower class runner set up
- Festival – Became huge festival occasions great spectacular
attraction highly organised and structures
- Deerfoot ( Native American) or 1000 miles in 1000 hours
- Simple – Cheap simple equipment
- Violence – Cheating common match fixing violence among
participants bad reputation
- Gentlemen amateurs competed to test themselves
- Rules established by the organisers
Festival – Festival occasions popular spectacle exciting context
Rewards prize money involved fame status money for food rage to
Linked with other attractions e.g. prize fighting and horse racing
Why did State elementary school children not play
organised team in 1902?
- Lack of time
- Lack of space only had yard, road and classroom
- Lack of Equipment/ facilities
- Lack of coaching/ teaching expertise
- Lack of health, energy, malnutrition
- Other aims more important, needed for fitness for war has just
performed badly in Boer War/ Model Course imposed by war
- Children to young for large team games
Identify and explain factors that lead to sporting
excellence in the late nineteenth century Public Schools?
- Time significant time boarding influence
- Money – Endowed regular income old boy subscription
- Money – Fee Paying school fess to improve provision
- Regularity – Regularity of play Improved stands
- Inter House – Inter house games importance of house matches
- Inter school – Inter school games annual fixtures v other major
public school
- Community – Fixtures with local clubs annual matches
- Compulsion – Daily games in many public school were
Facilities – Specialist facilities, swimming baths, racquets or lawn
tennis courts
Land buying for pitch, extensive playing field facilities often used
by major associations for special occasions and competitions
Expertise – Employment of Oxbridge blues impact of the
gentlemen amateur
Master joined in team games played squash or tennis with and
against the boys
Employment of lower class professional or coaches
Competition – Championships/ big competitions
Athletics – Athletic sports day school often first to hold athletic
sport meeting in towns
Highly organised games programme
Headmaster’s encouragement e.g. Dr Thomas Arnold
Role models – Impact of games masters or assistant master or
sixth form. E.g. brook out of tom browns school day
Influence of rational sport and rules and national governing bodies
Identify different functions of pre industrial bathing?
- Safety – Learn to swim to be safe to avoid drowning
- Hygiene – Bath for a wash no facilities at home
- Recreation – Recreation/ fun on a hot summer’s day.
What activities might have occurred at a pre industrial fair
or festival?
- Bathing sports/blood sports
- Violent – mob games/single sticks/ wrestling
- Races – Races/smock races/racing for prizes/sack races
- Simple activities – fold whistling matches/jingling matches
- Feasting/drinking – Feasting drinking and wagering
- Courtship – Courtship/sexual activity
- Hiring – Hiring of labour
In what way was Real Tennis different from most other
popular recreations
- Courtly played by elite
- Rules – it has been written complex rules it was structures
- Not violent it had etiquette it was high culture it was sophisticated
and skilful
- Regular – It was played regularly
- Facilities – It had purpose built facilities/expensive court
- Not local and the upper class players had transport and so could
travel to play.
Outline features of Stage 1 both technical development of
sports and games and social relationships within public
Technical developments
- Facilities – natural or simple not specialist or purpose built
facilities. Use of natural environment of surrounding countryside.
- Equipment/kit - Not specialist kit or specialist equipment/used what
was available/made own equipment.
- Force or violence rather than skill e.g. mob games no coaching or
coached low level of skill often brutal.
Rules – Simple or changeable or home made rules
Regularity – Occasional/not regular/ no fixture list or leagues in
free time
- Organisation – simple structure organised by the boys themselves
no teacher involvement informal activities
- Adaptations – Activities adapted from home e.g. steeplechase or
hare and hounds
- Institutionalised Popular recreation e.g. bare fists fights blood
Social Relationships
- Staff boys – Poor relationships between staff and boys violent
punishment lack of trust no teacher involvement out of school
- Poor relationships between 6th form and young boys bully and
- Limited house or school loyalty/ self preservation/ no team work
- Games played for enjoyment or to relive boredom game snot
- played to develop character or for social control.
30. What evidence is there of rational sport in the cricket match in
Tom Browns School Days
Regularity annual matches “Great event of cricketing year”
Rules, codified officials structure and organisation of the games
Skill/physical prowess “well bowled or well played” non violent
Shots – technical names for the shots e.g. cover drive speicifc
shots played
Roles within the teams e.g. captain
Values and sportsmanship cricket needed discipline or teamwork
and leadership “skill and gentleness and firmness
Little evidence of wagering in cricket
Team kits/ specialist facility
Spectators match played to great delight of town and
National games MCC arrived by train/bus took them back to the
31. Explain the development of public baths in urban industrial
communities in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Towns grew as a result of industrialisation/ overcrowding
Only wealth could afford bathrooms in their homes
Rivers or natural water supplied polluted so no longer suitable for
Problem of disease there were 2 major epidemics in England
Wash houses Act local authorities could apply for grants to provide
public washing facilities (1846) so public bath house built to
prevent diseases and improve public health
Public baths safer to bathe in than rivers
Plunge baths for swimming recreational use. Middle class
influence Formation of ASA
Most major town built public bath houses.
32. Discuss Physical activities in state elementary schools during
the first half of the twentieth century with reference to the
objectives, content, and teaching methods of lessons in 1902,
1933, and the 1950s.
- Military fitness, preparation for war, avoid future embarrassment
as caused by poor performance in Boer War.
- Discipline for working class to know their place in society
- Weapons training proficiency with guns.
Military drill/marching
Static exercises e.g. press ups
Weapons drill with dummy weapons
Command style/ instruction
Centralised everybody doing same thing at same time/ no group
work/ individuality
Playground/classroom/road/specialist facility
Physical fitness
Therapeutic results/health and well being
Good posture and physique
Athletic skill e.g. sprint starts/ hurdling
Gymnastic skills e.g. vaulting or cartwheels
Games skills e.g. ball passing or ball heading
centralised and decentralised half way between 1902 method and
50’s method
Group work, varied group activities
Specialist kit
Simple equipment e.g. bean bags or sticks or ropes
Some specialist teachers
Outdoors recommended in fresh air for health
enjoyment, having fun
participation, the experience
Holistic development of the whole child not just the physical
benefits e.g. cognitive/social
Educational gymnastics
Movement to music/dance
Decentralised, different people doing different things not all doing
the same thing at the same time
Problem solving, thinking, cognitive work
Child centred, guidance rather than instruction
In gymnasia purpose but facilities full apparatus
With specialist PE teachers
Describe pedestrianism and outline its attraction as a
popular recreation.
Foot race
Wagering/betting widespread
Footmen employed as messengers/competitive runner
Patrons – lower class runners patronised by gentry
Became huge festival occasions/ associated with prize
fighting/horse racing
E.g. Robert Barclay Allardice walked 1000 miles in 1000 hours
Cheating common match fixing,
Violence in the crowd and brought disrepute
Gentlemen amateurs competed to test themselves
Challenge rules established by organisers.
Festival popular spectacle exciting contest
Prize money for competitors, fame, status, money for food,
Cheap/simple activity
Identify Reasons why there was a class divide in late 19th
century athletics.
middle class keen to separate themselves from the working class
keen to keep exclusive
Keen to disassociate respectable modern athletics from old
corrupt professional form
Exclusion clause imposed no mechanic artisan or labourer could
join AAC enforced exclusion clause
Lower classes ran to make money, winnings small by pre
industrial standards
Middle class competed for intrinsic rewards to test themselves
Keen to re create public school ethics fellowship upper class
gentlemen formed their own club, AAC forme4d in 1866
Outline each of the three stages of development with
reference to athletics in each of them.
- Hare and hounds/ adaptation of the hunt paper chase.
- Institutional popular recreation/ boy culture, all recreation
organised by and for the boys themselves.
- Participation in free time when not in lessons
- Participation for fun/recreation
- Boys behaving as hooligans, bullying and brutality, emphasis on
the force not the skill
- Simple/Natural facilities
Stage 2
- Beginning of athletics meetings/ cross country running/ adaptation
of steeple chasing, some rules
- Boys still organised activities, masters more supportive.
- Inter House matches
- Boys behaving as Christian gentlemen development of good
personal qualities
- Social control time of reform
- Some specialist equipment
- Dr Thomas Arnold as Headmaster
Stage 3
- Athletics, sports day great festival occasion, governing body
formalised rules
- A full games and athletics programme/ full master support and
Inter house and inter school matches
Participation for character development e.g. leadership
Boys behaving as Corinthians some excellent all round performers
emphasis on skill not force
Purpose built facilities
Athleticism “cult” time of obsession for games compulsory
participation in most school days.
With reference to objective, content and methodology,
identify key features of each of the following
- The 1902 Model Course
- The 1933 Syllabus
- Physical education in 1950s (moving and growing/ Planning
the Programme)
- (Objectives) Fitness for military service, training in handling of
weapons, discipline
- (Content) Military drill, marching, weapons training, deep breathing
- (methodology) Command style e.g. attention, in ranks no
individuality NCO lead.
- (Objectives) Physical fitness, therapeutic results, health good
physique, good posture, development of mind and body
- (Content) Athletics, gymnastic, games skills, group work
- (methodology) Mainly direct style, centralised, some decentralised
parts, teacher led. Outdoor recommended some gymnasia
- (objectives) Physical social cognitive skills, variety of experiences,
enjoyment, personal satisfaction, personal development
involvement of all.
- (Content) Gymnastics, dance, games skills, swimming, movement
to music, agility work and apparatus work.
- (Methodology) Child centred, creative individual, problem solving,
enjoyment orientated, progressive
To what extent did early swimming show the
characteristic of popular recreation
Natural/simple – swimming in ponds lakes rivers
Simple unwritten rules – Swimming mostly for cleanliness, safety
and fun
Occasional/ Seasonal – Frequent in Summer
Courtly/popular – Both classes would swim classes would not mix
Rural – Mainly rural unpolluted urban rivers also used
Occupational –Just functional reason swimming masters would
teach at locals rivers and lakes
Wagering – local wagering informally
How did the industrial revolution restrict opportunities for
the lower classes to take part in their traditional pre industrial
sports and pastimes?
Loss of space
12 hour days no time to play longer working times
Fewer holidays/holy days
Poverty low wages, working class as slaves to the factory, no
money to play
Poor working conditions, pollution, lack of hygiene and provision.
Disease, no energy or good health to play
Loss of rights, Increased law and order could not take part in
prevision e.g. mob games and blood sports. Effective police force
by mid century
Identify three characteristics of 19th Century public school
and explain how each of these characteristics contributed to
the development of organised sports and pastimes.
Boys – Energy and enthusiasm to be channelled into games
Boarding – time available
Expansion/size – As number grew houses were formed which
became the hub of games competitions.
Non – local – great variety of regional games adopted/adapted by
Spartan/harsh treatment – Living conditions prepared boys for
rigours of competitive sport/ violent nature of games
Controlled by trustees, trustees were keen to promote school, keen
to invest trustees in sporting success
School which received large gifts of money or property could build
facilities, employ more assistant masters, coaching professionals
Fee Paying – Money could go towards developing facilities, build
gymnasia, swimming baths, racquet courts
Influential families brought money to develop facilities, influence on
type of activities brought to the school, organisational skills.
Why did public baths develop in industrial towns in the
late 19th century.
Size – towns grew in size as a result of industrial revolution
Pollution - Housing increased, rivers polluted, poor sanitation
Local councils applied for grants to build public baths, availability of
Concern of diseases
Safer to bathe in baths than in rivers
Washing facility for lower class, cleanliness, prevent diseases,
promote health
Washing clothes in the was houses
Plunge baths for swimming, recreational middle class influence,
beginning of swimming clubs
Reflected status of town, social reform the civilising processes
Briefly outline why you think a junior school Physical
Education lesson of today is somewhat different to the one in
- Improved facilities
- More child friendly equipment colourful appropriate weight
- Initiatives in primary schools e.g. TOP Sport
- Emphasis on accountability in schools today
- Changes as results of demands of national curriculum
- Changing pressures of international sport, pressure on primary
school teachers to be experts across the curriculum
- New values associated with PE new emphasis on equal
Describe the game of cricket as it existed in Pre industrial
- Club shaped bat, under arm bowling, two stumps not three
- No distinct boundaries, no special kit
- Score would be kept by notching on wood
- Both classes playing together, both sexes
- Rural
Uneven pitch
It did have some written rules
Wagering on result
Non violent
Summer evening game, seasonal, festival, holy days
Compare the pre industrial sporting activities of the
gentry with those of the agricultural worker.
- Courtly, sophisticated, expensive activities
- Rule based, dress code, etiquette
- Time available
- E.g. Real Tennis, hunting
- Patronised some sports, acted as agents e.g. pedestrianismA
Agriculture worker
- Popular, simple, natural, cheap activities
- Limited rules, uncivilised, violent
- Limited time
- E.g. mob football
- Took part in sports for money e.g. pedestrianism, prize fighting
- Both classes played cricket together both shared a passion for
pedestrianism and both class wagered on outcome.
44. Explain how Public schools and their ex pupils influenced the
emergence of rational sport.
- Melting pot , development of rules
- Organisational development, fixtures, kit, areas to play
- Regularity of games afternoons, house sport, compulsory games
- Curtailment of violence, cruelty, responsibility
- Importance/ values attached to team games
- Influenced other schools e.g. Malvern, Clifton founded as middle
class copied
Ex Pupil
- Teaching back in original school next generation influenced
- Arm, colonial service, taking passion for games abroad
- Join the church needs of parishioners met
Identify 4 characteristics of rational sport. What were the
underlying cultural factors that influenced the characteristic
you have identified?
Characteristics of Rational
Rules/condition/governing bodies
Respectable/refined/non violent
Urban/suburban/in towns
Fair play/sportsmanship
Purpose built facilities improved
Gambling reduced/controlled
Amateurs and professionals
Underlying cultural factor
skills/ ex public school boy influence
Increased free time/improved
Influence of middle class/law
Improved transport and
Industrial/ urban revolution
Public school influence
Industrial progress/technological
Increased law and order/ police
Class structure increase in
Identify the 1950’s approach. Describe how a lesson
based on this 1950’s syllabus would have been taught.
- Learn physical skills, body management, gymnastic, dance , games
, swimming skills
- Learn social skills, co-operation, working together
- Learn cognitive skills
- Enjoyment, satisfaction, feeling of achievement
- To get everyone involved, taking part
- To give a varied programme, varied lessons
Teachings methods
- Child centred approach, emphasis on what children could do rather
than what they could not do, starting with their own experience
- Problem solving/discovery, individual interpretation of tasks
- Apparatus used, gymnastic equipment, ropes, bars, boxes
- Decentralised – Teacher as educator rather than instructor not
everyone doing the same thing at the same time.
Describe the physical activity of the state elementary
schools in 1902 and of public school boys during stage three
when athleticism was fully developed.
Objectives (1902)
- Preparation for war
- Discipline/ obedience
- Fitness
- Weapons training
Content (1902)
- military drill
- Exercise e.g. lunges
- Use of staves as pretend weapons
- Deep breathing/breathing exercises
Methodology (1902)
- Command response e.g. attention
- Group response, no individuality
- In ranks military style
- Taught by arm NCO’s
- Girls and boys together
- Large number in small space
Objectives (Public schools)
- Character development
Content (Public schools)
- Team games e.g. cricket/rugby
- Racquet games
- Individual activities e.g. athletics, swimming school sports day
- Inter house /inter house matches
- Office training Corps
- Organised primarily by boys themselves
- Master involvement
- Small number in large space
- Using purpose built facilities
- Some specialist, professional coaches employed
How did these factors (Two classes Upper and Lower, A
harsh lifestyle, widespread illiteracy and free times and saint
days and annual holidays) influence the characteristics of
popular recreation?
Two Class Society – Courtly and popular activities some for the
upper class and some for the lower class e.g. real tennis v mob
football. Different roles within the same activity e.g. pedestrianism
and patron.
Harsh lifestyle – Cruel and violent
Widespread illiteracy – Rules were simple, unwritten, local, passed
by word of mouth
Annual holidays – Occasional/seasonal
What were the aims of Dr Thomas Arnold and how did he
go about achieving it?
- Reform – To reform Rugby School
- Social control – To achieve social control, change in behaviour of
boys , make school more civilised.
- Values – Reduce bullying, promote desirable values
- Christianity – Spread of Christianity to form Christian gentlemen
- Relationship – Improve social relationships within school and
- To broaden the curriculum increase variety of subjects taught
- He gave the 6th form responsibility , raised status of 6th form
- He used games as his vehicle for achieving social control, games
- Set up houses, house competitions
- He made chapel the centre of school life
- He forbids trespassing, kept boys on site
- Changes rules on corporal punishments
Why was there a delay in athleticism in girl’s public
Traditional role of women
Prevailing attitudes were that it was unladylike to be athletic
There was a concern over the wearing of revealing clothing for
It was believed to the unhealthy, medically dangerous for women to
be too physically active e.g. child bearing
Many believed that girls would not be able to cope with over
It was thought unnecessary to give girls the same opportunities as
Girls schools already concentrated on other things music and
Few leading female reformer thanks in boys schools lack of female
role models
Discuss the impact of the industrial revolution on sport
Initial changes
- Migration of lower classes from rural to urban areas/ search for
regular work
- Loss of space
- Loss of time 12 hour days no time to play
- Poverty low wages, working class as slaves to factory no money to
- Poor working conditions/pollution
- Poor living conditions/ lack of health and hygiene provisions
- Increased law and order prevent blood sports and mob football.
Development later in the century
- The emergence of the new middle class in positions of authority.
The civilising process, new middle class attitudes
- The impact of and influence of improved transport and
communications. Leagues, cups and competitions were
established. Regularity of play increased. Less time to get to places.
- Increased free time. ½ day Saturday
- Broken time payments, professionalism
- Improved literacy levels accessibility of media
- Factory acts improved conditions and opportunities for sport
- Excursion trips provided by some factory owners
- Purpose built faculties – Provision of public baths, initially for
hygiene and later for recreation.
- The influence of ex public schoolboys in industry/ the church/licalc
government – new ways of and reasons for taking part/ values of
athleticism being spread to lower classes.
Describe a typical lesson based on 1933 syllabus
- Athletic, gymnastic, games skills taught
- Group work
- Syllabus set out in tables/teacher selected items from sets of tables
- Very active/very varied
- Still command/direct style for majority of lesson
- Some decentralisation, not all doing same thing at the same time
- Encouragement of special clothing PE Kit
- Lesson to last 20 Minutes
- In new schools gymnasia out of doors in playground
- Good physique stressed/posture
Compare mob football and real tennis as they existed in
Pre Industrial Britain?
Mob Football
Very dangerous/many
injuries/ some deaths
Invasion game
Occasional/annual/ on
feast days/ holidays
Simple/ unwritten rules/
passed on by word of
No set number of
players/ large numbers
of players
Played in streets/ fields
Real Tennis
Non violent – non
Few injuries
(Type of game)
Net/court games
Written rules/complex
Two or four players/ set
No special clothing
No clear boundary
between players and
spectators/ everyone
Lower class/low culture
Special facilities
purpose built
Playing outfit
Clear demarcation
viewing area fro
Exclusive for elite
Excess drinking/rowdy
Emphasis on force not
Skill v Force
upper class.
Emphasis on skill not
force. Tactics and
Account for the growth of Lawn Tennis as a rational
Substitute for real tennis – For Upper class game of real tennis,
middle class did not have the status for facilities to play real tennis.
Invented became fashionable, sold to middle class
Could be played by upper middle class gardens high walls and
hedges to keep out prying eyes
Suitable for females not too strenuous
Did not require women to wear special dress
Became a social occasion place for young men and women to meet
and socialise
Clubs formed
Clubs kept exclusive so that middle class didn’t have to mix below
Fashion encouraged by start of Wimbledon championships
Adopted by exclusive girls schools
Played as informal, low status social games in boys schools
Whole family could play together.
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