1Common Philosophy and Purpose-1

Common Philosophy and Purpose
Schools today are faced with increased expectations regarding student achievement and at
the same time are working with more limited budgets and students arriving to school with a wider
range of understanding of socially acceptable behaviors. Insubordination, truancy, disruptive
behavior, disrespect, drugs/alcohol, and violent behaviors exist in every school and every
community. Inappropriate behaviors contribute to loss of instructional time, lower student
achievement, increased risk of dropping out, and greater demands on teachers and administrators
reducing time spent on instruction and instructional leadership.
Traditionally, school discipline has been focused on reacting to student misbehavior and
imposing punishment-based consequences such as loss of privileges, detention, in-school
suspension and out of school suspensions. For some students this method of punishment is
effective, at least in the short term, and their behavior improves. For others, the student continues
to be unresponsive to our requests and the behavior continues and at times, worsens, increasing
our use of exclusionary practices.
Research has shown that students do not learn productive behaviors through the sole use of
“negative” consequences nor are they born with good or bad behaviors. Rather, teaching
behavioral expectations and recognizing students for following them is a much more positive and
effective approach to helping them acquire the skills needed to being a productive student.
Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) is based on the belief that behavior is learned
and behavior skills are acquired in the same way as academic skills through direct instruction,
practice, and feedback on what is being done well and what skills need improvement.
What is Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS)?
Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports is a systems approach for establishing the
social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning
environments for ALL students. PBIS is not a prescribed curriculum or program but is a decision
making framework that guides selection, integration, and implementation of the best evidencebased academic and behavioral practices for improving important academic and behavior
outcomes for all students. (Sugai and Horner, www.PBIS.org)
The goals of PBIS are to:
 Build/enhance student relationships, positive school climate, and environments
 Be proactive by preventing problem behaviors from occurring
 Teach and reinforce appropriate/productive behaviors thereby increasing
teaching and learning time
 Improve staff’s ability to effectively and consistently address problem behaviors
 Help students develop productive and meaningful social skill behaviors
Research has shown that “Implementation of school-wide positive behavior support leads to
increased academic engaged time and enhanced academic outcomes. (Algozzine & Algozzine,
2007; Horner et al., 2009; Lassen, Steele, & Sailor, 2006)
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Essential Components of PBIS
Lincoln Public Schools has identified seven components needed to effectively implement
PBIS. The components operate together and therefore each of them must be successfully
implemented to help with the overall success of the framework. The seven components are:
1. Common Philosophy and Purpose—develop a common philosophy regarding shared beliefs
about student behavior and an overall understanding of the PBIS framework.
2. Clear Expectations—a set of 3-5 school-wide expectations used to establish a vision of student
behavior in all school settings.
3. Teaching Expectations—putting a defined, systematic plan in place to teach expectations in the
same manner that academic skills are taught.
4. Encouraging Expected Behavior—provide students with feedback about their behavioral
progress and developing a system that recognizes students for appropriate behavior.
5. Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior—develop a consistent approach to identify and address
corrective consequences for behavioral infractions that includes a teaching component.
6. Data Based Decision Making—the use of discipline referral data, surveys, etc. to monitor
progress and make decisions regarding student behavior.
7. Family Support and Communication—communicating school and classroom expectations with
parents and providing information regarding their child’s academic and behavioral progress.
These components will be discussed in greater detail in the upcoming chapters.
Systemic Change
For any school improvement effort to be effective, the real change must happen at the
individual teacher level. When this happens on a consistent basis, schools are more likely to see
the outcomes they desire. For this to take place, the school needs to have systems level supports
in place to provide assistance and guidance to staff. PBIS has identified four integrated elements
to adequately provide these supports:
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Outcomes—clearly specified academic and behavior targets that we want our students to
accomplish. (What do we want to see?)
Practices—the evidence based instruction, interventions, and strategies that help us accomplish
the outcome achievement for our students. (What we do for students)
Systems—the supports in place to help implement with high fidelity the practices of PBIS. (What
we do to support adults)
Data—information used to determine our current status and/or the impact of
interventions/strategies. (What do we currently know?)
A Continuum of Supports
As mentioned earlier PBIS provides individualized behavioral supports needed for schools
to be effective learning environments for ALL students. Many of our students are able to operate
productively from the general school-wide expectations that are shared and taught to all students.
However, a percentage of students (1-20%) need additional interventions and supports to learn
positive, productive behaviors. PBIS organizes the additional supports along a continuum or
three-tiered prevention model. The level of intervention is based on the student’s behavioral
responsiveness to the support. The model and general explanation of the tiers includes the
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Primary Tier—practices put in place for all students and staff and implemented across ALL
settings. Approximately 80% of all students will experience success with minimal additional
supports or interventions. Practices include: teaching and encouraging school-wide expectations,
active supervision, and effective classroom management.
Secondary Tier—more intensive, targeted practices put into place for approximately 15% of
students that are not responsive to primary tier practices. Targeted practices include: behavioral
contracts, social skills training, check-in/check-out, re-teaching school-wide expectations in small
Tertiary Tier—highly intensive, individualized practices put into place for students not
responsive at the primary or secondary tiers. Practices include: Function based individual
behavior support plan, targeted social skills instruction, and behavior intervention plans.
The continuum of supports will be explained in greater detail in upcoming chapters.
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Next Steps
At the conclusion of each chapter, steps to follow will be outlined to guide the
implementation of the concepts defined in the chapter. We are also providing various PBIS selfassessment surveys to measure building implementation. At the conclusion of this chapter your
next steps include:
1. Establish a PBIS Leadership Team
Members of the team should include administration, representatives of staff, and 1-2
individuals with a strong behavior classroom management background. The team should
have a regular schedule of monthly meetings.
2. Statement of Purpose
Develop a brief, positive statement of purpose relative to student behavior that is agreed
upon by 80% of the staff.
Benchmarks of Quality
Team has
Team has regular
meetings (at least
3 Points
2 Points
1 Point
attended training, play
an active role in the
PBiS process, actively
communicate their
commitment, support
the decisions of the
PBS Team, and attend
all team meetings.
support the process,
take as active a role as
the rest of the team,
and/or attend most
support the process
but don't take as
active a role as the
rest of the team,
and/or attends only a
few meetings.
Administrator(s) do
not actively support
the PBiS process.
Team meets monthly
(min. of 9 one-hour
meetings each school
Team meetings are
not consistent (5-8)
monthly meetings
each school year).
Team seldom meets
(fewer than five
monthly meetings
during school year).
Team has a written
statement for the PBiS
team (commonly
completed on the
cover sheet the action
Some of the faculty
participates in
establishing PBiS goals
(i.e. surveys, "dream",
"PATH") on at least an
annual basis.
Team has established
clear, written
procedures that lay
out the process for
handling both major
and minor discipline
incidents (Does not
include crisis
No mission
written for the team.
Team has
established a clear
Faculty members are
involved in
establishing and
reviewing goals.
Discipline process
described in
narrative format or
depicted in graphic
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Most faculty
participate in
establishing PBiS goals
(i.e. surveys, "dream",
"PATH") on at least an
annual basis.
Team has established
clear, written
procedures that lay
out the process for
handling both major
and minor discipline
incidents (Includes
crisis situations).
0 Points
Faculty does not
participate in
establishing PBiS goals.
Team has not
established clear,
written procedures for
discipline incidents
and/or there is no
between major and
minor incidents.
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