ELI 83 – Ford

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ELI 83 – Ford Unit Three Answer Key Task 1 1. Probably about 50%. 2. Sentences 1, 4, 10, and 14 are important for the four parts of the text. However, sentence 13 is also important because it gives the major claim or conclusion. 3. The second and third paragraphs contain several hedges. The second paragraph Task 2 contains hedged generalizations, while the third has several unhedged statements of results for single studies. Overall, both paragraphs seem similar in terms of level of conviction. 4. Garfield (1983), Najjar (1988), Throgmartin (1980), Velho and Krige (1984), Warren and Newhill (1978). All but one of these citations are ten or more years old. Given that changes in language policy are likely to be evolving, the reference list looks rather dated. 5. No answers possible for this question. Just consider these issues. 1. The situation and problem are presented in the first paragraph, while in the first sample they spread over two paragraphs. In contrast to the previous text, the situation requires little explanation; only one sentence is necessary. A one sentence paragraph is not a good idea, so it makes sense to continue the paragraph with a discussion of the problem. Also the nature of the problem is clearer here than in the previous text. We can all imagine the seriousness of the problems associated with the lack of fresh water. 2. nets are erected  water droplets of the fog are collected by the nets  water flows from the nets to troughs  water flows through filters into tanks  water is piped into a storage tank  water is chemically treated  water flows to households. 3. Present tense is used because this is a repeatable process.

4. is now being tested, are attached, are trapped, is then piped, is chemically treated

5. Progressive is important here because the testing is being done at the time of writing. From the author’s perspective, it is in progress and has not been completed. Although the progressive is rare in scientific academic English, it can often be used to describe contemporary change. (Scientists

are beginning

to change their ideas about…) The verb

to be

can indeed be used in the progressive. 6.

now, approximately, then, chemically, finally,

Three are midposition. 7. Sentence 4: this absence of rainfall Sentence 12: this collection system Both of these occur in the final sentence of their respective paragraphs. They serve to summarize the main point of the paragraph. 8. Very straight forward. The solution is “announced”.

One interesting solution to this problem is

…The text gives a very general description of the solution –

researchers have redevised a centuries-old method

…It is clear that the rest of the second paragraph will focus on the solution.

Task 3 No specific answers can be given. The key here is to try to be more informative in your process statements. Instead of providing just one process noun or short phrase, consider providing a thorough description of the process. Task 4 Exact answers for the process description are not given. 1. Does the author really mean to say that the liquid was collected for 24 hours? If not, place place

then then

in front of before

stored

.

kept

. 2. Was the sample both collected and stored in the same sterile container? If not, 3. Are the consumers in fact selected by telephone? One suggestion is: After being selected, the individuals were interviewed by telephone. Task 5 1. problem 2. problem, possibly process 3. problem, possibly process 4. solution 5. process 6. problem 7. solution 8. problem Task 6 1. …resource use, stimulating technical innovation. 2. 3. …elaborate dance, attracting the female. …executable files, damaging the host computer… 4. 5. …extracted from the soil, leaving the soil uncontaminated. …When countries sign treaties on the use of “free resources” such as air and ocean fish, serious ownership questions arise,

causing

difficulties in enforcing any agreement. Note: in sentence 5,

making

may also be used; however, the verb

make

is often regarded as sounding non-academic Task 7: No answers given. Task 8 1. …whether it

is

possible... 2. 3. 4. 5. …this policy

is

being… …students

are

required… …skill

is

then… …policies

are

likely… 6. 7. 8. …persistence

is

a major… …economy

is

subject… …strategies

is

the optimal…

Task 9: No answers given. Task 10 The first obvious difference between the two passages is length. Text A is more appropriate for an audience with little background knowledge because specific details aren’t given. Text B is much more detailed. Text A contains all of the parts of a problem-solution text., while B does not. Text A sets up the problem by discussing the situation, and text B begins by stating the problem. Text A may be acceptable for undergraduate writing, but it is not very acceptable for graduate writing. Task 11: No answers given.

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