OHS Risk Assessment

Health & Safety Risk Assessment
Guidelines for Wineries
Table of Contents
1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..1
2. Definitions…………………………………………………………………………… 2
3. Health & Safety Risk Assessment Method……………………………………….3
1. Introduction
These guidelines summarize the procedure to be followed when conducting and
annual health and safety risk assessment. This methodology is suitable for the
assessment of most work tasks. It is not suited to the assessment of complex
processing activities. These are assessed using alternative methods such as
Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP) or Failure Mode Effect Analysis
The risk assessment methodology covers all OH&S related hazards. Some
legislation, standards and guidance require more detailed risk assessment for
specific hazards. The following list (non exhaustive) of specific hazards should
be included in the risk assessment however they may also require a more
detailed assessment:
Manual Handling- Manual Handling Risk Assessment
Chemicals- Chemical Use Risk Assessment
DSE / VDU - Display Screen Equipment / Visual Display Unit
Noise- Noise Risk Assessment
Dusts- Atmospheric Hygiene Assessment
Explosive Atmospheres Assessment
Occupational Health- Occupational Health Risk Assessment (GRMS)
Machinery- Machinery Risk Assessment
Fire- Fire Risk Assessment
Ergonomics- Ergonomic Risk Assessment
Legionella Risk Assessment
Process Equipment Risk Assessment (HAZOP)
Lightning Risk Assessment
Work at Heights Risk Assessment
Wellbeing Risk Assessment
FLT Risk Assessment
The guidelines have been developed using the following publications:
BS 8800:2004 Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems
Boyle, T., (2002) Health and Safety Risk Management, IOSH
HSE, (1997) HSG65 Successful Health and Safety Management
HSE, (2006) INDG163 5 Steps to risk assessment
The risk assessment should be reviewed and updated on an annual basis or due
to changes in a process, activity, organization or equipment changes. The risk
assessment should also be reviewed if an incident investigation highlights that the
risk has not been appropriately assessed.
2. Definitions
Source or situation with a potential for harm (in terms of human injury, ill health or
a combination of these).
Combination of the likelihood and consequence of a specified hazardous event.
A risk always has two components:
a. The likelihood of a hazardous event.
b. the consequences of the event
Where health is concerned the consequence of a hazardous event may be based
on a number of events. E.g. repeated exposure to noise on separate occasions
may cause noise induced hearing loss.
Risk Assessment
Process of identifying hazards and evaluating the risks to health and safety
arising from these hazards whilst taking account of the existing risk controls.
(For planned activities evaluate risk by taking account of the proposed risk
Risk Controls
Workplace precautions, for example physical safe guards, containment of
airborne contaminants, safe systems of work, training / competency and personal
protective equipment. When proposing risk controls to mitigate a hazard due
consideration should be given to the hierarchy of control:
First:- If practical eliminate hazard altogether
Second:- Try to reduce the risk at source
Third:- Reduce the risk through procedures
Fourth:- Reduce the risk by providing PPE
3. Health and Safety Risk Assessment Method
The 5 steps to risk assessment are:
Determine work activities
Identify hazards
Identify current risk controls
Assess the risk
Specify actions to reduce the risk
Risk assessment should be conducted by competent people with practical
knowledge of the work activities. Risk assessment should be conducted by small
teams of individuals who have been trained in the risk assessment methodology.
The teams will need access to OHS specialists to conduct the assessment.
3 a. Determine work activities
Work activities are listed in a workshop session by considering normal every-day
activities and other non-routine activities such as infrequent maintenance tasks,
contractor activities and home-working. It is important to consider different
operational modes of the activity i.e. normal use, change over or CIP. Work
activities can be classified in three ways:
a. Geographical areas
b. Stages in the production process
c. A combination of a. and b. above
To obtain the necessary level of detail for risk assessment it will be necessary to
decompose activities into tasks, see example below.
Process / Area: Bottling line
Activity: Automatic labeling machine
Tasks: Replenish labels
Bottle size change-over
Conduct Autonomous Maintenance
Replenish liquid glue
Relieve blockages
Operate machine
Clean machine & parts
In order to identify the hazards associated with a task those conducting the risk
assessment should have an understanding of the following:
The duration, frequency
Scope for hazardous interaction with other activities
Who carries out the tasks
Others who are affected by the task (maintenance, cleaners, contractors)
Existing procedures relating to execution of the task
Permit-to work systems in place
Manufacturers instructions (in the case of work equipment)
Substances / Chemicals used
The weight / size / shape of materials manually handled during the task
Accident / incident records relating to the task
For certain unplanned tasks e.g. the repair of a burst pipe, it is unlikely that this
task would have been risk assessed using this methodology as its occurrence
would not have been anticipated by the risk assessment team. These activities are
risk assessed in a different manner. If the task is being completed by a contractor
it should be risk assessed in the task specific method statement prepared by the
contractor prior to commencement of works. In other instances a permit to work
checklist forms the basis of a risk assessment.
3 b. Identify Hazards
Identify the hazards associated with each task. When identifying the hazards
consider the following:
Is there a source of harm?
Who or what could be harmed?
How could harm occur?
Consider the following physical, chemical, biological & psychological hazards (not
Slippery or uneven ground leading to slips / falls
Work at heights leading to falls
Equipment falling from a height causing injury
Inadequate space e.g. low headroom leading to head injury
Poor ergonomics leading to RSI
Manual handling leading to back injury
Moving parts causing trapping /entanglement injuries
Hot surfaces or substances causing burns e.g. glue / steam
Poor housekeeping leading to fire
Ionizing radiation leading to health effects
Violence to staff
Harmful energy sources e.g. electricity, pneumatic energy, compressed air,
hydraulic energy
Noise leading to hearing defects
Confined spaces with hazardous atmospheres
Inhalation, ingestion or contact with bodily fluids causing illness
Inhalation, ingestion, contact with a chemical which causes injury
Workplace stress leading to health issues
Physical violence leading to injury
The list above is by no way exhaustive and should only be used to guide thinking.
Care must be taken to ensure all other hazardous scenarios are documented.
3 c. Identify current risk controls
For each identified hazard existing control measures should be specified.
3 d. Determine the Risk
Risk is determined by estimating the potential severity of harm and the likelihood
harm will occur for a given hazard. To estimate the severity of harm consider:
How the person is likely to be affected?
What harm will result?
Severity of harm is categorized into the following levels, see table overleaf:
Harm Category
Nuisance and irritation,
temporary ill health leading
to discomfort
Partial hearing loss,
dermatitis, asthma, WRULD,
ill health leading to
permanent minor disability
Acute fatal diseases, severe
life shortening diseases,
permanent substantial
Superficial injuries, minor
Lacerations, burns,
Fatal injuries, amputations,
cuts and bruises, eye
irritation from dust
concussion, serious sprains,
minor fractures
multiple injuries, major
Next consider the likelihood that a hazardous event actually results in harm.
Likelihood is categorized into the following levels:
Likelihood of Harm Category
Typical Occurrence
Typically experienced once
during the lifetime of an
Typically experienced once
every five years by an
Typically experienced at
least once every six months
by an individual
Risk level is estimated using the business risk footprint below.
(D) medium
(G) high
(B) low
(E) medium
(H) high
(A) low
(C) low
(F) medium
3 e. Specify Control Measures
Control measures are specified for each hazard along with owners and completion
dates. Control measures should reduce the hazard to an acceptable risk level.
The table below should be considered in determining the level of action required to
mitigate a given hazard.
Risk Level
A, B, C
No additional controls required unless they can be implemented
with minimal effort in terms of cost and human resource. Actions
to mitigate these hazards are low priority.
D, E, F
Action is required to move this hazard to a lower risk level. These
actions should be progressed within one month.
G, H, I
Substantial efforts should be made to reduce the risk.
Consideration should be given to suspending the activity until
additional controls have been implemented. These actions
should be progressed within one week.