Demonstrating Pharmacists` Impact on Therapeutic, Safety

advertisement
1
Appendix A. Database-Specific Search Strategies
PubMed
Because of the comprehensiveness of the PubMed database, two search strategies (one more
narrow, the other more broad-based) were devised to be as thorough as possible.
Search strategy 1 (more narrow search)
-
Step 1 (terms entered in Search field): ("Pharmacists"[Mesh] OR "Pharmacies"[Mesh]
OR "Pharmaceutical Services"[Mesh] OR "Community Pharmacy Services"[Mesh] OR
"Pharmacy Service, Hospital"[Mesh] OR "Pharmacy"[Mesh]) AND ("Disease
Management"[Mesh] OR "Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee"[Mesh] OR "Patient
Compliance"[Mesh] OR "Patient Satisfaction"[Mesh] OR "Outcome Assessment (Health
Care)"[Mesh] OR "Relative Value Scales"[Mesh] OR "Social Values"[Mesh] OR "Costs
and Cost Analysis"[Mesh] OR "Economics, Pharmaceutical"[Mesh] OR "Quality of
Life"[Mesh]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang])
o Step 2: Limited search results to Editorials, Letters to the Editor
o Step 3: Removed editorials and letters from the search results
Search Strategy 2 (broader search)
-
-
-
-
Step 1: Entered the following terms in Search field
o "pharmacy" OR "pharmacist" OR "pharmacotherapy" OR "pharmaceutical" AND
("cost" OR "medication" OR "satisfaction" OR "outcome" OR "patient" OR
"safety" OR "quality of life" OR "intervention" OR "economic" OR "adherence")
o Limits: English, Human
Step 2: Entered the following terms in Search field
o "pharmacy" OR "pharmacist" OR "pharmacotherapy" OR "pharmaceutical" AND
("cost" OR "medication" OR "satisfaction" OR "outcome" OR "patient" OR
"safety" OR "quality of life" OR "intervention" OR "economic" OR "adherence")
o Limits: English, Human, Editorial (narrowed search results to include only
editorials)
Step 3: Entered the following terms in Search field
o "pharmacy" OR "pharmacist" OR "pharmacotherapy" OR "pharmaceutical" AND
("cost" OR "medication" OR "satisfaction" OR "outcome" OR "patient" OR
"safety" OR "quality of life" OR "intervention" OR "economic" OR "adherence")
o Limits: English, Human, Letter (narrowed search results to include only letters)
Step 4: Entered the following terms in Search field
o "pharmacy" OR "pharmacist" OR "pharmacotherapy" OR "pharmaceutical" AND
("cost" OR "medication" OR "satisfaction" OR "outcome" OR "patient" OR
"safety" OR "quality of life" OR "intervention" OR "economic" OR "adherence")
NOT (#2) NOT (#3)
o Limits: Humans, English
o Please note: Step 4 removed all letters and editorials from the search results.
2
OvidSP/Medline
Individual searched of OvidSP/Medline conducted using each of the following terms:
-
Pharmacy based
Pharmacy-based
Pharmacist based
Pharmacist-based
Pharmacist managed
Pharmacist-managed
Pharmacy managed
Pharmacy-managed
Pharmacy run
Pharmacy-run
Pharmacist run
Pharmacist-run
Pharmacy initiated
Pharmacy-initiated
Pharmacist initiated
Pharmacist-initiated
Limited all searches to English Language and Humans.
ABI/INFORM
-
Search Strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists AND (medical treatment OR drug therapy OR
disease management OR quality management or quality of life)
Health Business Fulltext Elite
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists AND (disease management OR patient outcomes OR
quality of life)
Academic Search Complete
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists AND (disease management OR patient outcomes or
quality of life)
International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA)
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists AND disease management OR patient compliance
OR patient satisfaction OR disease outcome OR quality of life
3
o Combine each search term separate
PsychINFO
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists AND disease management OR Patient compliance
OR patient satisfaction OR disease outcome OR quality of life
o All on separate lines in Ebsco
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists OR pharmacy
National Guideline Clearinghouse
-
Search strategy
o Pharmc*
Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects (DARE)
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists OR pharmacy
Clinical Trials.gov
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist OR pharmacists
LexisNexis® Academic Universe
-
Search strategy
o Pharmacist w/5 quality of life
o Pharmacist w/5 value
o Pharmacist w/5 adherence
Google Scholar
Similar to the PubMed search strategy, two searches – one more narrow, the other more broad –
were conducted due to the comprehensive nature of Google Scholar.
-
Advanced Scholar Search
Search Strategy 1 (more narrow search)
Find Articles
4
-
-
with all of the words:
o pharmacy pharmacist pharmacotherapy pharmaceutical
with the exact phrase:
o “united states” OR “USA”
with at least one of the words
o cost medication satisfaction outcome patient “quality of life” intervention
economic adherence
without the words
o letter editorial
where my words occur
o anywhere in the article
Subject Areas (select the following)
-
Biology, Life Sciences, and Environmental Science
Business, Administration, Finance, and Economics
Chemistry and Materials Science
Medicine, Pharmacology, and Veterinary Science
Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities
Search Strategy 2 (broader search)
Find Articles
-
with all of the words:
o pharmacy pharmacist based run initiated managed
with the exact phrase:
o “united states” OR “USA”
without the words
o letter, editorial
where words occur
o anywhere in the article
Subject Areas (select the following)
-
Biology, Life Sciences, and Environmental Science
Business, Administration, Finance, and Economics
Chemistry and Materials Science
Medicine, Pharmacology, and Veterinary Science
Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities
5
Appendix B. Included Studies1-298
Referencea
Adler et al.,
20041
Ahrens et al.,
20032
Study
Designb
1
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Psychiatric
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Obesity
2
Multiple
1
Diabetes
2
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Anticoagulation
1
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Anticoagulation
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
Cardiovascular
2
3
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hospital admissions/ED visits – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
3
Provision of secondary prevention medications – Favorable
1
3
1
LOS – No effect
Readmission – Not favorable
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Blood glucose – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Patient knowledge – Favorable
1
Altavela et al.,
20083
Anaya et al.,
20084
Andreescu et
al., 20005
Andrus and
Clark, 20076
2
3
Inpatient/Institutional
Anonymous,
20017
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Ascione et al.,
19858
Bailey et al.,
20079
Bailey et al.,
199710
Baker, 198411
Baran et al.,
199912
1
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Coronary artery
disease
Infection
1
3
Inpatient/Institutional
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Not specified
Diabetes;
Hypertension
3
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Number of patients on anti-depressants – Favorable
Modified Beck Depression Inventory – No effect
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Mixed
Waist circumference – Favorable
Mean body weight; ratio of weight loss during 22 weeks –
Mixed
LOS; ED visits; Hospitalizations – No effect
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood glucose – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – No effect
Adverse drug event – No effect
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
6
Referencea
Study Setting
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Heart failure
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Not specified
3
Bernstein and
Blanchard,
199915
Berringer et
al., 199916
3
Inpatient/Institutional
Oncology
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes
2
Billups et al.,
200517
Bjornson et al.,
199318
Blackbourn
and
Sunderland,
198719
Bluml et al.,
199820
Bogden et al.,
199821
Bogden et al.,
199722
Bond and
Monson,
198423
Bond and
Raehl, 200424
3
Dyslipidemia
2
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Asthma/COPD
2
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
2
Hypertension
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Dyslipidemia
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hypertension
1
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Anticoagulation
1
Bond and
Raehl, 200525
Bond and
Raehl, 200626
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
Blood pressure – Favorable
Drug documentation, outpatient clinic visits – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Mortality rate; LOS – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Transfusion rate for bleeding – Favorable
Mortality rate; LOS – Favorable
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Epilepsy
1
Mortality rates; LOS – Favorable
Barber et al.,
199913
Barnett et al.,
200014
Study
Designb
2
2
1
4
Study Outcomes and Results
Hospital stay – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Patient knowledge – No effect
Infection – No effect
Morning blood glucose; physician acceptance of pharmacist
recommendations – Favorable
Patient adherence – No effect
Self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency – No effect
Cholesterol – Favorable
LOS - Favorable
Mortality – No effect
Theophylline levels; dosage changes; number of patients with
improved serum trend – Favorable
7
Referencea
Study Setting
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Infection
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Psychiatric
1
Borenstein et
al., 200329
Boyko et al.,
199730
Bozovich et
al., 200031
Brooks et al.,
200732
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Hypertension
2
Fluphenazine dose – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Social functioning – Favorable
Number of psychiatric hospitalizations – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Multiple
1
LOS – Favorable
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
Diabetes;
Dyslipidemia
2
Brophy et al.,
200233
Brouker et al.,
200034
Brown et al.,
200835
Brown et al.,
199736
Broyles et al.,
199137
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Epilepsy
1
3
Navy Aircraft Carrier
Hypertension
2
4
Not specified
2
3
Emergency
Department/Urgent Care
Inpatient/Institutional
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c < 7.1; eye exam; foot exam – Favorable
Seizures – Favorable
Following standard of care – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Medication error – Favorable
Malnutrition
2
Body weight – Favorable
1
Inpatient/Institutional
2
Fluid balance – Favorable
Bucaloiu et al.,
200738
Bunting and
Cranor, 200639
2
Inpatient/Institutional
2
Hematocrit; hemoglobin – Favorable
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Gastrointestinal;
Malnutrition; Fluid
restriction
Anemia of renal
failure
Asthma/COPD
1
Bunting et al.,
200840
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
1
Forced expiratory volume; severity classification; symptom
frequency – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Favorable
ED visit – Favorable
QoL – Favorable
Functional status – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Favorable
ED visit; cardiovascular event – Favorable
Bond and
Raehl, 200727
Bond and
Salinger,
197928
Study
Designb
2
2
2
3
Study Outcomes and Results
LOS; surgical infections; mortality rates – Favorable
8
Referencea
Study
Designb
1
Study Setting
Home
Disease Statec
Asthma/COPD
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
3
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Psychiatric
1
Capoccia et al.,
200443
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Psychiatric
1
Cardoni and
Gunning,
198344
Carter et al.,
199745
3
Partial Hospital Program
Psychiatric
3
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
1
Carter et al.,
200846
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
1
Chamberlain et
al., 200147
Chenella et al.,
198348
Chiquette et
al., 199849
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Anticoagulation
1
Anticoagulation
2
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
Chisholm et
al., 200150
Chisholm et
al., 200251
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Transplant
3
Thromboembolism; INR within target; INR above/below target –
Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Hypertension;
Transplantation
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
Bynum et al.,
200141
Canales et al.,
200142
1
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impressions;
Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression; Abnormal
Involuntary Movement Scale; Barnes Rating Scale for Druginduced Akathisia; Simpson-Angus Rating Scale for Druginduced Extrapyramidal Symptoms – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Mixed
LOS – No effect
Depression symptoms; visits to healthcare providers; ED visits–
No effect
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Blood pressure – Favorable
Number antihypertensive medications – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – No effect
Patient adherence – Favorable
INR – Favorable
Hospitalizations; ED visits – No effect
PT/PTT – Favorable
9
Referencea
Chisholm et
al., 200752
Study
Designb
3
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Transplantation
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Target cyclosporine level; number of graft rejections; fasting
blood glucose; antihypertensive agent; antidiabetic agent;
antilipidemic agent – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Retinal exam; monofilament foot exam – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction (MAI) – Favorable
MAI – Favorable
Health care utilizations related to medication safety – No effect
Medication error – Favorable
Prescribing appropriateness – Favorable
Potential drug therapy problems – Favorable
Choe et al.,
200553
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Dyslipidemia
2
Chrischilles et
al., 200454
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
1
Christensen et
al., 200455
Christensen et
al., 200756
4
Nursing Home
Multiple
4
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
4
Potential adverse drug event – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Cioffi et al.,
200457
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Coast-Senior et
al., 199858
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Coronary artery
disease; Heart failure
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
Diabetes
1
Cohen et al.,
198559
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
Cohen, 198460
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
Collins et al.,
200661
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Fasting blood glucose; random blood glucose – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – No effect
ED visit– No effect
PT ratio – Favorable
Complications per treatment year; potentially interacting drugs –
Favorable
Mortality – No effect
LOS – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
10
Referencea
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Dyslipidemia
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
Infection
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Dyslipidemia
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Cranor and
Christensen,
200365
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Dyslipidemia
1
Currie et al.,
199766
Dager et al.,
200067
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
1
Anticoagulation
1
Davidson et
al., 200068
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Dyslipidemia
2
Davis, 197869
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Infection
1
De Tullio and
Corson, 198770
Delate et al.,
200871
2
Asthma/COPD
2
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
Destache et al.,
199072
Destache et al.,
198973
Destache,
199474
Devlin et al.,
199775
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
QoL – No effect
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Medication error – Favorable
Mean INR– Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Favorable
INR 73.5; INR >6.0; drug interactions – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Proteinuria – Favorable
Number of days from throat culture to medication initiation –
Favorable
Return sick visits; return reculture visits – Favorable
Forced expiratory volume; forced vital capacity – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Post discharge mortality; ambulatory care clinic visits –
Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – No effect
ED visit – No effect
Febrile period – Favorable
LOS – No effect
Time necessary for resolution of infection – Favorable
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
LOS – Favorable
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
Weaning time in intensive care unit – No effect
LOS – No effect
Cording et al.,
200262
Covinsky et
al., 198263
Cranor et al.,
200364
Study
Designb
3
4
4
Study Outcomes and Results
Cholesterol – Favorable
LDL goal– Favorable
LOS – No effect
11
Referencea
Dice et al.,
198176
Dickey et al.,
197577
DiPietro and
Kier, 200178
Ditusa et al.,
200179
Study
Designb
2
2
3
Study Setting
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Hyperalimentation
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Private University
Infection
3
Patient adherence – Favorable
Not specified
3
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Dyslipidemia;
Coronary artery
disease
Cardiovascular
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
1
Adverse drug event – Favorable
LOS – Favorable
Study Outcomes and Results
Weight gain; protein/calorie/fat intake – Favorable
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dobesh and
Lakamp,
200280
Dole et al.,
200781
Dranitsaris et
al., 200182
Dudas et al.,
200183
2
Inpatient/Institutional
3
Pain
2
Pain Scores – Favorable
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
3
Cefotaxime use – Mixed
1
Home
Multiple
1
Ellenor and
Frisk, 197784
Ellis et al.,
199285
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Mental retardation
1
ED visits – Favorable
Readmission – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Adaptive Behavioral Scale – No effect
4
Anticoagulation
2
PT stability; PT within range – Favorable
Drug interaction – Favorable
Ellis et al.,
200086
Engles-Horton
et al., 199987
1
Inpatient/Institutional/
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Dyslipidemia;
Unspecified
HIV; Infection
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
1
Erickson et al.,
199788
Ernst and
Brandt, 200389
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
1
Anticoagulation
2
Erstad et al.,
199490
1
Not specified
4
Mean number of G-CSF doses/day – Favorable
Leukocytosis days - Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – No effect
Neutropenia days – No effect
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – No effect
INR – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Provides satisfaction – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
4
4
Inpatient/Institutional
12
Referencea
Faulkner et al.,
200091
Fera et al.,
200892
Study
Designb
1
3
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Dyslipidemia
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Study Outcomes and Results
Cholesterol – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Body mass index; influenza vaccine rate; eye exam rate; foot
exam rate – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Fincham and
Wallace,
200093
Finley et al.,
200294
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Stroke
3
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Psychiatric
1
Finley et al.,
200395
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Psychiatric
1
Fischer et al.,
200296
Fischer et al.,
200097
Gammaitoni et
al., 200098
2
Multiple
4
Asthma/COPD;
Heart disease
Chronic pain
3
Patient knowledge – Favorable
1
Gandhi et al.,
200199
GarabedianRuffalo et al.,
1985100
Garnett et al.,
1981101
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community/
Home
Inpatient/Institutional
Primary care provide contact; inventory for depressive
symptoms; clinical global impression – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Patient adherence – Favorable
Work & Social Disability Scale – Favorable
Depression scores; ED visits; health care utilization – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Patient adherence – Mixed
Functional outcomes – No effect
Drug related problem – Favorable
Coronary artery
disease
Anticoagulation
1
Physician visits; ED visits – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Pain inventory – Mixed
LOS; mortality – No effect
1
PT ratio – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Favorable
Infection
3
Patient adherence – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
2
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
13
Referencea
Garrett and
Bluml, 2005102
Study
Designb
3
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Influenza vaccine; foot exam; eye exam; patient goals for
nutrition, exercise, weight – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
INR – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor dose;
vasodilator use; all-cause mortality – Favorable
ED visit; hospitalization related to heart failure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Percent at LDL cholesterol goal – Favorable
Cardiac events – No effect
Mortality; LOS – Favorable
Hospital readmissions – No effect
Patient adherence – Mixed
Garwood et al.,
2008103
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
Gattis et al.,
1999104
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Heart Failure
1
Geber et al.,
2002105
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
1
Gentry et al.,
2000106
Giles et al.,
2001107
Gourley et al.,
1998108
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Oncology
3
Hypertension;
Asthma/COPD
1
Grabenstein et
al., 2001109
Grant et al.,
2003110
Gray et al.,
1985111
Gray et al.,
1979112
Green et al.,
2008113
2
Influenza
3
QoL – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Influenza immunization – Favorable
Diabetes
3
Patient adherence – No effect
Anticoagulation
1
Psychiatric
1
Hypertension
1
Gums et al.,
1999114
1
Infection
1
INR; pulmonary embolism – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Mental function – Mixed
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Aspirin use – Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Body mass index – No effect
Physical activity – No effect
LOS – Favorable
1
1
2
3
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community/
Home
Inpatient/Institutional
14
Referencea
Study
Designb
2
Study Setting
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Multiple
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
3
Home
Multiple
3
Medication behavior problems – Favorable
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
1
Haumschild et
al., 2003118
Hawkins et al.,
1979119
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
1
Adverse drug reaction – Mixed
Appropriateness of prescribing – Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Patient knowledge – No effect
Number of patient falls – Favorable
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension
1
Heelon et al.,
2007120
Hennessy et
al., 2006121
Herfindal et
al., 1985122
Hilleman et al.,
2004123
4
Inpatient/Institutional
HIV/AIDS
2
Blood pressure – Mixed
Fasting blood sugar; referral clinic visits; ED visits; hospital
admissions – No effect
Patient adherence – Mixed
Medication error – Favorable
1
Hypertension
2
Blood pressure – No effect
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
1
LOS – No effect
4
Home
Cardiothoracic/
Vascular
Dyslipidemia
1
Cholesterol – Favorable
Lipid modules; myocardial infarction; stroke; other adverse
clinical events (e.g., hospitalization; mortality) – Favorable
Hoffman et al.,
2003124
Horberg et al.,
2007125
1
Home
Psychiatric
3
Patient adherence – Mixed
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
HIV/AIDS
1
Horn et al.,
1985126
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Heart Failure
1
Horswel et al.,
2008127
Humphries et
al., 2007128
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes
2
Multiple
2
HIV RNA level; CD4 count – Mixed
ED visit; office visit; hospitalization – Mixed
Patient adherence – Favorable
Digoxin levels in normal range – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
LOS - Mixed
Hemoglobin A1c – Mixed
Patient adherence – Mixed
Drug-drug interactions – Favorable
Haig and
Kiser, 1991115
Hammarlund
et al., 1985116
Hanlon et al.,
1996117
4
Study Outcomes and Results
LOS – Favorable
15
Referencea
Hunter and
Bryant, 1994129
Irons et al.,
2002130
Study
Designb
3
2
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community/
Prison
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Asthma/COPD
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
3
Diabetes
1
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Hypoglycemia– No effect
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Hemoglobin A1c – No effect
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
2
Multiple
1
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
ED visits; primary care visits – No effect
QoL – Mixed
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Fasting blood sugar; renal – Favorable
Hypoglycemia – Not favorable
QoL – No effect
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Study Outcomes and Results
Patient knowledge – Unclear
Irons et al.,
2008131
2
Isetts et al.,
2008132
Isetts et al.,
2006133
2
Jaber et al.,
1996134
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
1
Jameson and
VanNoord,
2001135
John et al.,
2006136
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Kammer,
2004137
Kaushal et al.,
2008138
Kelly et al.,
1980139
Kelso et al.,
1996140
3
Cardiovascular
1
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Blood pressure – No effect
Cholesterol – No effect
Weight – No effect
QoL – Unclear
Multiple
2
Medication error – Mixed
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
LOS – Favorable
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Asthma/COPD
1
ED visits/hospitalizations for asthma; Asthma Sleep Scale;
Asthma Bother Profile Scores; inhaled corticosteroid use; peak
expiratory flow rate – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Asthma specific QOL scores – Favorable
2
16
Referencea
Kelso et al.,
1995141
Study
Designb
2
Disease Statec
Asthma/COPD
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Anticoagulation
2
Therapeutic aPTT – Favorable
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
Diabetes;
Dyslipidemia
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Daily aspirin therapy; renal protective agent use; microalbumin
screening; annual eye exam; annual foot exam – Favorable
Decrease ED visits/hospitalization; decrease physician visits –
Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Quality of care – Favorable
Hospital admission rate – No effect
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community/
Emergency
Department/Urgent Care
Inpatient/Institutional
Study Outcomes and Results
ED visits; hospitalizations – Favorable
Kershaw et al.,
1994142
Kicklighter et
al. 2006143
Kiel and
McCord,
2005144
2
Knoell et al.,
1998145
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Asthma/COPD
1
Knowlton and
Knapp, 1994146
Konzem et al.,
1997147
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Not specified
1
Dyslipidemia
2
Kotapati et al.,
2003148
Kradjan et al.,
1999149
Kucukarslan et
al., 2003150
Kuti et al.,
2002151
Lai, 2007152
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
2
Asthma/COPD
4
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Perceived benefits of asthma control – No effect
Adverse drug event – Favorable
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
LOS – Favorable
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community/
HMO
Hypertension
1
Lam, 2008153
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient adherence – Favorable
High blood pressure monitoring – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
2
3
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
LDL cholesterol goal; colestipol dose – Favorable
Patient adherence – Unclear
Mortality – Favorable
17
Referencea
Study
Designb
3
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
3
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Osteoporosis
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Leape et al.,
1999156
Lee et al.,
2006157
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
1
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Lee and
Schommer,
1996158
Lefante Jr. et
al., 2005159
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
1
Lewis et al.,
1976160
Libby and
Laub, 1997161
Lipton and
Bird, 1994162
Lloyd et al.,
2007163
Locke et al.,
2005164
Lucas, 1998165
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Heart Failure
1
Adverse drug event – No effect
Drug-drug/drug-disease interaction – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional/
Home
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Hypertension
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
Not specified
1
Obesity
2
Anticoagulation
1
Total days in hospital; readmission rates – No effect
Patient adherence – Mixed
Weight; body mass index; percentage of body fat; weight-related
health conditions – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Multiple
1
Madden Jr. et
al., 1973166
Malone et al.,
2001167
2
Infection
3
Multiple
1
Law and
Shapiro,
2005154
Leal et al.,
2004155
1
3
2
2
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Study Outcomes and Results
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c goal; body mass index; weight – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Mixed
Patient adherence – Favorable
Deep vein thrombosis; warfarin number of readmissions –
Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Hospital readmissions – No effect
Patient adherence – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
18
Referencea
Malone et al.,
2005168
Study
Designb
3
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Obesity
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Beck Depression Inventory – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Binge eating behavior – Favorable
Weight loss – No effect
Patient adherence – Favorable
Malone and
Alger-Mayer,
2003169
Mamdani et
al., 1999170
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
obesity
2
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Anticoagulation
1
March et al.,
2007171
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
HIV/AIDS
1
Marshall et al.,
2008172
Mason and
Colley, 1993173
Mattar et al.,
1975174
Mazzolini et
al., 2005175
McConnell et
al., 2006176
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
1
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
3
Infection
3
Drug therapy problems; potential drug therapy problems –
Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Dyslipidemia
2
Cholesterol – Mixed
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
McCord,
2006177
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Coronary artery
disease
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
McGhan et al.,
1983178
McKenney and
Wasserman,
1979179
McKenney and
Witherspoon,
1985180
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Hypertension
2
Multiple
1
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – No effect
Cholesterol – No effect
Eye exam, foot exam, aspirin use – Favorable
Blood pressure – No effect
Appropriateness of medications – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
LOS – Favorable
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Anticoagulation
2
2
2
2
2
2
aPTT value – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Time between starting heparin therapy & surpassing the aPTT –
No effect
CD4 count; viral load – Favorable
Toxicity scale – Favorable
QoL – Unclear
LOS; duration of mechanical ventilation – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Average PT ratio; number of patients with PT in therapeutic
range – Favorable
19
Referencea
Study
Designb
2
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Hypertension
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
McMullin et
al., 1999182
Mead and
McGhan,
1988183
Mehos et al.,
2000184
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Blood pressure – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Patient knowledge - Favorable
LOS; mortality; hospital readmission – No effect
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Heart burn
3
Inappropriate prescription for H2 blockers – Favorable
1
Hypertension
1
Modi et al.,
2008185
4
4
Gastrointestinalshort bowel
syndrome
Rheumatology;
Renal
1
Monson et al.,
1981186
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community/
Home
Inpatient/Institutional/
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Morello et al.,
2006187
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Morse et al.,
1986188
Murray et al.,
2007189
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Mean residual small intestine length; mean peak direct bilirubin;
full internal nutrition achieved – No effect
Overall survival rate – Favorable
Duplication drug class; refill information; accuracy of
information in medical record; documentation of prescription in
medical record– Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Fasting blood glucose; body mass index; microalbumin
screening; aspirin use; renal protectant; annual eye exam, annual
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Heart Failure
1
Mutchie et al.,
1979190
Nahata,
1988191
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Hyperalimentation
2
ED visits; hospital readmissions – Favorable
Adverse drug event – No effect
Medication error – No effect
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient adherence – Mixed
Weight gain – Favorable
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
2
Medication error – Favorable
McKenney et
al., 1973181
1
3
20
Referencea
Nau and
Pacholski,
2007192
Neel et al.,
1993193
Ng et al.,
2008194
Nicholas et al.,
2007195
Nietert et al.,
2009196
Study
Designb
3
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Diabetes
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
4
4
Nursing Home
Psychiatric
1
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
2
Decreased incontinence; weight gain; decreased falls; medication
use – Favorable
QTc Interval – Favorable
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
4
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Psychiatric;
Heart failure
Diabetes;
Hypertension
3
Patient adherence – No effect
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – No effect
Weight; smoking; aspirin use; ACE inhibitor use – No effect
Cholesterol – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Patient adherence – Unclear
Hospitalization; other provider visits (outpatient) – Favorable
1
Nkansah et al.,
2008197
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Nola et al.,
2000198
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
2
Nykamp and
Ruggles,
2000199
Odegard et al.,
2005200
Odegard et al.,
2004201
O’Dell and
Kucukarslan,
2005202
Ogbuokiri,
1980203
Okamoto and
Nakahiro,
2001204
Olson et al.,
2005205
2
Inpatient/Institutional/
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
Diabetes
2
Asthma/COPD
1
Coronary artery
disease
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
2
Hypertension
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia;
Coronary artery
disease
2
1
3
2
1
1
3
Study Outcomes and Results
Quality of care – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Mixed
Medication appropriateness index– Mixed
ED visits; night-time awakenings – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Readmission – No effect
Unstable angina – Favorable
Blood pressure – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Cholesterol – Favorable
21
Referencea
Park et al.,
1996206
Study
Designb
1
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Hypertension
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Hypertension
2
Study Outcomes and Results
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Patient adherence – Mixed
Blood pressure – Favorable
Asthma/COPD
1
ED visit – Favorable
Anticoagulation
2
Initial heparin loading dose – No effect
Initial heparin infusion rate - Favorable
Number of aPTT/PT tests – No effect
Time to aPTT therapeutic range - Favorable
Number heparin treatment days/patient – No effect
Number rate change during treatment – Mixed
Blood draw schedule; compliance with protocol; iron tested and
used; epoetin used; blood used – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Parra et al.,
2000207
Pauley et al.,
1995208
Pawloski and
Kersh, 1992209
3
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Pell et al.,
2005210
Pelletier,
1983211
Pineros et al.,
2004212
Poon et al.,
2007213
Powell et al.,
2006214
Powers et al.
1983215
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Anemia
3
3
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
3
4
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
2
Anticoagulation
1
Diabetes
3
Pain
1
Quercia et al.
2001216
Raebel et al.,
2007217
Ragucci et al.,
2005218
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Anemia
2
Cholesterol – Favorable
LDL cholesterol < 100; lipid lowering agents – Favorable
INR/thromboembolic events – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Mean pain relief; pain intensity; mean daily methadone dose –
Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Hematocrit – Favorable
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Pregnancy
3
Use D and X class in pregnancy – Favorable
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Rainville,
1999219
1
Heart failure
1
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – No effect
Aspirin use – Favorable
Hospital readmission for heart failure; mortality – Favorable
3
2
2
1
3
Inpatient/Institutional
22
Referencea
Rathbun et al.,
2005220
Rehring et al.,
2006221
Rickles et al.,
2006222
Rivey and
Peterson,
1993223
Rivey et al.,
1995224
Roberts et al.,
1982225
Rodis et al.,
2004226
RojasFernandez et
al., 2003227
Rosen et al.,
1978228
Rosen et al.,
1978229
Rosen and
Holmes,
1978230
Rothman et al.,
2003231
Rothman et al,
2004232
Study
Designb
1
Disease Statec
HIV
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
Dyslipidemia
2
Psychiatric
3
Anticoagulation
1
PTT – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – No effect
Inpatient/Institutional
Anticoagulation
1
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Asthma/COPD
3
Number of days on warfarin with INR in target range– Favorable
Adverse drug event – No effect
Patient knowledge – Favorable
3
Emergency
Department/Urgent Care
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
3
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Dementia
1
Behavioral Pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale –
Favorable
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Psychiatric
3
Psychiatric
1
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Psychiatric
3
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Community adjustment; role skills – No effect
Rehospitalization rate – No effect
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Perceived health; needs less/more help; personal adjustment –
Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Personal adjustment – Favorable
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Diabetes
2
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
4
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
2
2
1
3
2
2
3
Study Outcomes and Results
Viral load – Mixed
Patient adherence – Mixed
Cholesterol – Favorable
Screening fasting lipid profile; statin treatment – Favorable
Patient feedback – Favorable
23
Referencea
Rothman et al.,
2005233
Study
Designb
1
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Coronary artery
disease
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Asthma/COPD
1
Psychiatric
1
Rupp et al.,
1997234
Saklad et al.,
1984235
Sauvageot et
al., 2008236
3
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Schneider et
al., 1982237
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Heart failure
1
Schneider et
al., 2008238
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
1
Schnipper et
al., 2006239
1
Inpatient/Institutional/
Home
Multiple
1
Schommer et
al., 2002240
3
Church
Multiple
3
Scott et al.,
2006241
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
1
4
Study Outcomes and Results
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – No effect
Aspirin use – Favorable
ED visit; physician visit; hospitalization – No effect
Adverse drug event – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Hospitalizations; ED visits; urgent care visits – Favorable
QoL – Favorable
Readmission rate, number of drugs used of low potency –
Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – No effect
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Mixed
Mean arterial pressure – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Number of prescriptions written; drug therapy recommendations
– Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Blood pressure – Mixed
Morbidities; ED visits; hospitalization – No effect
Patient adherence – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Medication error – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Medication related problems – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Taking medications interfere with lifestyle – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Weight; body mass index – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
24
Referencea
Study
Designb
1
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Diabetes
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Secnik et al.,
2000243
Self et al.,
1983244
Shah et al.,
1994245
ShaneMcWhorter
and Oderda,
2005246
1
Home
Not specified
3
Study Outcomes and Results
2-hour blood glucose; urine glucose; fasting blood glucose –
Mixed
Medication error – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
ED visits – No effect
Hospitalizations – Favorable
Other medical contacts – Favorable
Time to pick up unclaimed prescriptions – Mixed
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Asthma/COPD
3
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Multiple
3
Medication incident – Favorable
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
2
Shaughnessy
and D’Amico,
1994247
Shibley and
Pugh, 1997248
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Multiple
3
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Immunization; eye exam; microalbuminuria screening –
Favorable
Diabetes education documentation; number of patients who
exercised – Favorable
Prescription writing error – Favorable
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dyslipidemia
1
Simkins and
Wenzloff,
1986249
Skoutakis et
al., 1978250
1
Home
Not specified
3
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Renal disease
2
Smith et al.,
2006251
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Not specified
1
Sczupak and
Conrad,
1977242
4
Cholesterol – Favorable
QoL – Mixed
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient opinion survey – No effect
Patient adherence – Favorable
Biochemical & therapeutic responses – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
ED visits; hospitalization; bed-bound episode – Favorable
Patient adherence – No effect
Perceived health status– Favorable
25
Referencea
Study
Designb
4
Study Setting
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Multiple
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Soflin et al.,
1977253
Solomon et al.,
1998254
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Heart Failure
3
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension;
Asthma/COPD
1
Stergachis et
al., 2002255
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Asthma/COPD
1
Sterne et al.,
1999256
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Asthma/COPD
1
Stiegler et al.,
2003257
Straka et all.,
2005258
Streetman et
al., 2001259
Stroup et al.,
2007260
Swain and
Macklin,
2001261
3
Inpatient/Institutional/
Home
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Asthma/COPD
1
Dyslipidemia
2
Blood pressure – Favorable
COPD symptoms; dyspnea scores; global assessment rating
(COPD); ED visits (COPD & hypertension); hospitalization
(COPD) – No effect
Hospitalization (hypertension) – Mixed
Other health care provider visits (COPD & hypertension) –
Favorable
Patient adherence – Mixed
Use of inhaled anti-inflammatory med; peak expiratory flow
days> 80% – No effect
ED visits; physician visits – No effect
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – No effect
Patient adherence – No effect
Asthma severity index; functional status questionnaire – No
effect
ED visits; hospitalization; metered dose inhaler technique –
Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Readmission to hospital – Favorable
Patient adherence – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Infection
1
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Osteoporosis
2
Bone mineral density; T-score – Mixed
Diabetes
3
Patient knowledge – Mixed
Smythe et al.,
1998252
2
2
3
3
Study Outcomes and Results
Adverse drug reaction – Favorable
Medication error – Favorable
LOS – No effect
Patient knowledge – Favorable
26
Referencea
Tallahassee,
2005262
Study
Designb
2
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Taveira et al.,
2006263
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Taylor et al.,
2001264
Taylor et al.,
2003265
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Terceros et al.,
2007266
Thompson et
al., 1984267
2
1
Disease Statec
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
CAD
Dyslipidemia
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
2
2
Study Outcomes and Results
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Framingham patient score; smoking – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Therapeutic INR;ED visits; hospitalizations – Favorable
Medication appropriateness index– Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Not favorable
Patient adherence – No effect
Patient knowledge – Favorable
LOS – Favorable
Diabetes;
Hypertension;
Dyslipidemia;
Anticoagulation
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Multiple
1
2
Long-term care Facility
Multiple
1
Till et al.,
2003268
To et al.,
2001269
2
Dyslipidemia
2
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Dialysis Unit
Decreased mortality; number of drugs/patients decreased –
Favorable
LOS – No effect
Cholesterol – Favorable
2
Hematocrit – No effect
Trygstad et al.,
2005270
Tsai et al.,
1982271
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Chronic kidney
disease;
End-stage renal
disease
Multiple
4
Potential drug therapy problems – Favorable
4
Long-term care Facility
Anemia;
Malnutrition
2
Van Amburgh
et al., 2001272
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Mean hemoglobin ; number of laboratory tests – Favorable
Number of hematinic and vitamin prescriptions – Mixed
Number of regularly scheduled drugs – No effect
Influenza vaccine rates– Favorable
3
Infection
27
Referencea
Van
VeldhuizenScott et al.,
1995273
Study
Designb
1
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Diabetes
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Emergency
Department/Urgent Care
Dialysis Unit
Trauma
1
Dyslipidemia;
Hyperlipidemia;
End-stage renal
disease
Hypertension
1
Cholesterol – Favorable
Adverse drug reaction – Unclear
Adverse drug event – Unclear
1
Blood pressure – Favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Mixed
Patient adherence – No effect
Patient knowledge – No effect
Time to obtain medication post-discharge – Favorable
Increase hemoglobin; increase ferritin; increase iron saturation –
Favorable
Peak flow rate – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Not
favorable
ED visit – Not favorable
QoL – No effect
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient adherence – No effect
Medication error – Favorable
Vernon et al.,
1999274
Viola et al.,
2002275
4
Vivian, 2002276
1
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Voirol et al.,
2004277
Walton et al.,
2005278
Weinberger et
al., 2002279
1
Inpatient/Institutional
Not specified
3
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hemodialysis;
Anemia
Asthma/COPD
2
Weiner et al.,
2008280
Welty and
Copa, 1994281
4
Inpatient/Institutional
Orthopedic
2
2
Inpatient/Institutional
Infection
1
West et al.,
2003282
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Diabetes
2
3
2
1
Study Outcomes and Results
Blood glucose; change blood glucose; hyperglycemic events –
Favorable
Patient knowledge – No effect
Perceptions/attitudes toward diabetes in general; diabetes
medications; medications for health problems other than
diabetes; self-monitor blood glucose; communication with
pharmacist – Mixed
Mortality – Mixed
Duration of treatment; total vancomycin dose; infection site;
concomitant antibiotics; temperature; white blood cell count;
LOS; nephrotoxicity – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood glucose – Favorable
Daily blood glucose; exercise; foot exam – Favorable
Body mass index – No effect
28
Referencea
Williamson et
al., 1984283
Williford and
Johnson,
1995284
Wilt et al.,
1995285
Winterbottom
et al., 2006286
Study
Designb
4
1
2
2
Study Setting
Inpatient/Institutional/
Long-term care facility
Inpatient/Institutional
Disease Statec
Hypertension
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
2
Not specified
3
Patient adherence – No effect
Patient knowledge – No effect
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Pain
3
Guideline adherence; rate of follow up; follow up within 6 weeks
– Favorable
Rate of continuation of gabapentin – No effect
INR>6.0; phytonadione administration; high dose phytonadione
– Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Days INR in target range; high/low INR values; thromboembolic
events – Favorable
Adverse drug event – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Witt and
Humphries,
2003287
Witt et al.,
2005288
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Anticoagulation
1
Woroniecki et
al, 1982289
1
Not specified
3
Yam et al.,
2006290
Yamada et al.,
2005291
Yanchick,
2000292
4
Inpatient/Institutional/
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Inpatient/Institutional
Coronary artery
disease
Dyslipidemia
3
Multiple
2
Yanchick,
2001293
Yuan et al.,
2003294
Zeolla and
Cerulli,
2004295
Zillich et al.,
2003296
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
2
Multiple
1
Menopause
3
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Hypertension
2
3
4
2
3
2
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
2
Study Outcomes and Results
Blood pressure – Favorable
Compliance guidelines: ACE inhibitors, statin, aspirin, dietary,
exercise, smoking cessation – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Percent at target lipid levels – Favorable
Hemoglobin A1c – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Cholesterol – Favorable
Asthma and other disease state outcomes – Favorable
Blood pressure – Favorable
Total mortality per new prescription filled – Favorable
Hospitalization related to drug event/reaction/error – Favorable
Patient satisfaction – Favorable
Patient knowledge – Favorable
Blood pressure – No effect
29
Referencea
Zillich et al.,
2002297
Zillich et al.,
2005298
a
Study
Designb
3
2
Study Setting
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Outpatient/Ambulatory
Care/Retail/Community
Disease Statec
Not specified
Hierarchy of
Outcomesd
1
Hypertension
2
Study Outcomes and Results
QoL – Mixed
Blood pressure – Favorable
Patient adherence – Mixed
Complete references are available in Appendix C.
Study designs are defined as follows: (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs); (2) comparison or cohort studies; (3) pre-post studies; and (4) before and after studies (those studies with
contemporaneous observation of cohorts that differed mostly with exposure of intervention/service).
c
Under “Disease State”, the term “Multiple” is used when greater than five disease states are reported in one study, or when the study itself described examination of multiple disease states without
providing the specific name of each disease state.
d
Hierarchy of Outcomes levels defined as follows: (a) Level 1, Clinical and Quality of Life (QoL) outcomes (e.g., morbidity, mortality, adverse events, QoL); (b) Level 2, Surrogate outcomes (e.g.,
blood glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol levels); (c) Level 3, other measureable variables with an indirect or unestablished connection to the target outcome (e.g., medication or disease state
knowledge); and (d) Level 4, other relevant variables, but not direct outcomes (e.g., patient satisfaction, potential adverse events).28
ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CV =
cardiovascular; ED = emergency department; G-CSF = Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; INR = International Normalized Ratio; LDL = low density
lipoprotein; LOS = length of stay; MAI = Medication Appropriateness Index; PT = prothrombin time; PTT = partial thromboplastin time; QoL = quality of life; RNA = ribonucleic acid; TPN = total
parenteral nutrition; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone
b
30
Appendix C. Systematic Review References
1.
Adler DA, Bungay KM, Wilson IB, et al. The impact of a pharmacist intervention on 6-month outcomes in
depressed primary care patients. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004; 26: 199-209.
2.
Ahrens RA, Hower M, Best AM. Effects of weight reduction interventions by community pharmacists. J Am
Pharm Assoc (2003). 2003; 43: 583-589.
3.
Altavela JL, Jones MK, Ritter M. A Prospective Trial of a Clinical Pharmacy Intervention in a Primary Care
Practice in a Capitated Payment System. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008; 14: 831-843.
4.
Anaya JP, Rivera JO,. Lawson K, et al. Evaluation of pharmacist-managed diabetes mellitus under a
collaborative drug therapy agreement. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2008; 65: 1841-1845.
5.
Andreescu AC, Possidente C, Hsieh M, et al. Evaluation of a pharmacy-based surveillance program for
heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 974-980.
6.
Andrus MR, Clark DB. Provision of pharmacotherapy services in a rural nurse practitioner clinic. Am J HealthSyst Pharm. 2007; 64: 294-297.
7.
Anonymous. Collaborative drug therapy agreements lead to improved diabetes management. Formulary. 2001;
36: 538.
8.
Ascione FJ, Brown GH, Kirking DM. Evaluation of a medication refill reminder system for a community
pharmacy. Patient Educ Couns. 1985; 7: 157-165.
9.
Bailey TC, Noirot LA, Blickensderfer A, et al. An intervention to improve secondary prevention of coronary
heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 586-590.
10. Bailey TC, Ritchie DJ, McMullin ST, et al. A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program
to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions. Pharmacotherapy. 1997; 17:
277-281.
11. Baker DM. A study contrasting different modalities of medication discharge counseling. Hosp Pharm. 1984;
19: 545-8, 551-4.
12. Baran RW, Crumlish K, Patterson H, et al. Improving outcomes of community-dwelling older patients with
diabetes through pharmacist counseling. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1999; 56: 1535-1539.
13. Barber A, Hollenack K, Bottorff M. Congestive heart failure: disease management approach in long term care
patients. J Manag Care Pharm. 1999; 5: 516-520.
14. Barnett CW, Nykamp D, Ellington AM. Patient-guided counseling in the community pharmacy setting. J Am
Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000; 40: 765-772.
15. Bernstein BJ, Blanchard LM. Economic and clinical impact of a pharmacy-based filgrastim protocol in
oncology patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1999; 56: 1330-1333.
16. Berringer R, Shibley MC, Cary CC, et al. Outcomes of a community pharmacy-based diabetes monitoring
program. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1999; 39: 791-797.
17. Billups SJ, Plushner SL, Olson KL, et al. Clinical and economic outcomes of conversion of simvastatin to
Lovastatin in a group-model health maintenance organization. J Manag Care Pharm. 2005; 11: 681-686.
31
18. Bjornson DC, Hiner WO Jr, Potyk RP, et al. Effect of pharmacists on health care outcomes in hospitalized
patients. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1993; 50: 1875-1884.
19. Blackbourn J, Sunderland VB. Impact of pharmacist intervention on oral theophylline therapy in adult
inpatients. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1987; 21: 811-816.
20. Bluml BM, McKenney JM, Cziraky MJ,et al. Interim report from project ImPACT: hyperlipidemia. J Am
Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1998; 38: 529-534.
21. Bogden PE, Abbott RD, Williamson P, et al. Comparing standard care with a physician and pharmacist team
approach for uncontrolled hypertension. J Gen Intern Med. 1998; 13: 740-745.
22. Bogden PE, Koontz LM, Williamson P, et al. The physician and pharmacist team. An effective approach to
cholesterol reduction. J Gen Intern Med. 1997; 12: 158-164.
23. Bond CA, Monson R. Sustained improvement in drug documentation, compliance, and disease control. A fouryear analysis of an ambulatory care model. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144: 1159-1162.
24. Bond CA, Raehl CL. Pharmacist-provided anticoagulation management in United States hospitals: death rates,
length of stay, Medicare charges, bleeding complications, and transfusions. Pharmacotherapy. 2004; 24: 953963.
25. Bond CA, Raehl CL. Clinical and economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed aminoglycoside or vancomycin
therapy. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2005; 62: 1596-1605.
26. Bond CA, Raehl CL. Clinical and economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed antiepileptic drug therapy.
Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26: 1369-1378.
27. Bond CA, Raehl CL. Clinical and economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed antimicrobial prophylaxis in
surgical patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 1935-1942.
28. Bond CA, Salinger RJ. Fluphenazine outpatient clinics: a pharmacist's role. J Clin Psychiatry. 1979; 40: 501503.
29. Borenstein JE, Graber G, Saltiel E, et al. Physician-pharmacist comanagement of hypertension: a randomized,
comparative trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 23: 209-216.
30. Boyko WL Jr, Yurkowski PJ, Ivey MF, et al. Pharmacist influence on economic and morbidity outcomes in a
tertiary care teaching hospital. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1997; 54: 1591-1595.
31. Bozovich M, Rubino CM, Edmunds J. Effect of a clinical pharmacist-managed lipid clinic on achieving
National Cholesterol Education Program low-density lipoprotein goals. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 13751383.
32. Brooks AD, Rihani RS, Derus CL. Pharmacist membership in a medical group's diabetes health management
program. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 617-621.
33. Brophy GM, Tesoro EP, Schrote GL, et al. Pharmacist impact on posttraumatic seizure prophylaxis in patients
with head injury. Pharmacotherapy. 2002; 22: 251-255.
34. Brouker ME, Gallagher K, Larrat EP, et al. Patient compliance and blood pressure control on a nuclearpowered aircraft carrier: impact of a pharmacy officer. Mil Med. 2000; 165: 106-110.
35. Brown JN, Barnes CL, Beasley B, et al. Effect of pharmacists on medication errors in an emergency
department. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2008; 65: 330-333.
32
36. Brown RO, Dickerson RN, Hak EB, et al. Impact of a pharmacist-based consult service on nutritional
rehabilitation of nonambulatory patients with severe developmental disabilities. Pharmacotherapy. 1997; 17:
796-800.
37. Broyles JE, Brown RO, Vehe KL, et al. Pharmacist interventions improve fluid balance in fluid-restricted
patients requiring parenteral nutrition. Pharmacotherapy. 1991; 25: 119-122.
38. Bucaloiu ID, Akers G, Bermudez MC, et al. Outpatient erythropoietin administered through a protocol-driven,
pharmacist-managed program may produce significant patient and economic benefits. Manag Care Interface.
2007; 20: 26-30.
39. Bunting BA, Cranor CW. The Asheville Project: long-term clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes of a
community-based medication therapy management program for asthma. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006; 46:
133-147.
40. Bunting BA, Smith BH, Sutherland SE. The Asheville Project: clinical and economic outcomes of a
community-based long-term medication therapy management program for hypertension and dyslipidemia. J
Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008; 48: 23-31.
41. Bynum A, Hopkins D, Thomas A, et al. The effect of telepharmacy counseling on metered-dose inhaler
technique among adolescents with asthma in rural Arkansas. Telemed J E Health. 2001; 7: 207-217.
42. Canales PL, Dorson PG, Crismon ML. Outcomes assessment of clinical pharmacy services in a psychiatric
inpatient setting. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2001; 58: 1309-1316.
43. Capoccia KL, Boudreau DM, Blough DK, et al. Randomized trial of pharmacist interventions to improve
depression care and outcomes in primary care. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2004; 61: 364-372.
44. Cardoni AA, Gunning J. Psychiatric pharmacy in a partial hospital program. Hosp Pharm. 1983; 18: 543-9,
555.
45. Carter BL, Barnette DJ, Chrischilles E, et al. Evaluation of hypertensive patients after care provided by
community pharmacists in a rural setting. Pharmacotherapy. 1997; 17: 1274-1285.
46. Carter BL, Bergus GR, Dawson JD, et al. A cluster randomized trial to evaluate physician/pharmacist
collaboration to improve blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens. 2008; 10: 260-271.
47. Chamberlain MA, Sageser NA, Ruiz D. Comparison of anticoagulation clinic patient outcomes with outcomes
from traditional care in a family medicine clinic. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001; 14: 16-21.
48. Chenella FC, Klotz TA, Gill Kern JW, et al. Comparison of physician and pharmacist management of
anticoagulant therapy of inpatients. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1983; 40: 1642-1645.
49. Chiquette E, Amato MG, Bussey HI. Comparison of an anticoagulation clinic with usual medical care:
anticoagulation control, patient outcomes, and health care costs. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158: 1641-1647.
50. Chisholm MA, Mulloy LL, Jagadeesan M, et al. Impact of clinical pharmacy services on renal transplant
patients' compliance with immunosuppressive medications. Clin Transplant. 2001; 15: 330-336.
51. Chisholm MA, Mulloy LL, Jagadeesan M, et al. Effect of clinical pharmacy services on the blood pressure of
African-American renal transplant patients. Ethn Dis. 2002; 12: 392-397.
52. Chisholm MA, Spivey CA, Mulloy LL. Effects of a medication assistance program with medication therapy
management on the health of renal transplant recipients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 1506-1512.
33
53. Choe HM, Mitrovich S, Dubay D, et al. Proactive case management of high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes
mellitus by a clinical pharmacist: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Manag Care. 2005; 11: 253-260.
54. Chrischilles EA, Carter BL, Lund BC, et al. Evaluation of the Iowa Medicaid pharmaceutical case management
program. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2004; 44: 337-349.
55. Christensen D, Trygstad T, Sullivan R, et al. A pharmacy management intervention for optimizing drug
therapy for nursing home patients. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2004; 2: 248-256.
56. Christensen DB, Roth M, Trygstad T, et al. Evaluation of a pilot medication therapy management project
within the North Carolina State Health Plan. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2007; 47: 471-483.
57. Cioffi ST, Caron MF, Kalus JS, et al. Glycosylated hemoglobin, cardiovascular, and renal outcomes in a
pharmacist-managed clinic. Ann Pharmacother. 2004; 38: 771-775.
58. Coast-Senior EA, Kroner BA, Kelley CL, et al. Management of patients with type 2 diabetes by pharmacists in
primary care clinics. Ann Pharmacother. 1998; 32: 636-641.
59. Cohen IA, Hutchison TA, Kirking DM, et al. Evaluation of a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic. J
Clin Hosp Pharm. 1985; 10: 167-175.
60. Cohen SS. A pharmacy-based antibiotic UR program. QRB Qual Rev Bull. 1984; 10: 22-25.
61. Collins C, Kramer A, O'Day ME, et al. Evaluation of patient and provider satisfaction with a pharmacistmanaged lipid clinic in a Veterans Affairs medical center. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006; 63: 1723-1727.
62. Cording MA, Engelbrecht-Zadvorny EB, Pettit BJ, et al. Development of a pharmacist-managed lipid clinic.
Ann Pharmacother. 2002; 36: 892-904.
63. Covinsky JO, Hamburger SC, Kelly KL, et al. The impact of the docent clinical pharmacist on treatment of
streptococcal pneumonia. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1982; 16: 587-591.
64. Cranor CW, Bunting BA, Christensen DB. The Asheville Project: long-term clinical and economic outcomes
of a community pharmacy diabetes care program. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2003; 43: 173-184.
65. Cranor CW, Christensen DB. The Asheville Project: short-term outcomes of a community pharmacy diabetes
care program. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2003; 43: 149-159.
66. Currie JD, Chrischilles EA, Kuehl AK, et al. Effect of a training program on community pharmacists' detection
of and intervention in drug-related problems. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1997; NS37: 182-191.
67. Dager WE, Branch JM, King JH, et al. Optimization of inpatient warfarin therapy: impact of daily consultation
by a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation service. Ann Pharmacother. 2000; 34: 567-572.
68. Davidson MB, Karlan VJ, Hair TL. Effect of a pharmacist-managed diabetes care program in a free medical
clinic. Am J Med Qual. 2000; 15: 137-142.
69. Davis S. Evaluation of pharmacist management of streptococcal throat infections in a health maintenance
organization. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1978; 35: 561-566.
70. De Tullio PL, Corson ME. Effect of pharmacist counseling on ambulatory patients' use of aerosolized
bronchodilators. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1987; 44: 1802-1806.
71. Delate T, Chester EA, Stubbings TW, et al. Clinical outcomes of a home-based medication reconciliation
program after discharge from a skilled nursing facility. Pharmacotherapy. 2008; 28: 444-452.
34
72. Destache CJ, Meyer SK, Bittner MJ, et al. Impact of a clinical pharmacokinetic service on patients treated with
aminoglycosides: cost-benefit analysis. Ther Drug Monit. 1990; 12: 419-426.
73. Destache CJ, Meyer SK, Padomek MT, et al. Impact of a clinical pharmacokinetic service on patients treated
with aminoglycosides for gram-negative infections. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1989; 23: 33-38.
74. Destache CJ. Clinical and economic benefits of a clinical pharmacokinetic service: 1987 versus 1992 data. Med
Interface. 1994; 7: 84-6, 89-90.
75. Devlin JW, Holbrook AM, Fuller HD. The effect of ICU sedation guidelines and pharmacist interventions on
clinical outcomes and drug cost. Ann Pharmacother. 1997; 31: 689-695.
76. Dice JE, Burckart GJ, Woo JT, et al. Standardized versus pharmacist-monitored individualized parenteral
nutrition in low-birth-weight infants. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1981; 38: 1487-1489.
77. Dickey FF, Mattar ME, Chudzik GM. Pharmacist counsling increases drug regimen compliance. Hospitals.
1975; 49: 85-6, 88.
78. DiPietro NA, Kier KL. An educational intervention about folic acid and healthy pregnancies targeted at
college-age women. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2001; 41: 283-285.
79. Ditusa L, Luzier AB, Brady PG, et al. A pharmacy-based approach to cholesterol management. Am J Manag
Care. 2001; 7: 973-979.
80. Dobesh PP, Lakamp JE. Educational program to reduce major bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous
coronary interventions and receiving abciximab. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2002; 59: 1539-1542.
81. Dole EJ, Murawski MM, Adolphe AB, et al. Provision of pain management by a pharmacist with prescribing
authority. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 85-89.
82. Dranitsaris G, Spizzirri D, Pitre M, et al. A randomized trial to measure the optimal role of the pharmacist in
promoting evidence-based antibiotic use in acute care hospitals. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2001; 17:
171-180.
83. Dudas V, Bookwalter T, Kerr KM, et al. The impact of follow-up telephone calls to patients after
hospitalization. Am J Med. 2001; 111: 26S-30S.
84. Ellenor GL, Frisk PA. Pharmacist impact on drug use in an institution for the mentally retarded. Am J Hosp
Pharm. 1977; 34: 604-608.
85. Ellis RF, Stephens MA, Sharp GB. Evaluation of a pharmacy-managed warfarin-monitoring service to
coordinate inpatient and outpatient therapy. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1992; 49: 387-394.
86. Ellis SL, Carter BL, Malone DC, et al. Clinical and economic impact of ambulatory care clinical pharmacists
in management of dyslipidemia in older adults: the IMPROVE study. Impact of Managed Pharmaceutical Care
on Resource Utilization and Outcomes in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20:
1508-1516.
87. Engles-Horton LL, Skowronski C, Mostashari F, et al. Clinical guidelines and pharmacist intervention program
for HIV-infected patients requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. Pharmacotherapy. 1999;
19: 356-362.
88. Erickson SR, Slaughter R, Halapy H. Pharmacists' ability to influence outcomes of hypertension therapy.
Pharmacotherapy. 1997; 17: 140-147.
35
89. Ernst ME, Brandt KB. Evaluation of 4 years of clinical pharmacist anticoagulation case management in a rural,
private physician office. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003; 43: 630-636.
90. Erstad BL, Draugalis JR, Waldrop SM, et al. Patients' perceptions of increased pharmacy contact.
Pharmacotherapy. 1994; 14: 724-728.
91. Faulkner MA, Wadibia EC, Lucas BD, et al. Impact of pharmacy counseling on compliance and effectiveness
of combination lipid-lowering therapy in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization: a randomized,
controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 410-416.
92. Fera T, Bluml BM, Ellis WM, et al. The Diabetes Ten City Challenge: interim clinical and humanistic
outcomes of a multisite community pharmacy diabetes care program. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008; 48:
181-190.
93. Fincham JE, Wallace IA. Ticlopidine Compliance Enhancement: A Community Pharmacy Based Study. J
Pharmacoepidemiol. 2000; 8: 51.
94. Finley PR, Rens HR, Pont JT, et al. Impact of a collaborative pharmacy practice model on the treatment of
depression in primary care. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2002; 59: 1518-1526.
95. Finley PR, Rens HR, Pont JT, et al. Impact of a collaborative care model on depression in a primary care
setting: a randomized controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 23: 1175-1185.
96. Fischer LR, Defor TA, Cooper S, et al. Pharmaceutical care and health care utilization in an HMO. Eff Clin
Pract. 2002; 5: 49-57.
97. Fischer LR, Scott LM, Boonstra DM, et al. Pharmaceutical care for patients with chronic conditions. J Am
Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000; 40: 174-180.
98. Gammaitoni AR, Gallagher RM, Welz M, et al. Palliative pharmaceutical care: A randomized, prospective
study of telephone-based prescription and medication and counseling services for treating chronic pain. Pain
Med. 2000; 1: 317-331.
99. Gandhi PJ, Smith BS, Tataronis GR, et al. Impact of a pharmacist on drug costs in a coronary care unit. Am J
Health-Syst Pharm. 2001; 58: 497-503.
100. Garabedian-Ruffalo SM, Gray DR, Sax MJ, et al. Retrospective evaluation of a pharmacist-managed warfarin
anticoagulation clinic. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1985; 42: 304-308.
101. Garnett WR, Davis LJ, McKenney JM, et al. Effect of telephone follow-up on medication compliance. Am J
Hosp Pharm. 1981; 38: 676-679.
102. Garrett DG, Bluml BM. Patient self-management program for diabetes: first-year clinical, humanistic, and
economic outcomes. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2005; 45: 130-137.
103. Garwood CL, Dumo P, Baringhaus SN, et al. Quality of anticoagulation care in patients discharged from a
pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic after stabilization of warfarin therapy. Pharmacotherapy. 2008; 28:
20-26.
104. Gattis WA, Hasselblad V, Whellan DJ, et al. Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical
pharmacist to the heart failure management team: results of the Pharmacist in Heart Failure Assessment
Recommendation and Monitoring (PHARM) Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159: 1939-1945.
105. Geber J, Parra D, Beckey NP, et al. Optimizing drug therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease: the impact
of pharmacist-managed pharmacotherapy clinics in a primary care setting. Pharmacotherapy. 2002; 22: 738747.
36
106. Gentry CA, Greenfield RA, Slater LN, et al. Outcomes of an antimicrobial control program in a teaching
hospital. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2000; 57: 268-274.
107. Giles JT, Kennedy DT, Dunn EC, et al. Results of a community pharmacy-based breast cancer risk-assessment
and education program. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 243-253.
108. Gourley GA, Portner TS, Gourley DR et al. Humanistic outcomes in the hypertension and COPD arms of a
multicenter outcomes study. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1998; 38: 586-597.
109. Grabenstein JD, Guess HA, Hartzema AG, et al. Effect of vaccination by community pharmacists among adult
prescription recipients. Med Care. 2001; 39: 340-348.
110. Grant RW, Devita NG, Singer DE, et al. Improving adherence and reducing medication discrepancies in
patients with diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2003; 37: 962-969.
111. Gray DR, Garabedian-Ruffalo SM, Chretien SD. Cost-justification of a clinical pharmacist-managed
anticoagulation clinic. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1985; 19: 575-580.
112. Gray DR, Namikas EA, Sax MJ, et al. Clinical pharmacists as allied health care providers to psychiatric
patients. Contemp Pharm Pract. 1979; 2: 108-116.
113. Green BB, Cook AJ, Ralston JD, et al. Effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring, Web communication,
and pharmacist care on hypertension control: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008; 299: 2857-2867.
114. Gums JG, Yancey RW, Hamilton CA, et al. Randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after
antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team. Pharmacotherapy. 1999; 19: 1369-1377.
115. Haig GM, Kiser LA. Effect of pharmacist participation on a medical team on costs, charges, and length of stay.
Am J Hosp Pharm. 1991; 48: 1457-1462.
116. Hammarlund ER, Ostrom JR, Kethley AJ. The effects of drug counseling and other educational strategies on
drug utilization of the elderly. Med Care. 1985; 23: 165-170.
117. Hanlon JT, Weinberger M, Samsa GP, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a clinical pharmacist
intervention to improve inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients with polypharmacy. Am J Med. 1996;
100: 428-437.
118. Haumschild MJ, Karfonta TL, Haumschild MS, et al. Clinical and economic outcomes of a fall-focused
pharmaceutical intervention program. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2003; 60: 1029-1032.
119. Hawkins DW, Fiedler FP, Douglas HL, et al. Evaluation of a clinical pharmacist in caring for hypertensive and
diabetic patients. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1979; 36: 1321-1325.
120. Heelon M, Skiest D, Tereso G, et al. Effect of a clinical pharmacist's interventions on duration of antiretroviralrelated errors in hospitalized patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 2064-2068.
121. Hennessy S, Leonard CE, Yang W, et al. Effectiveness of a two-part educational intervention to improve
hypertension control: a cluster-randomized trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26: 1342-1347.
122. Herfindal ET, Bernstein LR, Kishi DT. Impact of clinical pharmacy services on prescribing on a
cardiothoracic/vascular surgical unit. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1985; 19: 440-444.
123. Hilleman DE, Faulkner MA, Monaghan MS. Cost of a pharmacist-directed intervention to increase treatment
of hypercholesterolemia. Pharmacotherapy. 2004; 24: 1077-1083.
37
124. Hoffman L, Enders J, Luo J, et al. Impact of an antidepressant management program on medication adherence.
Am J Manag Care. 2003; 9: 70-80.
125. Horberg MA, Hurley LB, Silverberg MJ, et al. Effect of clinical pharmacists on utilization of and clinical
response to antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007; 44: 531-539.
126. Horn JR, Christensen DB, deBlaquiere PA. Evaluation of a digoxin pharmacokinetic monitoring service in a
community hospital. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1985; 19: 45-52.
127. Horswell RL, Wascom CK, Cerise FP, et al. Diabetes mellitus medication assistance program: relationship of
effectiveness to adherence. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008; 19: 677-686.
128. Humphries TL, Carroll N, Chester EA, et al. Evaluation of an electronic critical drug interaction program
coupled with active pharmacist intervention. Ann Pharmacother. 2007; 41: 1979-1985.
129. Hunter KA, Bryant BG. Pharmacist provided education and counseling for managing pediatric asthma. Patient
Educ Couns. 1994; 24: 127-134.
130. Irons BK, Lenz RJ, Anderson SL, et al. A retrospective cohort analysis of the clinical effectiveness of a
physician-pharmacist collaborative drug therapy management diabetes clinic. Pharmacotherapy. 2002; 22:
1294-1300.
131. Irons BK, Seifert CF, Horton NA. Quality of Care of a Pharmacist-Managed Diabetes Service Compared to
Usual Care in an Indigent Clinic. Diabetes Tech Ther. 2008; 10: 220-226.
132. Isetts BJ, Schondelmeyer SW, Artz MB, et al. Clinical and economic outcomes of medication therapy
management services: the Minnesota experience. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008; 48: 203-11; 3 p following
211.
133. Isetts BJ, Schondelmeyer SW, Heaton AH, et al. Effects of collaborative drug therapy management on patients'
perceptions of care and health-related quality of life. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2006; 2: 129-142.
134. Jaber LA, Halapy H, Fernet M, et al. Evaluation of a pharmaceutical care model on diabetes management. Ann
Pharmacother. 1996; 30: 238-243.
135. Jameson JP, VanNoord GR. Pharmacotherapy consultation on polypharmacy patients in ambulatory care. Ann
Pharmacother. 2001; 35: 835-840.
136. John E, Vavra T, Farris K, et al. Workplace-based cardiovascular risk management by community pharmacists:
impact on blood pressure, lipid levels, and weight. Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26: 1511-1517.
137. Kammer RT. Pharmacist's role in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2004; 61: 15931595.
138. Kaushal R, Bates DW, Abramson EL, et al. Unit-based clinical pharmacists' prevention of serious medication
errors in pediatric inpatients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2008; 65: 1254-1260.
139. Kelly KL, Covinsky JO, Fendler K, et al. Impact of clinical pharmacist activity on intravenous fluid and
medication administration. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1980; 14: 516-520.
140. Kelso TM, Abou-Shala N, Heilker GM, et al. Comprehensive long-term management program for asthma:
effect on outcomes in adult African-Americans. Am J Med Sci. 1996; 311: 272-280.
141. Kelso TM, Self TH, Rumbak MJ, et al. Educational and long-term therapeutic intervention in the ED: effect on
outcomes in adult indigent minority asthmatics. Am J Emerg Med. 1995; 13: 632-637.
38
142. Kershaw B, White RH, Mungall D, et al. Computer-assisted dosing of heparin. Management with a pharmacybased anticoagulation service. Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 1005-1011.
143. Kicklighter CE, Nelson KM, Humphries TL, et al. An Evaluation of a Clinical Pharmacy-Directed Intervention
on Blood Pressure Control. Pharm Pract. 2006; 4: 110-116.
144. Kiel PJ, McCord AD. Pharmacist impact on clinical outcomes in a diabetes disease management program via
collaborative practice. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39: 1828-1832.
145. Knoell DL, Pierson JF, Marsh CB, et al. Measurement of outcomes in adults receiving pharmaceutical care in a
comprehensive asthma outpatient clinic. Pharmacotherapy. 1998; 18: 1365-1374.
146. Knowlton CH, Knapp DA. Community pharmacists help HMO cut drug costs. Am Pharm. 1994; NS34: 36-42.
147. Konzem SL, Gray DR, Kashyap ML. Effect of pharmaceutical care on optimum colestipol treatment in elderly
hypercholesterolemic veterans. Pharmacotherapy. 1997; 17: 576-583.
148. Kotapati S, Kuti JL, Nicolau DP. Role of a clinical pharmacist on drotrecogin alfa (activated) outcomes in a
large community teaching hospital. J Infect Dis Pharmacother. 2003; 6: 55-68.
149. Kradjan WA, Schulz R, Christensen DB, et al. Patients' perceived benefit from and satisfaction with asthmarelated pharmacy services. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1999; 39: 658-666.
150. Kucukarslan SN, Peters M, Mlynarek M, et al. Pharmacists on rounding teams reduce preventable adverse drug
events in hospital general medicine units. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 2014-2018.
151. Kuti JL, Le TN, Nightingale CH, et al. Pharmacoeconomics of a pharmacist-managed program for
automatically converting levofloxacin route from i.v. to oral. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2002; 59: 2209-2215.
152. Lai LL. Community pharmacy-based hypertension disease-management program in a Latino/HispanicAmerican population. Consult Pharm. 2007; 22: 411-416.
153. Lam AY. Assessing medication consultations, hypertension control, awareness, and treatment among elderly
Asian community dwellers. Consult Pharm. 2008; 23: 795-803.
154. Law AV, Shapiro K. Impact of a community pharmacist-directed clinic in improving screening and awareness
of osteoporosis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2005; 11: 247-255.
155. Leal S, Glover JJ, Herrier RN, et al. Improving quality of care in diabetes through a comprehensive
pharmacist-based disease management program. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 2983-2984.
156. Leape LL, Cullen DJ, Clapp MD et al. Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in
the intensive care unit. JAMA. 1999; 282: 267-270.
157. Lee JK, Grace KA, Taylor AJ. Effect of a pharmacy care program on medication adherence and persistence,
blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006; 296: 25632571.
158. Lee YP, Schommer JC. Effect of a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic on warfarin-related hospital
readmissions. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1996; 53: 1580-1583.
159. Lefante Jr JJ, Harmon GN, Roy W, et al. The Effect of Medication Reviews in a Rural Community Pharmacy
Assistance Program: The Cenla Medication Access Program. J Pharm Pract. 2005; 18: 486.
160. Lewis KP, Cooper JW Jr, McKercher PL. Pharmacist's effect on digoxin usage and toxicity. Am J Hosp
Pharm. 1976; 33: 1272-1276.
39
161. Libby EA, Laub JJ. Economic and clinical impact of a pharmacy-based antihypertensive replacement program
in primary care. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1997; 54: 2079-2083.
162. Lipton HL, Bird JA. The impact of clinical pharmacists' consultations on geriatric patients' compliance and
medical care use: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontologist. 1994; 34: 307-315.
163. Lloyd KB, Thrower MR, Walters NB, et al. Implementation of a weight management pharmaceutical care
service. Ann Pharmacother. 2007; 41: 185-192.
164. Locke C, Ravnan SL, Patel R, et al. Reduction in warfarin adverse events requiring patient hospitalization after
implementation of a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation service. Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 25: 685-689.
165. Lucas KS. Outcomes evaluation of a pharmacist discharge medication teaching service. Am J Health-Syst
Pharm. 1998; 55: S32-5.
166. Madden Jr EE. Evaluation of outpatient pharmacy patient counseling. J Am Pharm Assoc. 1973; 13: 437-443.
167. Malone DC, Carter BL, Billups SJ, et al. Can clinical pharmacists affect SF-36 scores in veterans at high risk
for medication-related problems? Med Care. 2001; 39: 113-122.
168. Malone M, Alger-Mayer SA, Anderson DA. The lifestyle challenge program: a multidisciplinary approach to
weight management. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39: 2015-2020.
169. Malone M, Alger-Mayer SA. Pharmacist intervention enhances adherence to orlistat therapy. Ann
Pharmacother. 2003; 37: 1598-1602.
170. Mamdani MM, Racine E, McCreadie S, et al. Clinical and economic effectiveness of an inpatient
anticoagulation service. Pharmacotherapy. 1999; 19: 1064-1074.
171. March K, Mak M, Louie SG. Effects of pharmacists' interventions on patient outcomes in an HIV primary care
clinic. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 64: 2574-2578.
172. Marshall J, Finn CA, Theodore AC. Impact of a clinical pharmacist-enforced intensive care unit sedation
protocol on duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay. Crit Care Med. 2008; 36: 427-433.
173. Mason JD, Colley CA. Effectiveness of an ambulatory care clinical pharmacist: a controlled trial. Ann
Pharmacother. 1993; 27: 555-559.
174. Mattar ME, Markello J, Yaffe SJ. Pharmaceutic factors affecting pediatric compliance. Pediatrics. 1975; 55:
101-108.
175. Mazzolini TA, Irons BK, Schell EC, et al. Lipid levels and use of lipid-lowering drugs for patients in
pharmacist-managed lipid clinics versus usual care in 2 VA Medical Centers. Am J Manag Care. 2005; 11:
763-771.
176. McConnell KJ, Zadvorny EB, Hardy AM, et al. Coronary artery disease and hypertension: outcomes of a
pharmacist-managed blood pressure program. Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26: 1333-1341.
177. McCord AD. Clinical impact of a pharmacist-managed diabetes mellitus drug therapy management service.
Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26: 248-253.
178. McGhan WF, Stimmel GL, Hall TG, et al. A comparison of pharmacists and physicians on the quality of
prescribing for ambulatory hypertensive patients. Med Care. 1983; 21: 435-444.
40
179. McKenney JM, Wasserman AJ. Effect of advanced pharmaceutical services on the incidence of adverse drug
reactions. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1979; 36: 1691-1697.
180. McKenney JM, Witherspoon JM. The impact of outpatient hospital pharmacists on patients receiving
antihypertensive and anticoagulant therapy. Hosp Pharm. 1985; 20: 406, 409-11, 415.
181. McKenney JM, Slining JM, Henderson HR, Devins D, Barr M. The effect of clinical pharmacy services on
patients with essential hypertension. Circulation. 1973; 48: 1104-1111.
182. McMullin ST, Hennenfent JA, Ritchie DJ, et al. A prospective, randomized trial to assess the cost impact of
pharmacist-initiated interventions. Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159: 2306-2309.
183. Mead RA, McGhan WF. Use of histamine2-receptor blocking agents and sucralfate in a health maintenance
organization following continued clinical pharmacist intervention. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1988; 22: 466-469.
184. Mehos BM, Saseen JJ, MacLaughlin EJ. Effect of pharmacist intervention and initiation of home blood
pressure monitoring in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 1384-1389.
185. Modi BP, Langer M,Ching YA, et al. Improved survival in a multidisciplinary short bowel syndrome program.
J Pediatr Surg. 2008; 43: 20-24.
186. Monson R, Bond CA, Schuna A. Role of the clinical pharmacist in improving drug therapy. Clinical
pharmacists in outpatient therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1981; 141: 1441-1444.
187. Morello CM, Zadvorny EB, Cording MA, et al. Development and clinical outcomes of pharmacist-managed
diabetes care clinics. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006; 63: 1325-1331.
188. Morse GD, Douglas JB, Upton JH, et al. Effect of pharmacist intervention on control of resistant hypertension.
Am J Hosp Pharm. 1986; 43: 905-909.
189. Murray MD, Young J, Hoke S, et al. Pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence in heart failure:
a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007; 146: 714-725.
190. Mutchie KD, Smith KA, MacKay MW, et al. Pharmacist monitoring of parenteral nutrition: clinical and cost
effectiveness. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1979; 36: 785-787.
191. Nahata MC. Paediatric drug therapy. II--Drug administration errors. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1988; 13: 399-402.
192. Nau DP, Pacholski AM. Impact of pharmacy care services on patients' perceptions of health care quality for
diabetes. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2007; 47: 358-365.
193. Neel AB, Pittman JC, Marasco RA, et al. Psychoactive drug use in Georgia nursing homes: effects of
aggressive intervention. Consult Pharm. 1993; 8: 245-248.
194. Ng TM, Bell AM, Hong C, et al. Pharmacist monitoring of QTc interval-prolonging medications in critically ill
medical patients: a pilot study. Ann Pharmacother. 2008; 42: 475-482.
195. Nicholas A, Divine H, Nowak-Rapp M, et al. University and college of pharmacy collaboration to control
health plan prescription drug costs. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2007; 47: 86-92.
196. Nietert PJ, Tilley BC, Zhao W, et al. Two pharmacy interventions to improve refill persistence for chronic
disease medications: a randomized, controlled trial. Med Care. 2009; 47: 32-40.
197. Nkansah NT, Brewer JM, Connors R, et al. Clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus receiving
medication management by pharmacists in an urban private physician practice. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2008;
65: 145-149.
41
198. Nola KM, Gourley DR, Portner TS, et al. Clinical and humanistic outcomes of a lipid management program in
the community pharmacy setting. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000; 40: 166-173.
199. Nykamp D, Ruggles D. Impact of an indigent care program on use of resources: experiences at one hospital.
Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 217-220.
200. Odegard PS, Goo A, Hummel J, et al. Caring for poorly controlled diabetes mellitus: a randomized pharmacist
intervention. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39: 433-440.
201. Odegard PS, Lam A, Chun A, et al. Pharmacist provision of language-appropriate education for Asian patients
with asthma. J Am Pharm Assoc (2004). 2004; 44: 472-477.
202. O'Dell KM, Kucukarslan SN. Impact of the clinical pharmacist on readmission in patients with acute coronary
syndrome. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39: 1423-1427.
203. Ogbuokiri JE. Self-monitoring of blood pressures in hypertensive subjects and its effects on patient
compliance. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1980; 14: 424-427.
204. Okamoto MP, Nakahiro RK. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of a pharmacist-managed hypertension clinic.
Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 1337-1344.
205. Olson KL, Rasmussen J, Sandhoff BG, et al. Clinical Pharmacy Cardiac Risk Service Study Group Lipid
management in patients with coronary artery disease by a clinical pharmacy service in a group model health
maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 49-54.
206. Park JJ, Kelly P, Carter BL, et al. Comprehensive pharmaceutical care in the chain setting. J Am Pharm Assoc
(Wash). 1996; NS36: 443-451.
207. Parra D, Beckey NP, Korman L. Retrospective Evaluation of the Conversion of Amlodipine to Alternative
Calcium Channel Blockers. Pharmacotherapy. 2000; 20: 1072-1078.
208. Pauley TR, Magee MJ, Cury JD. Pharmacist-managed, physician-directed asthma management program
reduces emergency department visits. Ann Pharmacother. 1995; 29: 5-9.
209. Pawloski SJ, Kersh PL. Therapeutic heparin monitoring service in a small community hospital. Hosp Pharm.
1992; 27: 703-6, 723.
210. Pell LJ, Martin BS, Shirk MB. Epoetin alfa protocol and multidisciplinary blood-conservation program for
critically ill patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2005; 62: 400-405.
211. Pelletier RD. Self-medication promotes patient independence in rehabilitative setting. Hosp Pharm. 1983; 18:
86-8, 96.
212. Pineros SL, Sales AE, Li YF, et al. Improving Care to Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease: Experiences in a
Single Network of the Veterans Health Administration. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. 2004; 1: 3340.
213. Poon IO, Lal L, Brown EN, et al. The impact of pharmacist-managed oral anticoagulation therapy in older
veterans. J Clin Hosp Pharm. 2007; 32: 21-29.
214. Powell MF, Burkhart VD, Lamy PP. Diabetic patient compliance as a function of patient counseling. Ann
Pharmacother. 2006; 40: 747-752.
215. Powers DA, Hamilton CW, Roberts KB. Pharmacist intervention in methadone administration to cancer
patients with chronic pain. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1983; 40: 1520-1523.
42
216. Quercia RA, Abrahams R, White CM, et al. Cost avoidance and clinical benefits derived from a pharmacy
managed anemia program. Hosp Pharm. 2001; 36: 169-175.
217. Raebel MA, Carroll NM, Kelleher JA, et al. Randomized trial to improve prescribing safety during pregnancy.
J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007; 14: 440-450.
218. Ragucci KR, Fermo JD, Wessell AM, et al. Effectiveness of pharmacist-administered diabetes mellitus
education and management services. Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 25: 1809-1816.
219. Rainville EC. Impact of pharmacist interventions on hospital readmissions for heart failure. Am J Health-Syst
Pharm. 1999; 56: 1339-1342.
220. Rathbun RC, Farmer KC, Stephens JR, et al. Impact of an adherence clinic on behavioral outcomes and
virologic response in treatment of HIV infection: a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study. Clin Ther.
2005; 27: 199-209.
221. Rehring TF, Stolcpart RS, Sandhoff BG, et al. Effect of a clinical pharmacy service on lipid control in patients
with peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2006; 43: 1205-1210.
222. Rickles NM, Svarstad BL, Statz-Paynter JL, et al. Improving patient feedback about and outcomes with
antidepressant treatment: a study in eight community pharmacies. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006; 46: 25-32.
223. Rivey MP, Peterson JP. Pharmacy-managed, weight-based heparin protocol. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1993; 50: 279284.
224. Rivey MP, Wood RD, Allington DR, et al. Pharmacy-managed protocol for warfarin use in orthopedic surgery
patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1995; 52: 1310-1316.
225. Roberts RJ, Robinson JD, Doering PL, et al. A comparison of various types of patient instruction in the proper
administration of metered inhalers. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1982; 16: 53-5, 59.
226. Rodis JL, Green CG, Cook SC, et al. Effects of a pharmacist-initiated educational intervention on patient
knowledge about the appropriate use of antibiotics. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2004; 61: 1385-1389.
227. Rojas-Fernandez CH, Eng M, Allie ND. Pharmacologic management by clinical pharmacists of behavioral and
psychological symptoms of dementia in nursing home residents: results from a pilot study. Pharmacotherapy.
2003; 23: 217-221.
228. Rosen CE, Copp WM, Holmes S. Effectiveness of a specially trained pharmacist in a rural community mental
health center. Public Health Rep. 1978; 93: 464-467.
229. Rosen CE, Copp WM, Holmes S. The psychiatric pharmacist in community mental health. Can J Public
Health. 1978; 69: 139-142.
230. Rosen CE, Holmes S. Pharmacist's impact on chronic psychiatric outpatients in community mental health. Am
J Hosp Pharm. 1978; 35: 704-708.
231. Rothman R, Malone R, Bryant B, et al. Pharmacist-led, primary care-based disease management improves
hemoglobin A1c in high-risk patients with diabetes. Am J Med Qual. 2003; 18: 51-58.
232. Rothman R, Malone R, Bryant B, et al. The relationship between literacy and glycemic control in a diabetes
disease-management program. Diabetes Educ. 2004; 30: 263-273.
43
233. Rothman RL, Malone R, Bryant B, et al. A randomized trial of a primary care-based disease management
program to improve cardiovascular risk factors and glycated hemoglobin levels in patients with diabetes. Am J
Med. 2005; 118: 276-284.
234. Rupp MT, McCallian DJ, Sheth KK. Developing and marketing a community pharmacy-based asthma
management program. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1997; NS37: 694-699.
235. Saklad SR, Ereshefsky L, Jann MW, et al. Clinical pharmacists' impact on prescribing in an acute adult
psychiatric facility. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1984; 18: 632-634.
236. Sauvageot J, Kirkpatrick MA, Spray JW. Pharmacist-implemented pharmaceutical manufacturers' assistance
programs: effects on health outcomes for seniors. Consult Pharm. 2008; 23: 809-812.
237. Schneider PJ, Larrimer JN, Visconti JA, et al. Role effectiveness of a pharmacist in the maintenance of patients
with hypertension and congestive heart failure. Contemp Pharm Pract. 1982; 5: 74-79.
238. Schneider PJ, Murphy JE, Pedersen CA. Impact of medication packaging on adherence and treatment
outcomes in older ambulatory patients. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008; 48: 58-63.
239. Schnipper JL, Kirwin JL, Cotugno MC, et al. Role of pharmacist counseling in preventing adverse drug events
after hospitalization. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 565-571.
240. Schommer JC, Byers SR, Pape LL, et al. Interdisciplinary medication education in a church environment. Am J
Health-Syst Pharm. 2002; 59: 423-428.
241. Scott DM, Boyd ST, Stephan M, et al. Outcomes of pharmacist-managed diabetes care services in a
community health center. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006; 63: 2116-2122.
242. Sczupak CA, Conrad WF. Relationship between patient oriented pharmaceutical services and therapeutic
outcomes of ambulatory patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1977; 34: 1238-1242.
243. Secnik K, Pathak DS, Cohen JM. Postcard and telephone reminders for unclaimed prescriptions: a comparative
evaluation using survival analysis. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000; 40: 243-51; quiz 330-1.
244. Self TH, Brooks JB, Lieberman P, et al. The value of demonstration and role of the pharmacist in teaching the
correct use of pressurized bronchodilators. Can Med Assoc J. 1983; 128: 129-131.
245. Shah NR, Emont AJ, Johnson VP. Total quality management in action: pharmacy system changes to decrease
medication incidents and increase clinical services. Hosp Pharm. 1994; 29: 676, 679-80.
246. Shane-McWhorter L, Oderda GM. Providing Diabetes Education and Care to Underserved Patients in a
Collaborative Practice at a Utah Community Health Center. Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 25: 96-109.
247. Shaughnessy AF, D'Amico F. Long-term experience with a program to improve prescription-writing skills.
Fam Med. 1994; 26: 168-171.
248. Shibley MC, Pugh CB. Implementation of pharmaceutical care services for patients with hyperlipidemias by
independent community pharmacy practitioners. Ann Pharmacother. 1997; 31: 713-719.
249. Simkins CV, Wenzloff NJ. Evaluation of a computerized reminder system in the enhancement of patient
medication refill compliance. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1986; 20: 799-802.
250. Skoutakis VA, Acchiardo SR, Martinez DR, et al. Role-effectiveness of the pharmacist in the treatment of
hemodialysis patients. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1978; 35: 62-65.
44
251. Smith SR, Catellier DJ, Conlisk EA, et al. Effect on health outcomes of a community-based medication
therapy management program for seniors with limited incomes. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006; 63: 372-379.
252. Smythe MA, Shah PP, Spiteri TL, et al. Pharmaceutical care in medical progressive care patients. Ann
Pharmacother. 1998; 32: 294-299.
253. SoflinD, Young WW, Clayton BD. Development and evaluation of an individualized patient education
program about digoxin. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1977; 34: 367-371.
254. Solomon DK, Portner TS, Bass GE, et al. Clinical and economic outcomes in the hypertension and COPD arms
of a multicenter outcomes study. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1998; 38: 574-585.
255. Stergachis A, Gardner JS, Anderson MT, et al. Improving pediatric asthma outcomes in the community setting:
does pharmaceutical care make a difference? J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2002; 42: 743-752.
256. Sterne SC, Gundersen BP, Shrivastava D. Development and evaluation of a pharmacist-managed asthma
education clinic. Hosp Pharm. 1999; 34: 699-706.
257. Stiegler KA, Yunker NS, Crouch MA. Effect of pharmacist counseling in patients hospitalized with acute
exacerbation of asthma. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2003; 60: 473-476.
258. Straka RJ, Taheri R, Cooper SL, et al. Achieving cholesterol target in a managed care organization (ACTION)
trial. Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 25: 360-371.
259. Streetman DS, Nafziger AN, Destache CJ, et al. Individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring results in less
aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity and fewer associated costs. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 443-451.
260. Stroup JS, Rivers SM, Abu-Baker AM, et al. Two-year changes in bone mineral density and T scores in
patients treated at a pharmacist-run teriparatide clinic. Pharmacotherapy. 2007; 27: 779-788.
261. Swain JH, Macklin R. Individualized diabetes care in a rural community pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc
(Wash). 2001; 41: 458-461.
262. Tallahassee F. Advantages of a pharmacist-led diabetes education program. US Pharm. 2005; 11: 52-61.
263. Taveira TH, Wu WC, Martin OJ, et al. Pharmacist-led cardiac risk reduction model. Prev Cardiol. 2006; 9:
202-208.
264. Taylor AJ, Grace K, Swiecki J, et al. Lipid-lowering efficacy, safety, and costs of a large-scale therapeutic
statin formulary conversion program. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 1130-1139.
265. Taylor CT, Byrd DC, Krueger K. Improving primary care in rural Alabama with a pharmacy initiative. Am J
Health-Syst Pharm. 2003; 60: 1123-1129.
266. Terceros Y, Chahine-Chakhtoura C, Malinowski JE, et al. Impact of a pharmacy resident on hospital length of
stay and drug-related costs. Ann Pharmacother. 2007; 41: 742-748.
267. Thompson JF, McGhan WF, Ruffalo RL, et al. Clinical pharmacists prescribing drug therapy in a geriatric
setting: outcome of a trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1984; 32: 154-159.
268. Till LT, Voris JC, Horst JB. Assessment of clinical pharmacist management of lipid-lowering therapy in a
primary care setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003; 9: 269-273.
269. To LL, Stoner CP, Stolley SN, et al. Effectiveness of a pharmacist-implemented anemia management protocol
in an outpatient hemodialysis unit. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2001; 58: 2061-2065.
45
270. Trygstad TK, Christensen D, Garmise J, et al. Pharmacist response to alerts generated from medicaid pharmacy
claims in a long-term care setting: Results from the North Carolina polypharmacy initiative. J Manag Care
Pharm. 2005; 11: 575-583.
271. Tsai AE, Cooper Jr. JW, McCall CY. Pharmacist impact on hematopoietic and vitamin therapy in a geriatric
long-term care facility. Hosp Formul. 1982; 17: 225-226.
272. Van Amburgh JA, Waite NM, Hobson EH, et al. Improved influenza vaccination rates in a rural population as
a result of a pharmacist-managed immunization campaign. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 1115-1122.
273. Van Veldhuizen-Scott MK, Widmer LB, Stacey SA, et al. Developing and implementing a pharmaceutical care
model in an ambulatory care setting for patients with diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 1995; 21: 117-123.
274. Vernon DD, Furnival RA, Hansen KW, et al. Effect of a pediatric trauma response team on emergency
department treatment time and mortality of pediatric trauma victims. Pediatrics. 1999; 103: 20-24.
275. Viola RA, Abbott KC, Welch PG, et al. A multidisciplinary program for achieving lipid goals in chronic
hemodialysis patients. BMC Nephrol. 2002; 3: 9.
276. Vivian EM. Improving blood pressure control in a pharmacist-managed hypertension clinic. Pharmacotherapy.
2002; 22: 1533-1540.
277. Voirol P, Kayser SR, Chang CY, et al. Impact of pharmacists' interventions on the pediatric discharge
medication process. Ann Pharmacother. 2004; 38: 1597-1602.
278. Walton T, Holloway KP, Knauss MD. Pharmacist-managed anemia program in an outpatient hemodialysis
population. Hosp Pharm. 2005; 40: 1051-1056.
279. Weinberger M, Murray MD, Marrero DG, et al. Effectiveness of pharmacist care for patients with reactive
airways disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002; 288: 1594-1602.
280. Weiner BK, Venarske J, Yu M, et al. Towards the reduction of medication errors in orthopedics and spinal
surgery: outcomes using a pharmacist-led approach. Spine. 2008; 33: 104-107.
281. Welty TE, Copa AK. Impact of vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring on patient care. Ann Pharmacother.
1994; 28: 1335-1339.
282. West D, Blevins MA, Brech D, et al. A multidisciplinary approach in a community pharmacy can improve
outcomes for diabetes patients. Diabetes Educ. 2003; 29: 962-968.
283. Williamson DH, Cooper Jr. JW, Kotzan JA, et al. Consultant pharmacist impact on antihypertensive therapy in
a geriatric long-term care facility. Hosp Formul. 1984; 19: 123-128.
284. Williford SL, Johnson DF. Impact of pharmacist counseling on medication knowledge and compliance. Mil
Med. 1995; 160: 561-564.
285. Wilt VM, Gums JG, Ahmed OI, et al. Outcome analysis of a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation service.
Pharmacotherapy. 1995; 15: 732-739.
286. Winterbottom LM, Fong AM, Benkstein KL, et al. Impact of a clinical pharmacy consult service on guideline
adherence and management of gabapentin for neuropathic pain. J Manag Care Pharm. 2006; 12: 61-69.
287. Witt DM, Humphries TL. A retrospective evaluation of the management of excessive anticoagulation in an
established clinical pharmacy anticoagulation service compared to traditional care. J Thromb Thrombolysis.
2003; 15: 113-118.
46
288. Witt DM, Sadler MA, Shanahan RL, et al. Effect of a centralized clinical pharmacy anticoagulation service on
the outcomes of anticoagulation therapy. Chest. 2005; 127: 1515-1522.
289. Woroniecki CL, McKercher PL, Flagler DG, et al. Effect of pharmacist counseling on drug information recall.
Am J Hosp Pharm. 1982; 39: 1907-1910.
290. Yam FK, Akers WS, Ferraris VA, et al. Interventions to improve guideline compliance following coronary
artery bypass grafting. Surgery. 2006; 140: 541-7; discussion 547-52.
291. Yamada C, Johnson JA, Robertson P, et al. Long-term impact of a community pharmacist intervention on
cholesterol levels in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events: extended follow-up of the second study of
cardiovascular risk intervention by pharmacists (SCRIP-plus). Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 25: 110-115.
292. Yanchick JK. Implementation of a drug therapy monitoring clinic in a primary-care setting. Am J Health-Syst
Pharm. 2000; 57 Suppl 4: S30-4.
293. Yanchick JK. Pharmacist-managed hypertension therapy conversion. Mil Med. 2001; 166: 866-870.
294. Yuan Y, Hay JW, McCombs JS. Effects of ambulatory-care pharmacist consultation on mortality and
hospitalization. Am J Manag Care. 2003; 9: 45-56.
295. Zeolla MM, Cerulli J. Assessment of the effects of a community pharmacy women's health education program
on Management of Menopause survey scores. J Manag Care Pharm. 2004; 10: 442-448.
296. Zillich AJ, Carter BL, Ernst ME, et al. Effect of a telephone medication renewal service on blood pressure
control. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2003; 43: 561-565.
297. Zillich AJ, Ryan M, Adams A, et al. Effectiveness of a pharmacist-based smoking-cessation program and its
impact on quality of life. Pharmacotherapy. 2002; 22: 759-765.
298. Zillich AJ, Sutherland JM, Kumbera PA, et al. Hypertension outcomes through blood pressure monitoring and
evaluation by pharmacists (HOME study). J Gen Intern Med. 2005; 20: 1091-1096.
Download
Related flashcards

Security

27 cards

Orthopedics

21 cards

Traumatology

37 cards

History of medicine

34 cards

Pulmonology

33 cards

Create Flashcards