Oil Spill Response and Preparedness-eng

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TECHNICAL GUIDELINE
Number )1(
Oil Spill Preparedness and Response
April – 1122
‫ إدارة البيــــئة‬-‫قسم البيئة البحرية والحياة الفطرية‬
Marine Environment & Wildlife Section
Environment Department
Prevention and Control against Oil Pollution
I. Background: Oil Spills can arise from a number of different sources
ranging from oil loading, unloading or pipeline operation, and from a collision
or grounding of vessels carrying crude oil and product in local ports or coastal
waters. They can also arise from tankers or barges operating on inland
waterways, or from exploration and production operation and tankers
operating in international waters. There are also other non operational
sources such as urban runoff and natural seepage.
Without a doubt the most crucial aspect of dealing with any emergency is to
be prepared. However unlike most emergencies that occur with little warnings
but are over in a relatively short period of time, an oil spill incident can also
occur with little warning but may extend for weeks, months or even years.
Therefore planning for oil spills must not only look at the immediate tactical
response and managing the immediate aftermath but must be prepared to
cater for a much lengthier tactical response and must have a more strategic
view with regards to an aftermath that may extend for years.
II. Introduction: Planning for an oil spill emergency helps minimized potential
danger to human health and the environment by ensuring a timely and
coordinated response. Well designed local, regional and national contingency
plans can assist response personnel in their efforts to contain and clean up oil
spill by providing information that the response team will need before, during
and after spills, occur.
Developing and exercising the plan provides opportunities for the response
community to work together as a team and develop the interpersonal
relationship that can mean so much to the smooth functioning of a response.
Because the approached and methods for responding to oil spills are
constantly evolving and each oil spill provides an opportunity to learn how to
better prepare for future incidents , contingency plans are also constantly
evolving and improving – ensuring increased protection for human health and
environment from these accidents.
III. Source of Oil Pollution
How does petroleum (oil products) become a pollutant in the coastal and
marine environment?
Accidental or deliberate, operational discharges and spills of oil from ships,
especially tankers, offshore platforms and pipelines, is the most obvious and
visible cause of oil pollution of the marine environment.
Technical Guideline Number 1 - Oil Spill Preparedness and Response
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However, oils enter the ocean from the variety of sources, and both natural
sources and land based sources account for a large part of the total annual
input to the marine environment as oil pollution.
Fig.1 drawn from data
contained in National
Research Council (2003),
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs,
Fates and Effects.
other
(atmospheric
deposition and
jettisoned aircraf t f uel)
5%
consumption
activities
natural seeps
47%
(land-based runof f ,non-tanker
operational releases
and spills)
33%
extraction
(plaf orms and
produces w aters)
3%
IV. Guidelines:
tanker spills
8%
trasportation
(cargo w ashing,
coastal f acility and
pipeline spills)
4%
1. Following Entities are required to develop and maintain oil spill
response plan capable to handle Tier 1 or 2 spills ( see definition at
part VIII ) emanating from their operations and be submitted to Marine
Environment and Wildlife Section for approval;
a) Oil exploration and production activities
b) Shipyards
c) Oil refineries, terminals and depot
d) Port, harbors and marinas
e) Manufacturing plants and other establishment using persistent
oil
2. Ships / Vessels are required to develop and maintain on board a
Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP).
3. Response plans must clearly indicate the reporting requirements and
must assigned responsibilities for reporting pollution incident. The
contact details and requirements for reporting spills must also be
displayed throughout the site in accordance with Part VII.
4. Companies must maintain oil spill equipment capable of addressing
spills from their facilities/vessels including port, harbors and marinas.
5. The response plan must list any critical environmental resources within
the likely impact areas and the means to protect them.
6. The response plan must list the inventory of all equipment to be
maintained at the site and who is responsible for its maintenance.
7. Enough number of trained personnel to mount effective oil spill
response operation.
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V. Reporting Oil Spill:
a. Under the Federal Law 24 of 1999, the owner, captain or any person in
charge of the marine means of transportation, the persons responsible
for the transportation of oil located within seaports or the marine
environment of the United Arab Emirates and the officials of parties
involved in oil extraction are required to report immediately any oil
spillage incident to the following Authorities.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Dubai Municipality – see details below
Ministry of Environment & Water – 800 9990 (24/7)
UAE Coastguard 4th Squadron – Tel. no. 04 3450520
Dubai Police - Operation Center – Tel. no. 04 2694848 / 999
DP World – Control room – Tel. no. 04 8835251
MARINE ENVIROMENT & WILDLIFE SECTION
DUBAI MUNICIPALITY
Sunday – Thursday
Office hours between 07:30 – 14:30
Contact numbers (04) 606 6815 / 6818 / 6821 / 6822
Emergency
hotline
223 2323Oil
/ 800
b. Basic Information
Needed
in reporting
Spill900
i. Location of the spill (by latitude and longitude if possible );
ii. Nature of the spill (oil type etc);
iii. Approximate quantity of pollutant;
iv. Source of the spill;
v. Weather , sea state, and tidal conditions in the area;
vi. Initial actions taken; and
vii. Identification of the reporter (name, contact number etc).
c. Within 24 hours of the incident, Oil Spill Report form (see Annex
1) must be faxed to MEWS office, Fax No. 04 7033532 or by email
to [email protected] and [email protected]
VI. Objective: To provide guidelines and model of a timely and coordinated
response mechanism for the containment and recovery of oil spill using the
combined resources of the government and private stakeholders. It is hope
that with the application of this, the impact and damages on the marine
environment caused by an oil spill will be very much minimized if not totally
avoided.
VII. Legal Basis
A. International Conventions
Table 1 shows list of international conventions in which United Arab Emirates
is a signatory since joining the International Maritime Organization on 1980.
Technical Guideline Number 1 - Oil Spill Preparedness and Response
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Table 1: International Conventions
Convention
Objective
 CLC PROT 1992 / Protocol of  This convention provides for compensation
1992 to amend International
for damaged, or response cost incurred,
Convention on Civil Liability for
due to spills of persistent oils within a
Oil Pollution Damaged,1969
member nation’s territorial sea or EEZ.
Claims are made against the vessel owner
and insurers.
 CLC is based on the principle of “strict
liability”, i.e., the vessel which spilled the oil
will pay regardless of fault
 OPRC
1990,
International  This convention makes provision for
Convention on Oil Pollution
contingency plans for ships, offshore
Prevention,
Response
and
platforms, coastal terminals and ports, and
Cooperation
for the development of national response
plan
 Its also encourages the development of
international
cooperation
in
spill
preparedness and response
 MARPOL 73/78, International  It sets out a wide range of procedures and
Convention for the Protection of
ships design and operating requirements
Pollution from Ships 1973 as
aimed at reducing pollution of the sea from
modified by the Protocol 1978
ships
 Annex 1 deals with oil pollution
 London
Convention
1972,  This convention regulates the discharge of
Convention on the Prevention
waste, including oily waste, at sea
of Marine Pollution by Dumping
of Waste and other Matter, 1972,
as amended
 Intervention 1969, International  This Convention affirms the right of a
Convention relating to the
coastal State to take such measure on the
intervention on the high seas in
high seas as may be necessary to prevent,
cases of oil pollution casualties,
mitigate, or eliminate danger to its coastline
1969
or related interest from pollution by oil or the
threat thereof, following a maritime
casualty.
B. Regional Conventions / Protocols
Kuwait Regional Convention for Co – operation on the Protection of
the Marine Environment from Pollution / Kuwait Convention 1978,
 Aims to provide protection of the marine environment from all sources of
pollution and to promote regional cooperation in marine environmental
protection and emergency response management.
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 Established the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine
Environment (ROPME) which developed protocols addressing the
critical areas of environmental management. Table 2 shows list of
protocols:
Table 2 shows list of regional protocols that United Arab Emirates has ratified.
Table 2: Regional Protocols
Protocol
 Protocol
concerning Marine
Pollution
resulting
from
Exploration and Exploitation of
the Continental Shelf (1999)
 Protocol for the Protection of the
Marine Environment against
Pollution
from
Land-Based
Sources (1990)
 Protocol
concerning Regional
Co-operation
in
Combating
Pollution by Oil and Other
Harmful Substances in Cases of
Emergency (1978)
Objective
 To take all appropriate measures to
prevent, abate and combat pollution in the
Sea Area resulting from exploration and
exploitation of the bed of the territorial sea
and its sub-soil and the continental shelf.
 To take all appropriate measures to
prevent, abate and combat pollution by
discharges from land reaching the Sea
Area whether water-borne, air-borne, or
directly from the coast including outfalls and
pipelines.
 Is to provide cooperative and effective
preventive and response measures to deal
with marine emergencies caused by oil and
other harmful substances.
C. Federal Laws
a. Federal Law No. 24 of 1999, on the Protection and Development
of the Environment. Chapter 2 of this law deals with the protection of
marine environment and it's living and non – living natural resources
including coast, beach and seaports by prevention, reduction and
control from all kinds and forms of pollution regardless of its source.
b. Federal Law No. 23 of 1999, concerning Exploitation, Protection
and Development of living Aquatic Resources in the State of the
United Arab Emirates.
D. Local Orders
a. Local Order No. 61 of 1991, Environment Protection Regulations
in the Emirate of Dubai has a provision prohibiting discharge of oil to
marine environment.
b. Local Order No. 11 for the year 2003, concerning Public Health
and Community Safety in the Emirate of Dubai.
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VIII. Concept of Tiered Response
The size, location and timing of an oil spill are unpredictable. Spills can arise
from oil loading, unloading or pipeline operations, and from a collision or
grounding of vessels carrying crude oil and products in local ports or coastal
waters. They can also arise from tankers or barges operating on inland
waterways, or from exploration and production operations and tankers
operating in international waters.
Oil spill risks and the responses they require should be classified according to
the size of spill and its proximity to a company’s operating facilities. This leads
to the concept of ‘Tiered Response’ to oil spills. A company should seek to
develop response capability in a way that allows it to be escalated as required
for each incident. A contingency plan should cover each Tier and be directly
related to the company’s potential spill scenarios. The amount of equipment
and trained personnel identified at each Tier will vary for each operation,
depending on a variety of factors such as the risk, location, oil type and
environmental or socioeconomic sensitivities under threat.
Fig. 2: The Tiered Response
a. Tier 1 Response
Small local spills
This should cover operations at company-owned, operated (or shared)
facilities where events are largely controlled by the company’s operating
procedures, and personnel and equipment can be made available to respond
immediately to an ‘on-site’ incident. Such an incident would generally be
associated with ship transfer or bunkering operations at a jetty, pier or
mooring, and around waterside storage tanks. The contingency plan should
recognize the need for the local operators to control events and to establish a
rapid response capability aimed at quickly containing and, if possible,
recovering the spill. If this is achieved there will be no need to involve other
parties apart from meeting legal, reporting or alerting requirements.
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b. Tier 2 Response
Medium spills that may be local or at some distance from operational centers
This will cover company operations at their own facilities and within public or
multi-user facilities where a company has limited control of events and the
physical area of the spill is larger than in the Tier 1 case. The risks here would
typically be associated with shipping accidents in ports or harbors, in creeks
or coastal waters, but could also be from pipelines, tank failures or near shore
exploration and production operations. Other users/operators of the facility
should recognize that they run similar risks and be encouraged to join in
establishing an oil spill plan and response capability. As public amenities
might be threatened, local government services and agencies may act as the
principal coordination and control agency. The contingency plan should
carefully define the conceptual response capability, the roles and
responsibilities of the various parties, the scope of the plan and procedures
for escalating the response to the Tier 3 level.
c. Tier 3 Response
Large spills which may exceed national boundaries
This will cover major incidents, the scale and scope of which is beyond the
capabilities of the Tier 2 response.
Typically Tier 3 plans cover larger oil spills at sea where the operating
company may not have any capability to deploy resources immediately and
government takes the leading role.
The oil spilled may have an impact on the property or operations of the
company, or occur near a company installation and be too large for the
company to handle alone.
Equally, it might be very remote from all company owned or -operated
resources. The likelihood of such incidents may be low but pollution damage
can be considerable and coastlines over a wide area are potentially at risk.
The contingency plan should aim to access and mobilize local, national and
international resources (from regional stockpiles and elsewhere) quickly and
efficiently. Because such incidents often become high profile and politically
sensitive, the Tier 3 plan will most probably form part of a National Emergency
Plan headed by an appropriate national agency or government department.
The contingency plan must identify the agreed role for all participants within
that National Emergency Plan.
In actual incidents, spills do not always fall into convenient categories and the
boundaries between Tiers will inevitably be blurred. It is, therefore, important
to be prepared to involve the next highest Tier from the earliest moments. It is
easier to stand down an alerted system than to try to escalate a response by
calling up unprepared reserves at a late stage.
d. Classification
The spill dimensions associated with the individual Tier classes are classified
in the table below:
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Tier
I
II
Volume
Up to 10,000 liters (10 m³)
Up to 1,000,000 liters
(1,000 m³)
Response
Facility / Onboard Capability
Tier I response including the capabilities
of other industries, OSRO (Oil Spill
Response
Organization)
and
government agencies
III
More than 1,000,000 liters Total national resources and foreign
(> 1,000 m³)
resources
IX. Overall Organization and Responsibilities
A. Incident Organizational Structure (IOS)
In the event of an oil spill, the incident organizational chart shown below shall
be followed:
Fig. 3: Structure for Incident Organization
B. Preparation of Contingency plan
The movement of oil from the dominant production centers of the world to the
worldwide market is achieved primarily by the use of tankers and pipelines.
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The global pattern of marine transport is well established. The risks posed by
oil transportation lead governments, oil companies and ship owners alike to
recognize the need to have in place an effective and tested crisis
management capability. Oil spill response planning is one facet of that activity.
An oil spill contingency plan should comprise three parts:
A strategy section, which should describe the scope of the plan, including the
geographical coverage, perceived risks, roles/responsibilities of those
charged with implementing the plan and the proposed response strategy;
An action and operations section, which should set out the emergency
procedures that will allow rapid assessment of the spill and mobilization of
appropriate response resources;
A data directory, which should contain all relevant maps, resource lists and
data sheets required to support an oil spill response effort and conduct the
response according to an agreed strategy.
The preferred industry approach to oil spill contingency planning should
tackle three main issues:
1. To enable effective escalation of a response to changing circumstances
companies should develop plans based on the tiered response as described
in this report.
2. Maximum credible and most likely case scenarios should be identified
based on a risk analysis of the geographic area covered by the plan.
3. A cooperative approach by all parties concerned is essential in ensuring an
effective response. When developing plans companies should seek the
cooperation of those who share the risk and those who will participate in the
response by integrating their plans with those of national authorities and
industry partners.
The general the plan should be comprise of three main parts:
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1. Strategy Section
 Authorities and responsibilities: This should indicate the various
authorities encompassed by the plan and their responsibilities. It
should also outline any statutory requirements that the plan may be
required to adhere to, particularly if the plan interfaces with a local
authority regulations
 Dimension of plan: which will indicate the area the plan covers and its
geographical limits. For instance it may cover a refineries operations
plus the sea approaches to the marine terminal at the refinery.
 Risk: the part will describe he types of risk involved from the chance of
a hose burst or pipeline failure to the possible grounding or collision of
an approaching tanker. From these scenarios plus knowledge of types
of oils being handled at the facility an indication of the fate and effect of
an incident can be predicted. By being able to predict the fate and
effect shoreline resources can be prioritized from protection.
 Response strategy: will define the philosophy and objectives of
response. It will indicate the problems due to local limiting and adverse
conditions as well as setting out the strategies for sea and coastal
zones. Arrangements for dealing with waste storage and disposal will
be outlined.
 Equipment: what equipment is available and how it can be effectively
used in the strategies previously outlined.
 Organization and manpower: this sub –section will clearly outline the
management organization from the on scene commander to the clean
up workers in the field. It will also show the relationship with the
relevant government authorities and how they fit into the incident
management system.
 Communications: the communications network will also be described
in this sub-section, listing the communications equipment fitted into the
command center and a description of the field communications
equipment. Examples are reports and incident logs etc.
2. Action and Operations Section
 Initial Procedures: This set out arrangements for notifying the relevant
authorities of an accident.
 Emergency: activation procedures for calling out response team
members and setting up the command center. Emergency activation
and mobilization procedures that will allow rapid sourcing and
deployment of resources particularly from contractors and third parties.
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 Planning: what requires to be done in the form of planning in the short,
medium and long term.
 Guidance on specific cleanup operations and the critical factors when
deciding the final and optimum levels of shoreline cleanup.
3. Data Directory Section
Which should contain all the relevant maps, (particularly sensitivity maps)
resource list and local wind, weather and environment data sheets to assist in
the assessment of the situations and the development of a strategy for
dealing with the situations.
 Primary oil spill equipment (manufacturer type, size, location and cost
of hire where applicable)
 Support equipment needed to deploy the equipment. Workboat, tugs,
tractors and trailers etc.
 Sources of manpower, contractors, local authorities, etc.
 Source of experts and advisers
 Local, national and international contacts who required to be notified of
the incident and who may be able to offer assistance.
Refer to Annex 2 – for Proposed Contingency Planning Format for more
detailed on what should be contained within each of the main section of the
response plan.
X. Oil Spill Response and Strategy
A. General Philosophy and Objectives
Normally, the aims of oil spill response are both to minimize the immediate
damage to environmental and socio-economic resources and to reduce the
time for recovery of affected resources. These can be best achieved by
basing all oil spill responses on the process called Net Environmental Benefit
Analysis (NEBA), meaning the measures undertaken should be those that will
result in the greatest reduction of environmental damage for the available
means and resources. Below are some of the guidelines in carrying out a
NEBA;
1. Collect information about physical characteristics, ecology, human use of
the environment, and other resources of interest in the area;
2. Review previous spill experiences and experimental results which are
relevant in the area and the response methods that were considered;
3. In the bases of the aforementioned, predict the likely environmental
outcomes of using the suggested response method;
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4. Predict similarly the likely environmental outcomes if the area is left for a
natural clean up;
5. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the response option with
those of a natural clean up;
6. Oil should be contained and recovered mechanically if possible;
7. Oil should generally be collected as close to the source as possible;
8. Focus should be on preventing oil from reaching the shoreline;
9. If mechanical recovery is not effective or possible, chemical dispersants
should be considered based on a NEBA;
10. Upon protecting shoreline resources, the level of priority should be based
on its environmental sensitivity;
11. All oil spill response efforts should be based on a NEBA;
12. The natural breakdown processes should be utilized to the greatest
extent possible; and
13. Consider the “No response” option in conducting a NEBA.
B. Response Strategy
o Mechanical Recovery
Mechanical recovery constitutes the most common approach for combat
of marine oil spills. The mechanical recovery operation will typically
involve the following components:
Booms for containment of oil
Skimmers for recovery of oil
Pumps
Oil / water separators
Temporary storage
Vessel for towing of booms and operation of recovery units
The operation may involve three or two vessels, depending on how the
boom is deployed. The purpose of the boom is to concentrate the oil to a
thick enough layer for effective recovery to take place. The effectiveness
of booms to accumulate the oil is highly dependent on wave conditions,
tow speed, boom configuration and oil properties. It is commonly
assumed that booms lose oil by entrainment at relative speeds exceeding
0.7 knots, even though some novel inventions show promise for higher
speeds.
o Mechanical removal
Shoreline cleanup by mechanical removal involves a wide range of
different tools and techniques, reflecting the highly variable conditions
that a shoreline area can represent.
Techniques may be ranging from manually removal of oil using sorbents
of simple tools to the use of more advances beach cleaning machinery.
Here is only listed a number of techniques/tools commonly applied to
remove oil at a shoreline:
Manual sorbent application
Manual removal of oiled materials (hand, shovel, rakes)
Manual cutting of vegetation
Low pressure flushing at ambient temperature
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Vacuum trucks
Warm water / low pressure washing
High pressure flushing
Manual scraping
Beach cleaners
o Leave alone, but monitor
Sometimes the best course of action is a decision not to clean up the
spilled oil. If the oil is at sea, and not threatening shore or sensitive areas,
it may be sufficient to monitor the spill while allowing the natural process
of dispersion and biodegradation to take course.
o Bioremediation
Bioremediation is the application of nutrients (fertilizers containing
nitrogen and phosphorous) to the shoreline to accelerate the natural
biodegradation of the oil. Oil biodegradation is the natural process by
which microorganism oxidizes hydrocarbons, ultimately converting them
to carbon dioxide and water. The process is limited by the availability of
oxygen, moisture and nutrients needed by microbes.
The use of non-native bacteria is not recommended as most areas have
indigenous bacteria that are capable of degrading oil.
Bioremediation is typically used as a final treatment step after completing
conventional shoreline treatment or in areas where other methods are not
possible or recommended.
o Biodegradation
This is natural process whereby bacteria and other micro-organism found
in the sea break down spilled oil. It is one the main ways in which spilled
oil is weathered. When oil is spilled into the marine environment, the
growth of indigenous microbes is stimulated as increase amounts of
carbon in the oil provide food for the microbes. Biodegradation occurs at
different rates depending on the type of oil, the amount of oxygen and
nutrients and temperature levels.
o In-situ burning
In situ burning is carried out at shorelines by igniting the upwind end of
the oiled area and allowing the oil to burn downwind. The method is
typically used on substrate or vegetation where sufficient oil has collected
to sustain ignition, if oil of a type that will sustain burning and local air
pollution regulations allow. The method will kill surface organism in burn
area and residue may be somewhat toxic. The method will also cause
local and time limited air pollution
o Dispersant
The use of dispersants will break up the oil film physically, thus reducing
the smothering effect of a slick in plants and animals and they will also
accelerate the oil biodegradation process. The use of dispersant in Dubai
water is not recommended where physical recovery of oil is feasible.
Below are guidelines for the use of dispersant.
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The use of dispersants is only allowed in Dubai Waters with the following
conditions:
1. Use of dispersant should be taken in accordance with the decision
– tree given in figure 4.
2. Use of dispersant in open sea should only take place with approval
of the coordinator nominated within the Dubai Oil Spill Response
Plan
3. Use of dispersant within creek, ports, harbors and areas of shallow
waters (20 m or less within 1 mile of such depth) as well as
beaches and rocky shore is only allowed with written approval from
Environment Department.
4. On- site testing must be carried out to check for the effectiveness of
the dispersant before using it on the field
5. Only low toxicity dispersant approved by the Regional Organization
for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME), below is the
list of approved dispersant:
a. COREXIT 9500*
b. DASIC SLICKGONE NS
c. FINASOL OSR – 52
d. GAMLEN OD 4000 (PE 988)
e. NU CRU
f. RADIAGREEN OSD
* For sea and beach but not for rocky shore
6. In case of using any other product which not approved it’s
considered a violation and penalty will be imposed
Note: the used of Dispersant, Bioremediation, Biodegradation and In – Situ
Burning in oil spill response is allowed with approval from the Authority
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Fig. 4: Dispersant use decision tree
Oil Spilled
Can oil be left to disperse
and degrade naturally?
Yes
No
Monitor
Is physical control and
recovery feasible?
Reassessment
if necessary
Yes
Reassessment
No
Implement
Yes
No
Are control/recovery
actions adequate?
Or
partially
Can oil be chemically
dispersed?
Yes
No
Continue actions
Will adverse impacts
associated with chemical
dispersion be less than
those results without
chemical dispersion?
Yes
Monitor until change
in status and consider
resource
protection
techniques
No
Implement
dispersion
Was action
adequate?
Yes
Monitor until change in status
and
consider
resource
protection techniques
No
Technical Guideline Number 1 - Oil Spill Preparedness and Response
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Annex 1: Oil Spill Report form
OIL SPILL REPORT FORM
Fill in this form and send it by fax or email to the Marine Environment & Wildlife Section:
Email:
[email protected]
or
Fax no : 04 7033532
[email protected]
DATE OF
TIME OF
OBSERVATION: ……/……/20
OBSERVATION: ……….(hour)……….(min.) am/pm
LOCATION (Coordinates or the nearest land-mark): E: ……………. º ……………. ′
……………. ″
N: ……………. º ……………. ′ ……………. ″
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
SOURCE
/
CAUSE
POLLUTION (X mark):
APPEARANCE:
OF
 vessel
 Oil production facility
 oil transfer site
 land based

Other
(specify)...................................................................................
 brown to black
 silver
 brown / orange
 rainbow
VOLUME & EXTENT OF SPILL: ……………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
WIND DIRECTION & CURRENT: ……………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
WEATHER CONDITIONS: ……………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
ACTION, BOTH TAKEN AND INTENDED, TO COMBAT POLLUTION & PREVENT
FURTHER
SPILLAGE.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
NAME & CONTACT DETAILS OF INITIAL OBSERVER & INTEMEDIATE REPORTER
INITIAL OBSERVER:
INTERMEDIATE REPORTER:
NAME:
………………………………………..
NAME: ………………………………………………
OCCUPATION: ……………………………………..
OCCUPATION:
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………………………………
PHONE NO: ………………………………………...
PHONE
NO:
…………………………………
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/REMARKS: …………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………......
Annex 2: Proposed Contingency Planning Format
What follows sets out the proposed sections and subsections of each part of a
typical oil spill contingency plan and may be used either as a template when
writing a new plan or as a checklist when reviewing an existing plan.
Strategy Section
1. Introduction and scope
1.1 Authorities and responsibilities, coordinating committee
1.2 Statutory requirements, relevant agreements
1.3 Geographical limits of plan
1.4 Interface with other plans/representation at joint control centers
2. Oil spill risks
2.1 Identification of activities and risks
2.2 Types of oil likely to be spilled
2.3 Probable fate of spilled oil
2.4 Development of oil spill scenarios
2.5 Shoreline sensitivity mapping
2.6 Shoreline resources, priorities for protection
2.7 Special local considerations
3. Spill response strategy
3.1 Philosophy and objectives
3.2 Limiting and adverse conditions
3.3 Strategy for offshore zones
3.4 Strategy for coastal zones
3.5 Strategy for shoreline zones
3.6 Strategy for oil and waste storage and disposal
4. Equipment, supplies and services
4.1 On water oil spill equipment
4.2 Inspection, maintenance and testing
4.3 Shoreline equipment, supplies and services
5. Management, manpower and training
5.1 Crisis manager and financial authorities
5.2 Incident organization chart
5.3 Manpower availability (on-site, on-call)
5.4 Availability of additional labor
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5.5 Advisors and consultants
5.6 Training/safety schedules and drill exercise programmed
6. Communications and control
6.1 Incident control room and facilities
6.2 Field communications equipment
6.3 Reports, manuals, maps, charts and incident logs
Action and Operations Section
7. Initial procedures
7.1 Reporting incident, preliminary estimate of response Tier
7.2 Notifying key team members and authorities
7.3 Establishing and staffing control room
7.4 Collecting information (oil type, sea/wind forecasts, aerial surveillance,
beach reports)
7.5 Estimating fate of slick (24, 48 and 72 hours)
7.6 Identifying resources immediately at risk, informing parties
8. Operations planning and mobilization procedures
8.1 Assembling full response team
8.2 Identifying immediate response priorities
8.3 Mobilizing immediate response
8.4 Preparing initial press statement
8.5 Planning medium-term operations (24-, 48 and 72-hour)
8.6 Deciding to escalate response to higher Tier
8.7 Mobilizing or placing on standby resources required
8.8 Establishing field command post and communications
9. Control of operations
9.1 Establishing a management team with experts and advisors
9.2 Updating information (sea/ wind/weather forecasts, aerial surveillance,
beach reports)
9.3 Reviewing and planning operations
9.4 Obtaining additional equipment, supplies and manpower
9.5 Preparing daily incident log and management reports
9.6 Preparing operations accounting and financing reports
9.7 Preparing releases for public and press conferences
9.8 Briefing local and government officials
1O.Termination of operations
10.1 Deciding final and optimal levels of beach clean-up
10.2 Standing-down equipment, cleaning, maintaining, replacing
10.3 Preparing formal detailed report
10.4 Reviewing plans and procedures from lessons learnt
Data Directory
Maps/charts
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1. Coastal facilities, access roads, telephones, hotels, etc.
2. Coastal charts, currents, tidal information (ranges and streams), prevailing
winds
3. Risk locations and probable fate of oil
4. Shoreline resources for priority protection
5. Shoreline types
6. Sea zones and response strategies
7. Coastal zones and response strategies
8. Shoreline zones and clean-up strategies
9. Oil and waste storage/disposal sites
10. Sensitivity maps/atlas
Lists
1. Primary oil spill equipment: booms, skimmers, spray equipment, dispersant,
absorbents, oil storage, radio communications, etc (manufacturer, type, size,
location, transport, contact, delivery time, cost and conditions)
2. Auxiliary equipment: tugs and work boats, aircraft, vacuum trucks, tanks
and barges, loaders and graders, plastic bags, tools, protective clothing,
communications equipment, etc (manufacturer, type, size, location, transport,
contact, delivery time, cost and conditions)
3. Support equipment: aircraft, communications, catering, housing, transport,
field sanitation and shelter etc (availability, contact, cost and conditions)
4. Sources of manpower: contractors, local authorities, caterers, security firms
(availability, numbers, skills, contact, cost and conditions)
5. Experts and advisors: environment, safety, auditing, (availability, contact,
cost and conditions)
6. Local and national government contacts: (name, rank and responsibility,
address, telephone, fax, telex)
Data
1.
Specifications of oils commonly traded
2.
Wind and weather
3.
Information sources
References:
For more additional information in combating oil spills, the following
references and websites are recommended:
a. "A guide to Contingency Planning for Oil Spill in Water", IPIECA Report
Series Vol. 2 2nd Edition March 2000
b. "Guide to Tiered Preparedness and Response", IPIECA Report Series
Vol. 14
c. "Choosing Spill Response Option to Minimized Damage", Net
Environmental Benefit Analysis IPIECA Report Series Vol. 10
d. "Action Against Oil Pollution" , A Guide to the Intergovernmental and
Industry organizations involve in the prevention and mitigation of oil
spill in the marine environment by IPIECA
e. www.imo.org
f. www.ipieca.org
Technical Guideline Number 1 - Oil Spill Preparedness and Response
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g. www.itopf.com
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