INDS. 170
Managing Development and Africa’s Natural Resources Sustainably
Principal Instructor:
Professor Rexford A, Ahene
Associate Instructor:
Professor Kofi Asare Opoku
Local (Africa) Coordinators: Mr. Fred Landi, Kenya Outreach Coordinator.
Mr. Patik Patel, Tanzania Outreach Coordinator
Experiencing Sub-Sahara Africa (INDS 170) was conceived as an enhancement to the liberal arts
curriculum offered by Lafayette College. The course offers interested students at Lafayette, an
opportunity to learn more about policies and strategies for managing economic development and
Africa’s natural resources sustainably through first-hand experience. The course takes advantage of
the college’s unique institutional character (engineering and liberal arts) by focusing intensively on
issues surrounding the sustainability of Africa’s natural resources and development. Students are
exposed to evidence of cultural adaptation, environmental degradation, the conservation of habitat
and fragile natural resources, and the conflicts and complementarities presented by the application of
technology to societal needs in a cross-cultural setting:
Goal and Approach:
The goal of INDS 170 is to offer practical exposure to Africa’s precarious balance between tradition
and modernity to interested students and to explore the expressions and interpretations of the cultural
anthropology of sustainable management of some of Africa’s most unique natural resources and
political developments in the countries visited.
 It explores the appropriateness of cultural adaptation, methods of conservation and the
blending of public policy and social entrepreneurship in shaping African cultural attitudes and
resistance to change.
 It challenges the student to rationalize the process of social transformation brought about by
institutional reforms encouraged by policy makers, intent on economic development,
sometimes without regard to the environment.
 It examines the full range of societal benefits and costs associated with the effort to reconcile
the apparent conflict between the aspirations of Africans to develop and the value-oriented
social and political issues associated with how we manage dwindling natural resources.
Outcomes Assessment:
This interdisciplinary course is designed to;
a. Provide a setting for students to experience contemporary Africa as an important step in the
creation of global citizens,
b. Expose students to a foreign (African) cultural experience
c. Appreciate the predicament of sustaining policies on natural resource conservation and
economic development;
d. Produces a human capital academic core of students with African experience who can serve
as resource persons in the classroom and in community with each other.
e. Produce students able to understand the dichotomies of traditional culture, the political
economy of poverty and public policies aimed at balancing the management of fragile
ecological systems in Kenya and Tanzania.
INDS 170 satisfies the Foreign Culture goal of Lafayette’s Goals Oriented curriculum. Its emphasis
on non-western culture and its non-ethnocentric approach to learning introduces students to
intellectual inquiry by engaging them in learning as active thinkers, speakers, and discussants.
Required Reading List (Supplied to Registered Students):
1. “Conservation, Environment and Habitat: Land Policy and Tenure Structure.” Published for
the Government of the Republic of Tanzania. By The Scandinavian Institute of African
Studies, Uppasala, Sweden. 1992
2. Ernest Mwape, “Wildlife and Sustainable Development: Community Based Natural
Resources Management and Sustainable Agriculture.” World Summit on Sustainable
Development, Johanesburg, South Africa. June 2-3, 2003
3. Plants and Their Values and Use by Local People, Lake Manyara National Park reference
4. P. H. Gulliver, Tradition and Transition in East Africa: Studies of the Tribal Element in the
Modern Era. University of California Press, Berkely. 1971.
5. Robert. M Netting , “East African Pastoralists” in Cultural Ecology. Waveland Press Inc.
1965, pp 41 – 58.
6. Kwame Gyekye, African Cultural Values: An Introduction. Sankofa Publishing Co.
7. Joseph Z.Z. Matowanyika, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources
Management in Southern Africa.” 1995. IUCN Regional Social Policy Service, Harare,
8. Z. A. Ogutu, “Conflicts Over Resources: Saiwa Swamp National Park (Kenya) and its
environs.” GeoJournal, Vol. 41: 1, 25 -31
9. Wildlife and Conservation Policy, Republic of Kenya. 2007
Course Evaluation:
Critical Thinking Synopsis of the Literature
Field Journal and Reaction to Presentations
Individual Research Paper
Course Outline:
Phase I: Pre-travel Orientation (September- November)
- Review of Goals, Scope and Requirements for the course – Dates TBA
- Travel, Health and Immunization Requirements – Dates set by Health Center
- Synopsis of Recommended Literature – Due on the day of departure.
- Detailed Travel Arrangements
Phase II: Experiencing Sub-Sahara Africa
Topics Covered:
 The Africans: Social Organization, Traditions and Customs
Language and Society: The Development of Linguistic Affinities
Field Projects on History and Social Anthropology, Development.
Lecture Demonstrations by local experts and performing groups.
Music, Dance and Society Workshop and the Tabular Theatre
 Culture, Conservation and Development
National Politics and Economic Development Policy
Traditional Values and Cultural Transition
Rural and Urban Lifestyles and Experiences
Traditional communities and resource management approaches.
Role and Relevance of Informal Education, Oral History, Folklore and African
Systems of Thought
 Political Economy of Conservation and Resource Management
Kenya National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Policy
Tanzania National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Policies
Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources Management
Conflicts Over Resources: Pastoral Lifestyles and Sustainability
Grassland and Desert Ecology Field Study of Wildlife habitat
Community Based Natural Resources Management and Sustainable
 Individual Project Research Time
Participants and Student Led Discussions
Research, Journal, and Group Presentations
Evening Lecture and Rap Sessions
Final Research Papers
Format for Instruction:
Lectures, discussion sessions and other forms of instruction will include the following salient
 As previously stated, the goal of the course is to increase cognitive knowledge about Africa
and to develop keen insights and accurate perceptions of African culture and strategies for
sustainable development through first hand experience.
 Each lecture will be followed by a directed discussion session in a semi-formal format that
promotes free exchange of views. The goal is to provide maximum contact with people in
their local environment.
 Hands-on workshops and scheduled performances will utilize early afternoon (1:00 – 3:00
p.m.) or early evening time slots to allow the instructors to use a less formal format.
 Within reasonable limits, students can schedule individual research interviews with local
citizens, experts and lecturers at locations visited and with the course instructors at any time.
 However, we also recognize the need for personal time, for which ample provision will be
made in the daily schedule. The program will consider individual time for unsupervised
activities and acquisition of personal experiences an essential ingredient of the total African
 Exposure to urban and rural life will provide opportunities to develop a more accurate
perception of African societies
This integrated program of lectures, seminars, cultural activities and field trips, as well as the
provisions being made for individual research and consultations is geared toward the full realization
of the objectives of the course.
Synopsis of the Literature:
In preparing your synopsis of the background readings for this course, we want you to grapple with
the complex realities that go beyond simplistic headlines. To contemplate the potential for suffering
and devastations caused by draught and mismanagement, and discontent with inept governments and
international marginalization. To evaluate whether, policy options presented has resulted in the
systematic realization of the full potential, not only of the individual members of the society but the
nation as a whole. You are also encouraged to contemplate ideas and approaches that illustrate how
material from the readings can be used in your research to develop a critical and analytical research
Use the elements of critical analysis to guide your review of the literature.
A number of cognitive skills are involved in critical thinking that is fundamentally interrelated. Here
are some elements of critical thinking that illustrate how the material from your literature can be
viewed as you prepare to write a critical and analytical synopsis.
Differentiate between fact and opinion.
Recognize and evaluate author bias and rhetoric.
Determine cause and effect relationships.
Determine the accuracy and completeness of information presented.
Recognize logical fallacies and faulty reasoning.
Comparing and contrasting information and points of view.
Develop inferential skills and draw logical conclusion.
Developing the power of critical and analytical thinking is the key to the understanding and use of
information. It allows you to discuss and argue points of opinion and points of fact.
Course Duration : January 03 – 25, 2012.
Itinerary follows:
Prepared for
Rexford Ahene, Lafayette College
Consultation :
Naked Wilderness Afrika
: Kenya / Tanzania
: 04 Jan – 17 Jan 2012
Itinerary at a Glance
Nairobi Safari Club
Nairobi Safari Club
KWS Policy Research Lecture
Lake Naivasha
Lake Naivasha Country Club
Nat Res. Management Lecture
Lake Nakuru
Nakuru Sopa Lodge
Nat Res. Management Lecture
Amboseli Sopa Lodge
Nat Res. Sustainability Lecture
Impala Hotel
Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge
TZ National Policy Lecture
Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge
Crater Ecology/Habitat
Lake Manyara
L. Manyara Serena Lodge
Olduvai Gorge- Historical Lect.
Tembo House Hotel
Flt, Trf, City & Spice Tour
Double Tree Zanzibar
All Inc
Double Tree Zanzibar
All Inc
Marine Ecosystem Mgnt. Lecture
Double Tree Zanzibar
All Inc
Indv. Research & Consultation
B,L-DTrf, Ferry, CSS
BB – bed and breakfast, LDBB = lunch, dinner, bed and breakfast, Lect. = Arranged Lecture
PP – Policy Presentation, Trf – Transfers, A- Morning Safari, P – Afternoon Safari,
Flt - Flight
Tuesday. 03 January 2012 – Depart from Newark Liberty International Airport.
Wednesday. 04 January 2012 – Nairobi
Arrive at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, assisted by a Naked Wilderness Afrika representative.
Transfer to your Nairobi Hotel which is situated within the city centre. Overnight at Nairobi Safari
Club on half board basis. (D)
Thursday, 05 January 2012 – Nairobi
Lecture I: Land Resources Management and Conservation Policy (Kenya) @ KWS Auditorium
Lecture II: Sustainable management of wildlife and habitat preservation @ Giraffe Conservation Ctr.
Breakfast at your hotel. Go on an orientation tour of Municipal Nairobi, including central business
district, the traditional craft center, the former site of the US Embassy. This will be followed by Land
Policy discussion at University of Nairobi. Lunch break. Afternoon lecture by the KWS staff on Park
Management and Conservation. Proceed to Karen Blixen museum and evening lecture at the Giraffe
Conservation Centre. Return to the hotel. Dinner at the hotel. Overnight at Nairobi Safari Club on
full board basis. (B,L,D)
Friday, 06 January 2012 – Lake Naivasha and Crescent Island
Field Trip: Park Ecology and Habitat Sustainability (Human/Animal Conflict Management)
Evening Discussion: Sustainable Resources Management Options.
After breakfast depart from Nairobi at 08:30hrs and take a short scenic drive to Lake Naivasha which
is the highest and purest of the Rift Valley lakes. Lake Naivasha is famous for its horticulture farming
and you will take this opportunity to visit one or two flower farms. Lunch at the club. This afternoon
take a boat ride on the lake to explore the Lake Naivasha ecosystem preservation and breeding
grounds of pelicans, fish eagles, and cormorants including management of the primeval wildlife on
Crescent Island. Dinner and overnight at Lake Naivasha Country Club.
Saturday, 07 January 2012 – Lake Nakuru National Park/Lake Naivasha
Field Observation I: Human/Wildlife Interaction management strategies I
Evening Lecture: Practical approaches and Challenges to Natural Resources Management in the field.
After breakfast drive to Lake Nakuru National Park. Lunch at Sarova Lion Hill Lodge. After lunch
drive through LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK, famous for its pink flamingos. Observe the
alkaline water ecosystem that sustains thousands of water birds; see the panoramic view from the top
of Baboon Rocks. This park also houses the KWS research center for Rhino breeding and restocking.
Return to Lake Naivasha Country Club for dinner, lecture and overnight.
Sunday, 08 January 2012 – Amboseli National Park
After breakfast, drive over the Athi Plains (4.0 hours), and enter AMBOSELI CONSERVATION
AREA with your notebooks and cameras ready to document and discuss various natural resources
management and conservation strategies and options. The park is situated at the foot of the impressive
snow-capped peak of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest mountain at 19,340 feet. Afternoon leisure
time followed by early evening review and synthesis of week 1 lectures and field observations.
Amboseli Sopa Lodge
Monday, 09 January 2012 – Amboseli National Park
Field Observation II: Human/Wildlife Interaction management strategies II.
Evening Discussion: Natural Resources Management and Conservation Strategies in the field.
Breakfast at the lodge. Embark on all day guided Field Observation trip accompanied by the
resident Research Scientist to observe and discuss various park management challenges, on-going
research and monitoring stations for managing wildlife population and ecological balance. The park
offers a wide variety of wildlife but the principal attraction is its vast herds of elephant within the park
and in close proximity to human settlements. Other game includes: zebra, wildebeest, giraffe, impala,
leopard, caracal and serval cat. This park also boasts a rich bird life such as ibis, egret, avocet,
common and saddle-billed stork, secretary bird, heron, vultures, ducks, and geese. Overnight
Amboseli Sopa Lodge (B,L,D)
Tuesday, 10 January 2012 – Arusha:
Arusha Tour: Visit the United Nations Convention Center and Tanzania Culture and Craft Center
Lecture presentation: Tanzania Parks Policy & Management Challenges.
After breakfast drive to the border post of Namanga, clear the immigration formalities, and proceed to
Arusha, Tanzania. Afternoon visit to the Arusha cultural center. Evening lecture and discussion of
Tanzania Parks and Wildlife Management Policy. Overnight at Naura Springs Hotel on full board
basis. (B,L,D)
Wednesday, 11 January 2012 – Travel to Ngorongoro Crater
Early breakfast and depart by road through the Ngorongoro Highlands to your lodge situated on the
rim of the crater. The crater covers over 250 square kilometres (over 100 square miles) of land and is
the home of the rare black rhino, prides of lion, elephant, cheetah and great herds of buffalo, antelope
and wildebeest. Overnight at Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge on full board basis. (B,L,D)
Thursday, 12 January 2012 – Ngorongoro Crater: All day Field Tour:
Field Observation: Sustainable Community based Conservation and Degradation Mitigation Strategies.
Lecture/Discussion: The Dilemma of Conservation and Poverty Alleviation in Tanzania
After breakfast, descend 600m (0ver 2000 feet) to the floor of the crater for a full day crater tour with
picnic lunch. Examine how the park sustains the natural order through the law of nature. Explore the
forest areas that are inhabited by monkey and elephant, the lake area, where you may see the
flamingos and the open savannah where the rare black rhino competes to survive and lions hunt for
food. Overnight at Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge on full board basis. (B,L,D,)
Friday, 13 January 2012 – Lower Serengeti/Lake Manyara:
Field Trip: Historical Tour of Olduvai Gorge- cradle of humanity.
Discussion: Maniyata (Masai settlements) in the Park – Interdependent Species and Interactions.
After an early morning breakfast, drive over the rim to mingle with the herds for the great migration
through the Serengeti plains, continuing for a historical tour of Olduvai gorge. Note: The migration
cycle for wilderbeest, gazelles, zebras and buffalo brings them to the lower Serengeti in January,
attracting the big cats, hyenas and other predators, making the lower Serengeti the best wildlife
viewing area in January. Return in time for an evening lecture at your lodge. Overnight at Lake
Manyara Serena Lodge on full board ( B, L,D)
Saturday, 14 January 2012 – Zanzibar: Stone City
Guided Tour: Stone Town History: Pre-colonial, Colonial and Post Colonial Development
Group Discussion: History of Cultural Acculturation: Swahili, a new universal African language
Depart after breakfast for Arusha. Lunch in Arusha, followed by a scheduled flight (departing at
14h.25) to Zanzibar. This ancient island was once ruled by sultans of Oman; European explorers
considered it their stepping stone into the African Interior. On arrival you will be met and transferred
to your overnight hotel. After lunch, you will be led on a half-day guided tour of the historical town.
The architecture of the stone town captivates the eye. Wooden Arab doors are ornately carved, some
with pointed brass bosses. There is so much history to Zanzibar that you find acute juxtapositions. The
Cathedral church was built over the former slave market, its high altar on the site of the whipping post.
Return to Tembo House Hotel for overnight stay on half board basis. (B, L-, D)
Sunday, 15 January 2012 – Zanzibar: North West Coast
Field Trip: Sustainable management of history and economy of Zanzibar.
Evening Discussion: Managing Zanzibar’s Coral Marine Park, North West Coast.
Depart after breakfast drive through the countryside to visit the spice plantations with an opportunity
to pick, smell and savor exotic fruits and spices. After the excursion you will end up at your hotel for
the next 2 nights for Student/Faculty consultations, independent research and synthesis of course
experiences at Double Tree - Zanzibar on All inclusive basis
Monday, 16 January 2012 – Zanzibar: North west Coast
Lecture: Costal Marine Ecosystem Management, Conservation Policies and Strategies.
Wrap-up Discussion: Open discussion and final comments on all aspects of the course.
Breakfast at your hotel, attend scheduled lectures and instruction on marine park conservation and
habitat management. Rest of the day is for leisure to laze around the pool or complete your journal
entries, field research and interviews. Faculty advisors will be available for consultations. Overnight
at Double Tree - Zanzibar on All inclusive basis
Tuesday, 17 January 2012 – Dar-es-Salaam: African Urban Lifestyles and Orientation: Depart
After breakfast, transfer back to Stone Town and on to the Jetty to take a Ferry across to Dar es
Salaam. On arrival in Dar-es-Salaam, the group bus will be ready for the final shopping drive to see
the city of Dar es salaam. Lunch and dinner will be provided before transfer to the Airport for the
flight back to the USA.
Wednesday, 18 January 2012 – Return to Newark International Airport.
Thursday, 19 – 27, January 2012 Student/Faculty discussion of individual research paper
projects, additional library research and literature review and submission of INDS 170
Journals and Final Research Papers.
Per Person Sharing
Single Room Supplement
04 January – 17 January 2012
Price Includes
 Accommodation as mentioned in the
 3 meals daily on safari except on day 1
 Transport in 8 seater minibuses in Kenya
and 4x4 Land cruisers in Tanzania, game
drives, park entrance fees for clients,
drivers and vehicles.
 At Double Tree, Zanzibar, drinks are
included as well as all the three meals.
 Transfers as indicated on the itinerary
 One way flight from Arusha to Zanzibar
 One way Ferry from Zanzibar to Dar es
 Day 2 - Lunch at Carnivore, Nairobi
 Half day Stone City and spice tour.
 Bottled water on road safaris
Price Excludes
 Gratuity, porterage, beverages, items of
personal nature such as laundry, phone,
fax etc.
 International flights, visas and airport
 Any other item not mentioned in the
TANZANIA & ZANZIBAR:Yellow Fever Certificate is Mandatory at the point of entry.
2012 INDS 170 Budget attached.