Geology Assessment Review 2015

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Study Guide: Geology Assessment 2015
Earth’s Structure
Terms:
Inner Core
Crust
Continental Crust
Outer Core
Lithosphere
Oceanic Crust
Mantle
Asthenosphere
Convection Currents
Objectives:
 Identify the four layers of the earth. Also be familiar with the difference between the “lithosphere”
and the “asthenosphere”
 Describe the characteristics & composition of the inner core & outer core.
 Describe the characteristics of the mantle.
 Describe the characteristics and composition of the earth’s crust.
 Compare continental crust and oceanic crust. (hint: their thickness, density)
Plate Tectonics
Terms:
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Transform Boundary
Rift valley
Seismograph
Subduction
Divergent Boundary
Pangaea
Volcano
Sea-floor spreading
Fault
Convergent Boundary
Mid-Ocean ridges
Earthquake
Trench
Theory of Continental Drift
Objectives:
 Explain the Theory of Plate Tectonics.
 Describe how convection currents in the mantle move, and what effect they have on the lithospheric
plates.
 Compare and contrast the three types of plate boundaries.
 Describe what happens at each of the 3 types of plate boundaries.
 Describe and give examples of the following: mid-ocean ridge, fold mountains, fault, (land volcanoes
& trench), (volcanic islands & trench), rift valley
 Describe the theory of continental drift and be able to explain 4 types of evidence that support the
theory of continental drift.
 Describe sea-floor spreading.( new crust is formed)
 Compare & contrast sea-floor spreading & subduction, and explain how these together recycle the
Earth’s lithosphere.
Heat Transfer
Terms:
Heat transfer
Conduction
Radiation
Conductor
Convection
Insulator
Objectives:
 Explain what heat transfer is (heat/energy always flows from the hotter material to the colder
material)
 Explain and give examples of the three different ways heat transfer can occur
 Give an example of how convection currents can affect the weather (land and sea breezes), and
explain why they occur.
Geology Study Guide 2015
Fill in the Blank with the Word Bank:
lithosphere
molten
asthenosphere
continental drift
climate
temperature surface
fossils
alternating
convection
earthquakes year month
seafloor spreading
gases
plates
rocks
epicenter
faults pressure
magma
vapor
focus
1.
Earth’s plate motion is caused by __________________________ currents inside the Earth.
2.
___________________________ are vibrations caused by breaking rocks.
3.
If the elastic limit of rocks is reached, then they break and move along surfaces called
__________________________.
4.
The _________________________________ is made up of the crust and upper mantle.
5.
According to scientists ____________________ move about 1 cm to 12 cm per
__________________.
6.
The plates of the lithosphere float on top of the __________________________.
7.
A hypothesis that states continents have moved to their current location slowly over time is called
_____________________________________.
8.
Seafloor spreading is caused due to _______________________ material rising to the Earth’s
__________________________.
9.
Scientists have discovered _________________________ bands of magnetism in the ocean floor.
10.
Evidence for continental drift include ___________________________,
_________________________, and ____________________ .
11.
The ____________________ is the point inside Earth where earthquake releases energy.
12.
The amount of water _______________ and other _______________ held inside the
_________________ determines whether a volcanic eruption will be quiet or explosive.
13.
A drop in _______________ and rise in ________________ causes magma to form deep inside
Earth.
Heat Transfer
Fill in the correct Heat Transfer: Convection, Conduction, or Radiation
Heat transfer when molecules collide with one another
Heat transfer by flow of heated materials
Heat Transfer in form of rays or waves
Plate Tectonics
Fill in the correct Plate Boundary type: Convergent, Divergent, Transform
Where plates move apart
Where plates slide past each other
Where plates move together
Earthquake: Faults
Word bank: normal compression
strike slip
move downward
tension reverse up and over
Type of faults: _______________
_______________
shear
move past
______________
Type of force: _______________
_______________
______________
Type of rock
motion: _______________
_______________
______________
Earthquakes: Types of Waves
Fill in the correct type of wave: Surface waves, primary waves, secondary waves
Move fastest
Move the slowest
Follow primary waves
Most destructive
First to reach a seismograph
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