5 Diversity of organisms and classification Class Practice 5.1 The diversity of organisms 5.2 Classification 1. (a) taxonomy 2. (b) species (c) common features (d) interbreed (e) offsprings 5.3 Kingdom prokaryotae 5.4 Kingdom protoctista 5.5 Kingdom fungi 5.6 Kingdom plantae A. 1. (a) prokaryotes (b) nucleus 2. 6. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (l) Gymnosperms fungi ferns algae prokaryotes mosses gymnosperms flowering plants (angiosperms) 3. 4. 5. B. saprophytic parasitic algae water hyphae spores mosses ferns rhizoids C. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) mosses ferns gymnosperms flowering plants (angiosperms) dicotyledons monocotyledons 5.7 Kingdom animalia 1. birds, mammals 2. 3. 4. amphibians (adult), reptiles, birds, mammals amphibians (tadpoles), fish fish, reptile, birds (on the legs) 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. birds reptiles, birds mammals birds mammals amphibians 5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys (i) A snail B earthworm C ant D spider E centipede (ii) Ant, spider and centipede belong to the same group. They have segmented body and jointed legs. Their bodies are covered with exoskeleton. 5.9 Viruses 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 1. Virus and bacterium are two different kinds of things. 2. A virus has no cell wall or cell membrane. It only consists of a protein coat. 3. Virus does not have chromosomes. There is only a coiled string of nucleic acid inside a virus. Exam Practice A. Multiple Choice Questions 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. 7. 8. A B C 9. D 10. C B. Structured Questions 1. (a) butterfly tapeworm tortoise (b) 2. (c) (a) (b) frog They have scales. They have backbones. They have lungs for breathing. They lay shelled eggs. (Any three) Sparrow, human A - gymnosperms. F - flowering plants (angiosperms). Specimens A and F. The leaves of these two specimens are needle-shaped. Their surface area is smaller to reduce water loss. (c) Specimen E is an alga. It lives in water. It does not have roots, stems and leaves. It contains chlorophyll. (d) (i) mushroom, (ii) Polytrichum, (iii) waterlily (any other reasonable answers) 3. (a) (i) Vertebrate B (ii) Vertebrate E (iii) Vertebrate C (iv) Go to 4 (v) Vertebrate D (vi) Vertebrate A (b) Vertebrates A and D. The class is reptiles. C. STS Connections (a) Viruses do not show all the characteristics of a living organism. They can live and reproduce only when they enter the cells of their host. (b) Viruses causing influenza would change their protein coat structure according to humans' immunity. When humans have already developed immunity against a virus, it will change its structure, making the immunity developed ineffective. (c) AIDS, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola, smallpox, etc.