Social Psychology FWB Summer Term B Test 1 Review

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SPRING 2011 Preliminary Study Guide SOP3004 Psychology Test 1 (Quiz 1 Ch 1 & 2)

Using the Study Guide

For each term:

What is it? A definition, a theory, an experiment? Can you define it? Can you tell it apart from related concepts?

How does it relate to other concepts covered? If it is a definition, what theory and experiments relate to it? If it is a theory, what experimental support is there for the theory? If it is an experiment, what theory was being

 tested?

If an experiment were briefly described, would you be able to identify the outcome? Would you know what theory it was testing? What are the independent and dependent variables?

Can you recognize similarities between example situations and appropriate theories and experiments?

Chapter 1

Social Influence

Social Psychology

Construal

Differences between philosophy, personality, sociology and social

Wall street game (Ross & Samuelson, 1993)

Individual Differences:

Fundamental Attribution Error

Behaviorism

Gestalt Psychology (Kurt Lewin)

Self-Esteem

Social Cognition

Naïve Realism (Ross, 2004)

Need to be accurate

Suffering and self-justification

Aronson & Mills (1959)

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968) self-fulfilling prophecy

Learning Objectives:

1.

Describe the importance of an individual’s construal of a social event in the social psychologist’s attempts at understanding social behavior

2.

Distinguish between the social psychologist’s preferred method of understanding social influence (i.e., scientific experimentation) and alternative ways of understanding social influence (i.e., folk wisdom, and philosophy)

3.

Describe how social psychologists and sociologists differ in their levels of analysis

4.

Describe how Gestalt principles influenced social psychological thought Describe a "self-fulfilling prophecy" and how it can alter social situations

5.

What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?

Chapter 2 (know the starred items especially well)

Hindsight Bias

Observational Method

Interjudge Reliability

Archival Analysis

Correlational Method

*Correlation Coefficient

Surveys

*Random Selection

Literary Digest Landon miscall

STDs and birth control (Rosenberg et al.)

Experimental Method

*Independent Variable

*Dependent Variable

*Random Assignment to Condition

*Internal Validity

*External Validity (generalizability)

Mundane Realism

Psychological Realism

Cover Story

Replication

Meta-Analysis

Cross-Cultural Research

Field Experiments

Basic Research

Applied Research

Informed Consent

Deception

Institutional Review Board (IRB):

Debriefing

Hypothesis

Aronson & Mills (1959) Justification study

Experimenter Bias

Subject Bias

Hawthorne Effect

Blind and Double Blind studies

Demand Characteristics

Learning Objectives:

1.

2.

What a hypothesis is, and how researchers develop them.

The different research methods used by social psychologists (i.e., the archival method, the correlational

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

method, and the experimental method). interjudge reliability (interrater reliability)

Limits of the observational method

The correlation coefficient, and how it is used to help predict behavior representative sample

Distinguish between a sample and a population, and describe how random selection can be used to help researchers make inferences about a population from a sample. survey

Random selection

Describe why correlation does not equal causation

Independent and dependent variables

Internal vs external validity

Generalizability

Random assignment .

Mundane realism vs psychological realism .

Cover story in a social psychology experiment .

Describe the role of replications in increasing external validity

Describe a field experiment and how it differs from a laboratory experiment .

Tradeoff between internal and external validity

Describe how informed consent, deception, and debriefing are all important ethical issues for social

21.

22.

23.

psychologists to consider.

Distinguish between basic and applied research.

Understand the 2x2 design as a basis for traditional social psych research

Be able to interpret a graph of results from simple experiments

2

3

Chapters 8

Conformity)

Informational Social Influence:

Resisting informational and normative social influence

Private Acceptance

Public Compliance

Social Norms

Normative Social Influence

Deviance from social norms

Importance of being accurate

Idiosyncrasy Credits

Minority Influence

Social Comparison Processes (Festinger, 1954) lecture

Taylor’s breast cancer support groups (lecture)

Salary compression and inversion (lecture)

Social Impact Theory (omitted for this test)

Idiosyncrasy credits

Minority Influence

Wood et al. (1984) meta-analysis (lecture)

Factors affecting conformity (group size, importance, unanimous, collectivistic)

Gender differences

Anderson et al. (1992) food supply and body image

Silverstein et al. (1986) Vogue and Ladies Home Journal bust-to-waist ratio

Men’s body image (GI Joe)

Obedience to authority (p. 260)

My Lai massacre

Migram’s shock experiment (various manipulations; percent conformity)

Wrong norms

Self-justification

Lack of personal responsibility

Injunctive Norm and Descriptive Norm

Reno, Cialdini & Kallgren garbage, 1993

Experiments

Sherif autokinetic effect (1936)

Asch line-judging experiments (1951; 1956)

Schacter (1951) Johnny Rocco study

Milgram experiments (1961; 1974); ethics, method, percent obedience 65% (subsequent conditions that raised or lowered obedience), agency, urgency, incremental shock levels, distance)

Zimbardo Prison Study

Reasons for Abu Graib prison scandal

Burger (2009) Milgram Replication

Schulze 2007 energy study

Lederman et al (2003) Social Norms approach

Learning Objectives:

1.

Define conformity and understand the distinction between informational social influence, normative

2.

3.

4.

influence, private acceptance, and public compliance.

Describe the three situations that can increase the occurrence of informational social influence

Describe normative social influence and contrast it with informational social influence.

Describe the Asch line judgment paradigm for studying compliance, and understand the role of normative social influence in this paradigm.

5.

6.

Describe the negative consequences of resisting normative social influence

Describe how social influence can be used for positive purposes, including a description of descriptive and

7.

8.

injunctive norms

Describe compliance, how the foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques are compliance techniques, and the underlying reasons these techniques work

Describe Milgram’s research paradigm for studying obedience, and the results and implications of this research.

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