ARCHAEOLOGY Y2K TALKING PAPER

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ARCHAEOLOGY TALKING PAPER
1. INTRODUCTION
2. SCOPE OF CLASS
A. GOAL IS TO MANUFACTURE TOOLS FROM
“ROCKS”. From smashing implement to cutting implement.
B. HISTORY OF “CHERT” FORMATION.
EARTH COMPRISED OF BASIC ELEMENTS 102 + / MOST COMMON OXYGEN AND SILICON #’s 1 & 2
O2 AND Si READILY COMBINE INTO SILICA outer
orbitals, those that “react”, Si has 4, needs 10, O2 has 10, presto! stablility
SILICA, SILICON DIOXIDE, SiO2 found in nature in many
forms (combinations of elements, compounds, mixtures) as a result of
temperature, pressure, and ph. Examples – quartz, opal, etc.
3. TYPES OF SILICA
AMORPHOUS - WITHOUT CRYSTALS “stacked
molecules of SiO2. The best of the best of knapping materials. Obsidian & glass.
CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE - LESS THAN 2u crystals so
small the material knapps similar to amorphous types. u = 1 X 10 –6 meter.
Novaculite, Knife River Flint, Georgetown Blue.
MICROCRYSTALLINE - 2u TO 49u Belton Flint. H2O.
MACROCRYSTALLINE - GREATER THAN 50u
Mississippi Sandstone. If not knappable, grind or peck material for tools.
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AMO/CRYP/MICRO - NO VISIBLE CRYSTALS
MACRO – VISIBLE CRYSTALS
4. MATERIAL SELECTION
FLAKE REMOVAL – CHONCHOIDAL FRACTURE
FINGER NAIL CHECK – KNAP OR NONKNAP
5. MATERIAL SOURCES
COMMERCIAL – INTERNET/KNAPPINS Price!
LOCAL/Regional
GRAVEL PITS Mid State, SE Ft Polk, Merryville, natural
ROADS – GRAVEL / OIL COMPANY / RR
“PETRIFIED PALM” Local “gem grade”, others ? ? ?
FORT HOOD – EAST SIDE NEAR BLRA
ROUND TOP, TEXAS
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6. HOLDING POSITIONS
KNEE – MOST COMMON
FREE HAND – NONAMORPHOUS
OTHERS
7. SAFETY
EYE
RESPIRATORY
8. ALTERATON BY HEAT OR H2O
9. KNAPPING TOOLS
10. FRACTURE THEORY
11. TOOL PRODUCTION STAGES
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