Dale Guarniere 2007-08

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GUARNIERE’S FISH
Date: 5/27/08
By: Dale Guarniere
Instructed by: Mr. Paul Matty
Objective:
The objective of this project is to establish and record a hearing range of
bluegill (in hertz).
Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to establish and record a hearing range of
bluegill (in hertz). This was done using two glass fish tanks set up and filled with
forty-eight Liters of water. Two bluegill are then placed in each tank. The tanks
have been labeled: the tested variable sound tank and just a normal fish tank
with the same set up but with out any sound. The fish have been labeled by the
characteristic of size. A sound generator is used to emit a tone at precise
frequency hertz and amplified through a common boom box before during and
after the fish are eating. To date the frequency is 439.8 hertz. Fish are then
watched and there behaviors in relation to the sound and food are recorded.
Background information:
The bluegills like other sunfish have very deep and compressed bodies.
Unlike larger fish the dorsal fin is continuous, with the front part spiny and the
back part soft and round with a dark smudge at the base, also the tail fin is
slightly forked but rounded. The body is mainly a dark green to a black with a
lighter color on the bottom of the fish.
Their name "bluegill" comes from the light blue and purple region on the
cheek and gill cover. A close look would reveal six to eight olive-colored vertical
bars on the side of the body. Typically, adults are between ten and fifteen cm but
they can grow as large as forty-one cm. Young bluegill are usually a paler
version of the adults, usually silver with a slight purple tint.
The males make nests in colonies with somewhere between twenty to fifty
other males in shallow water normally less than one meter deep. The nests are
circular shallow depressions, about twenty to thirty centimeters in diameter, in
sand or fine gravel from which the male has fanned all debris. Once his nest is
made, a male waits in it and grunts to attract females. When a female enters the
nest the male and female swim in circles. Eventually they stop and touch bellies,
the male in an upright posture and the female leaning at an angle. They release
eggs and sperm and then start the process again by swimming in circles. A
female deposits her eggs into several nests, and a male's nest may be used by
several females. Water temp should be around fifteen to twenty five degrees
Celsius. Ph levels should be 6.5 to 8.2. Water and light conditions should be
slightly stained murky with little or no current little or no light. Amount of water
about 5 L per fish 12 US gallons is about 45.425 liters.
As for sound, experiments have shown that a healthy young person hears
all sound frequencies from approximately 20 to 20,000 hertz. Many studies have
been done but the most common result shows that the common range of hearing
for a healthy human is between 20 to 20,000 hertz. Hertz is the SI base unit for
sound.
Summary procedure 1 and 2:
The summary procedure is as follows: Place worms in container. Then
setup sound generator with stereo amplifier. Pull strings. Observe and record fish
eating. The control tank is fed the same way as the variable tank, but the sound
is not emitted into the tank from the sound generator. The test tube with a rubber
stopper is there except it does not have any headphones.
Detailed procedure 1:

Place worms in milk cartons and layer cartons with water till the
bottoms are covered.

Take the string with an attached paper clip which is connected to
the milk carton. Stretch them out, and place them on a desk.

Set up the sound generator with a stereo amplifier by the tank.

Wait an average of fifteen minutes after human movement near the
tank to pull the strings.

Turn on the sound for three seconds, pull the strings while sound is
still on and after strings have been pulled leave the sound on for
another four seconds then turn it off.
Differences and new materials:

Dixi cups used rather than milk cartons.

Time waited in-between sound commencing and feeding.

More fish and tanks (1 fish per tank)

12 total fish (6 with sound generator 6 with out).
Detailed procedure 2:

Place worms into dixi cup and fill with water till bottom is covered.

Take the string with an attached paper clip which is connected to the cup.
Stretch them out, and place them on a desk.

Set up sound generator with stereo amplifier.

Wait an average of fifteen minutes after human movement near the tank to
pull the strings.

Turn on the sound for 1 second(s), pull the strings while sound is still on
and after strings have been pulled leave the sound on for another four
seconds then turn it off.
Dixi cup
Apparatus
Data:
On November nineteenth the first sound procedure was
implemented and these are the results. From November nineteenth to
November twenty eighth Alpha, Beta, Charlie, and Delta (names of
fish) ate all the worms fed to them. On November twenty-ninth fish
beta was not observed eating, beta died. Fish Alpha ate every day but
was not observed eating December fourth. Charlie and Delta have
eaten every day they have been fed.
Discussion/ conclusion:
To evaluate the objective more work needs to be done. The procedure
has been finalized and collecting hard data will come over the summer. When the
fish were observed it can be said that on a few days the fish moved to the sound,
it seemed.
References/ acknowledgements:
Mr. Matty- project guidance
Steph Haulotte- project assistance
Sara Shaffer- project assistance
Zac Nelson- project assistance
And the many other science research students
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/sound/u11l2a.html
http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2003/ChrisDAmbrose.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertz
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