E6_HO_Case study details Part 1

WASH Cluster – Excreta Disposal
E6 – Case study
Pakistan Earthquake 2005 Tented camps near Balakot
Impact and affected areas
A magnitude 7.6 earthquake struck Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan, on October 8, 2005, at 8:50 a.m. local time,
according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The fact that the epicentre was close to the surface, combined with
other geological risk factors, led to immense destruction in the affected areas.
The estimated death toll is 73,000, with an
estimated 3.5 million people left homeless. The
UN reports that 8 million people have been
directly affected. Most buildings in the affected
area had poor earthquake resilience. Of the total
housing stock, 84 percent has been damaged and
destroyed in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and
36 percent was damaged or destroyed in North
West Frontier Province (NWFP). The latest
estimates indicate that 3.2 million to 3.5 million people have been affected by the disaster and are in need of assistance,
including winterised shelter, medical care, food and water and sanitation facilities. The earthquake caused further
enormous damage to infrastructure such as roads and bridges, cutting off huge areas from main road access. Electricity
and water supplies are severely affected. The affected region has a remote and dispersed population.
The Government of Pakistan (GoP) estimates that approximately 6,300 educational institutions were damaged or
destroyed in the earthquake affected area. 850 teachers and 18,000 students were killed in the quake. Almost 50 per
cent of the 800 health facilities in the area affected by the disaster have been destroyed, while another 25 per cent were
Highlights from UNICEF sitrep
The aftermath of the earthquake, the devastation and the impact on people’s lives has been
One week after the earthquake, the combination of: sheer numbers of injured, enormous
logistical challenges and rapidly deteriorating weather conditions, indicates that the relief operations are still at
the life-saving stage
The most critical priorities are winterised shelter, medical, water and sanitation and nutrition. Urgent attention
needs to be given to reaching populations in villages
The lack of safe drinking water will soon become a major health risk
Assessments from the Balakot area indicate that it was one of the worst hit with over 10,000 casualties (out of a
population of 40,000), 90% of buildings destroyed and 80% homeless
WASH Cluster – Excreta Disposal
E6 – Case study
Pakistan Earthquake 2005 Tented camps near Balakot
All relief organisations arriving in Pakistan are requested to contact the UNOCHA office in Balakot, UNDP to
obtain and exchange relevant information
Your team
You have been allocated an organisation from the list below. You have been in country for one week and are here to
respond to the emergency needs. Your organisations work has centred on activities in the tented villages around
Balokot (see below). As well as taking over responsibility for your organisations existing activities your team has been
specifically tasked to assess the current needs and to develop the future programmes.
Site Camp
Distance from
Balakot (km)
Status of site camp
Set up: tent and monitor stationed.
Receiving families. Ground starting to
Set up: tent and monitor
Stationed. Closed to new arrivals due to
flooding after heavy rain
Monitoring team only. Mountainous, rocky
You are part of the WASH cluster and have been invited to a meeting which starts in 25 minutes. At this meeting you
will present your organisations planned activities. More details on some of the other organisations who will be present is
given below. Think about how the activities of the other organisations might affect your response.
In particular, address the following:
What practical measures you would carry out or support in the short term?
What is your assessment strategy and what key information do you require?
What questions do you have for other organisations present (see organisations involved with WASH below)?
Are there potential areas of collaboration?
What is the overall strategy concerning excreta disposal in the first phase of your response?
Is there anyone else not present at this meeting that you would need to consult with?
WASH Cluster – Excreta Disposal
E6 – Case study
Pakistan Earthquake 2005 Tented camps near Balakot
WASH organisations
UNICEF and partners are working to prevent disease and deaths in relief camps by providing water and
storage tanks, setting up latrines and distributing hygiene supplies.
At present Oxfam is focusing on providing survivors with appropriate shelter, and access to clean water.
Oxfam’s water and sanitation work continues in the many of the affected areas and will be responsible for
providing latrines and water facilities. In response to the creation of tented cities by the Pakistan
Government, Oxfam has been assigned leadership in the water and sanitation sector for some of these
cities and work will include water distribution, water storage, and the provision of latrines, bathhouses
and waste collection.
On 25 October the Federation revised its emergency appeal to assist 81,000 families with winterized
shelter, emergency health care and basic water and sanitation services.
Acted will be providing additional plastic sheeting and tools such as shovels to enable families to install
temporary latrine facilities with their emergency shelter. This will be supplemented with educational
material alerting communities to the health risks associated with poor sanitation. Debris and rubble
clearance will improve environmental and health conditions.
Concern is providing watsan services to 22,000 families (approximately 154,000 individuals) residing in
camps in the Muzaffarabad and Balakot areas.
In Muzaffarabad, we are partnering with IR to establish latrines, water supply, and hygiene education for
20,000 families in camps in/around the city.. Work has already begun on latrine construction in the camps,
and 500 hygiene kits are under procurement.
Rural Development Project (RDP), a local NGO, to provide 2000 families with solid waste management
services, latrines, water supply, and hygiene kits
WASH Cluster – Excreta Disposal
E6 – Case study
Pakistan Earthquake 2005 Tented camps near Balakot
“But even more important than an out-of-action water supply network is the lack of latrines. We estimate around
five or six hundred thousand homes been destroyed in this disaster, toilets and latrines included. This leaves us with a
huge problem. Several million people are openly defecating into their immediate environment. This is a ticking
bomb waiting to go off. The lack of hygiene present here is on a scale that I have never seen in 30 years in this
sector." UNICEF senior regional officer
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