Sample annotated bibliography

Citation Formats
In a bibliography, entries should be in alphabetical order by author’s last name or the first substantive word in the
title if there is no author listed. Use periods to separate parts of the citation and at the end. Indent every line
AFTER the first one.
What makes the bibliography annotated is a sentence or two after each entry describing the text and how you think
it will help you with your research. The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to get you to start organizing your
research. You do not have to have read everything yet, but you should be able to say why you picked the text from
the shelf or off the web. Put your notes about the text directly below it.
The bibliography you turn in with your paper should NOT be annotated. When you are done with the paper,
simply remove the annotations, add any sources that you did not have when you turned in the annotated
bibliography and put them in alphabetical order.
Sample annotated bibliography
[If you have a book, the citation would look like this. Verso is the name of the publisher]
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised edition.
New York: Verso Books, 1991.
[The annotation goes here]Anderson’s book argues that nations were constructed by European elites as a strategy
for power using tools like the printing press. The book will help me to fill in the section of the paper on how we
came to think about the world the way we do.
[For a website. If there is an author, put the name at the beginning with the last name first. If not, start with
the title of the web page. Often the IP address will be so long that it will flip down to the second line and look
odd. Don’t worry. If you copy and paste the address from your browser, be sure to hit backspace once after
you paste to erase the hyperlink, which will show up as color and cause your printer to print the whole paper
in color. You put the date you accessed the site in brackets at the end. Don’t forget the periods.]
Bush, George W. “2005 State of the Union Address.” [web page] [accessed February 20, 2005].
The recent state of the union address has lots of good evidence for my paper. It will go in the section describing how
the administration is describing the war.
[Here is a citation for an article from a journal. List all the pages it covers, not just the ones you use. Pp is
for pages.]
Huntington, Samuel. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs (v. 72, n. 3, Summer 1993). Pp. 22-49.
Huntington’s article is a classic. It presents an argument about the world after the Cold War and it will help me
define and argue about civilizations.
[For a chapter in an edited volume.]
Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus. “Whose Identity? Rhetorical Commonplaces in American Foreign Policy” in Patricia
Goff and Kevin Dunn (eds.) Identity and Global Politics: Empirical and Theoretical Elaborations. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers, 2004. Pp. 161-189.
Jackson argues that the idea of civilization has become part of the definition of the War on Terror. It will help me
because the way he studies things is just what I want to do in my paper.
Citation Formats
Footnotes list the same information as the bibliography, but in a different format. To insert a footnote, put the cursor
where you want the note to go. This should be immediately after all the punctuation for the sentence. Then go to the
insert menu and pull down to “footnote.” The program will insert a little superscript number (5) where the cursor
was and move the cursor to the bottom of the page, right after an identical superscript number. The first line of a
footnote is indented and all the others are not. Make sure that the number is indented and then start typing. When
you are done, put a period, but don’t hit return. Scroll up to the main body and start typing your text again.
In footnotes, the author’s first name goes first. Footnotes use commas in most places where you use periods in the
bibliographic entry. Notice that after you list a citation in full the first time you use that source, the next time you
use it, even pages later, you can just put the author’s name (or some unique identifying information) and the specific
page number from which you got that new specific piece of information. You do not need to repeat all the
bibliographic information. See the example of George Bush below.
You must do a footnote for direct quotations. These can be either quotations with footnotes or, if the quotation is
longer than 4 lines, it should be a block quotation. Block quotations are single spaced and indented on the left side.
They do not use quotation marks. You should also footnotes sentences that contain information that is not common
knowledge or information that you could only be found in a few places. Numbers are often so specific that they
require a footnote. That WWII ended in 1945 does not need to be footnoted, but the number of troops who died in
the war would be.
Sample paragraph from the body of a paper and corresponding footnotes:
… As Patrick Jackson argues, in this discourse, terrorists constitute a small group of radical outsiders assaulting a
single worldwide civilization.1 The Iraqi discourse of crime, based on the importance of law, meshes seamlessly
with the rhetoric that contrasts a civilized global society with barbarians. Therefore, the president can talk about
“transforming a place of torture chambers and mass graves into a nation of laws and free institutions” 2 and “rolling
back the terrorist threat to civilization, not on the fringes of its influence, but at the heart of its power.” 3 Through
defense of law and civilization, war becomes peace.
The threat to peace does not come from those who seek to enforce the just demands of the civilized world;
the threat to peace comes from those who flout those demands. If we have to act, we will act to restrain the
violent, and defend the cause of peace. And by acting, we will signal to outlaw regimes that in this new
century, the boundaries of civilized behavior will be respected. 4
This plays perfectly into the rhetoric of Huntington’s famous “Clash of Civilizations” argument in which he argues
that the world is divided into seven or eight civilizations that will fight each other during the next phase of human
Patrick Thaddeus Jackson, “Whose Identity?: Rhetorical Commonplaces in ‘American’ Wartime Foreign
Policy,” in Patricia M. Goff and Kevin C. Dunn, eds. Identity and Global Politics: Empirical and Theoretical
Elaborations (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004), p. 180.
2 George W. Bush, “Address to the nation,” [web page] [accessed January 7, 2005].
3 George W. Bush, “Address to the nation” [webpage].
4 President Bush, speech to American Enterprise Institute, February 26, 2003, [accessed January 7, 2005].
5 Samuel Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs (volume 72, number 3, Summer 1993),
page 25.