Leo Lin

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Chemistry Supplement Review for Earth Science
Use the following terms to fill in the blanks. Words can be used more than once and some
not at all. You might need to use the plural form of some of the words.
Atom
element
molecule
isotope
electron
Neutron
proton
ion
compound
radioactive
Positive
negative
neutral
ionic
covalent
dense
nucleus
hydrogen (H)
orbital
atomic number
metal
mass
nonmetal
2
8
The basic building block of all matter is the _________________. At its centre is the
nucleus, which contains positively charged ____________ and neutral ____________.
Outside the nucleus, high-speed ____________ orbit with a negative charge.
If you were to sum the number of protons this would be equivalent to the atom’s
________ __________. Totaling both the protons and neutrons would give the atomic
____________. Differences in the atomic mass of one type of atom are due to differences
in the number of __________ with in the atom’s ___________. Variations in the atomic
mass for atoms of a given element are called ___________. Some of these can be
_______________.
In a chemical reaction only the ____________ of an atom are involved. Reactions occur
because there are insufficient ____________ in the outermost orbital of an atom.
Though filling procedures of electrons in electron orbitals is complex, we can simplify
the filling procedures somewhat. The innermost orbital can contain only _________
electrons. The next two orbitals can each contain a maximum of ________ electrons.
______________ are filled from the innermost outward. Filled ____________ do not
participate in chemical reactions.
____________ bonds occur when a _________ ion gives an ___________ and when a
____________ ion accepts an electron. An important example occurs between sodium, a
____________, and chlorine, a ______________. Chlorine gains one ______________
while sodium loses one ______________. This results in sodium having a net
____________ charge and chlorine having a net ____________ charge.
When electrons are shared equally by two atoms, a ________________ bond occurs. No
charges, not even slight charges, occur within the resulting ____________. Covalent
bonds can form between two identical __________ atoms or two different nonmetal
atoms. The resulting structure in both cases is called a _______________.
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