doc - PICES - North Pacific Marine Science Organization

W4 Workshop Abstracts
The rare marine protist Dinophysis acuminata
Patrick Gentien1, Elisabeth Nézan1, Pascal Lazure1 and Hongqin Xie2
IFREMER, Centre de Brest, B.P. 70, 29280, Plouzané, France. E-mail: [email protected]
LED, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, 510301,
PR China
Marine species, like a vast majority of species, face the challenge of sexual recombination. In the ocean, sex is a
battle against dispersal. At low densities, species must overcome the Allee effect in decreasing the separation
distance between potential gametes. Although rare, Dinophysis acuminata is the major harmful planktonic
species in marine European waters. As such, its intensive monitoring provides a unique opportunity to study a
rare marine species. We describe here the strategy whereby it takes advantage of temporary hydrodynamic
structures. This feature of D. acuminata population dynamics is essential to the understanding and therefore, to
the prediction of harmful events at the coast. Building up on the limited knowledge we have of this species and
using general concepts enabled us to establish a prediction scheme of D. acuminata harmful events at the coast.
This scheme has been validated on a 12 year time series and will be further improved when the nutritive source
for this dinoflagellate is discovered.
Are Dinophysis spp. always responsible for DSP toxicity of bivalves?
Ichiro Imai1 and Goh Nishitani2
Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima, 739-0452,
Toxins of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) are thought to originate from toxic Dinophysis species. However,
in Tohoku districts such as Mutsu Bay in northern Japan, there have been some cases in which the scallop
toxicity increased in the absence of Dinophysis, or in which the scallop toxicity did not increase during blooms
of D. acuminata and D. fortii. Additionally in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan, DSP incidents have never
detected despite having often blooms of D. fortii with cell densities higher than 3000 cells L-1. According to the
mixotrophy and the attachment of picophytoplankton cells to D. acuminata and D. fortii, we hypothesize that
Dinophysis spp. may be originally nontoxic and may become toxic secondarily through the ingestion of toxic
small-sized phytoplankton. From the results of monitorings conducted in Mutsu Bay in 2000, DSP toxins were
detected twice in the mid-gut gland of scallops on 26 June and on 3 July. Relatively high cell densities of
D. fortii were observed on June 26 and September 11, and may only contribute to the bivalve toxicity during late
June to early July. D. acuminata was not responsible for the toxicity of scallops in Mutsu Bay in 2000. ELISAmonitorings of small-sized (0.7–5 m) plankton fraction in seawater could detect DSP toxins from two weeks
before the detection of the toxin in scallops.
Fluctuations of Dinophysis spp. and small phytoplankton (cryptophytes, other nano-phytoplankton,
cyanobacteria and eukaryotic pico-phytoplankton) were investigated in Hiroshima Bay, Mutsu Bay and Ise Bay,
Japan. Small-sized cryptophytes (< 5 m) showed a close relationship with D. acuminata in Hiroshima Bay and
Mutsu Bay. In Ise Bay, peaks of the occurrences of middle- (5–10 m) and small-sized cryptophytes were
observed 2–3 weeks before the peak of D. acuminata. These cryptophytes decreased rapidly with increases in
D. acuminata. These results suggest a possibility that small-sized cryptophytes may be food organisms for
mixotrophic Dinophysis.
As a new aspect, we have newly found toxicities of attached material on the surface of scallops in Mutsu Bay in
August of 2005. Identification and isolation of toxic organisms from the surface of scallops appear to be urgent
tasks for making clear the mechanisms of DSP occurrences in Mutsu Bay.
The known and unknown on the initiation of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in
Korean waters
Hak-Gyoon Kim1, Chang-Kyu Lee2, Kyong-Ho An2, Wol-Ae Lim2, Sook-Yang Kim2 and Young-Tae Park2
Department of Oceanography, Pukyong National University, 599-1, Daeyon-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-737, Republic of Korea
E-mail: [email protected]
Marine Harmful Organisms Research Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, 409-1, Shirang-ri, Gijang-up,
Gijang-gun, Busan, 619-902, Republic of Korea
Fish-killing dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, blooms have been recurred and become widespread in
Korean waters since 1995. The first bloom has been observed in the central part of the South Sea for the last
decade. It was a mixing zone of slightly eutrophic and warm waters triggered by nutrients from eutrophic
coastal water and heat energy from Kuroshio warm current. Then the subsequent blooms make enlarge their
plume to neighboring waters by winds and tidal currents, and become dense enough to kill fish by merge of
transported and concurring bloom therein. They move to the eastward to the same direction of Kuroshio
Current. Our recent known is that the most important driving forces for the initiation of C. polykrikoides bloom
are the heat supply from Kuroshio Current and the other is the nutrient load from the coastal waters.
Besides, the unknown is that where C. polykrikoides come from. Are they come from benthic resting cysts or
from the transported swimming cells by way of Kuroshiwo current? To clarify the initiation, bio-geographical
distribution of C. polykrikoides with oceanographic properties have to be studied simultaneously in the Western
Pacific, East and South China Sea, and coastal waters bordering China, Japan and Korea. That is why regional
collaborative C. polykrikoides monitoring network should be established to encompass all those interested areas
to clarify the unknown which is the essential for early prediction and collaborative management and mitigation
of harmful algal blooms (HABs) among PICES member countries.
Impact of yellow clay on respiration and phytoplankton uptake of benthic shellfish
Changkyu Lee, Youngtae Park, Kyeongho An and Yoon Lee
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, 408-1, Shirang-ri, Gijang-up, Gijang-gun, Busan, 619-902, Republic of Korea
E-mail: [email protected]
Yellow clay dispersion has been applied to mitigate red tides in Korea since 1995. The effects of clay
dispersion include the coagulation, sedimentation, and destruction of phytoplankton. The present study
documents the impact on the shellfish physiology with three marine shellfishes by examinations of yellow clay
uptake, respiration, and clearance rate (CR) of animals after the treatment of yellow clay. Mussel took much
clay in early and kept it longer. Abalone was a slow clay-taker relatively. The amount of clay in gills and
inside cavities of shellfishes was increased in a temporal manner and the inside of the shellfishes was turned to
be a full of clay by 2 h. The ejection of the accumulated clay was evident from as early as 30 minutes rescued
from clay pools. The whole clay in shellfishes was discharged by 6 h passed after their removal. The amount of
oxygen consumed was decreased by the level of clay, and however there was no statistical significant between
treatments. After a peak in 30 min, CRs declined rapidly and the CRs became restored to the level of the
untreated control groups within 2 h. The treated amount of clay did not directly contribute to the alternation of
the CRs and the eating habit of shellfishes was returned to normal after 30 min with clay particles still within
their organs.
Recent progress of the study on a harmful dinoflagellate - Cochlodinium polykrikoides
Kazumi Matsuoka
Institute for East China Sea Research, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki, 852-8521, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
An unarmored chain-forming dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides was described from Puerto Rico by
Marglaef in 1961. This species was first recognized in the Yatsushiro Sound of West Japan in 1975 and then
caused a serious economic damage to yellow-tail aquaculture industries in the same area in 1978. Thereafter, it
has been known to be harmful for fish aquaculture in western Japan and southern Korea for the last two decades.
Another chain-forming species, Cochlodinium heterolobatum was described from New Jersey, U.S.A. by Silva
in 1967. Under such circumstances, several taxonomic studies on these species with other related taxa have
been conducted. Recent taxonomic progress on these species is that C. polykrikoides and C. heterolobatum has
been synonymized. However, another taxonomic issue with Cochlodinium catenatum described by Okamura
from the coast of Tokyo Bay, Central Japan in 1916 revealed.
Regarding the geographical expansion of C. polykrikoides in the relation to the intraspecific variety, SSU rDNA
sequences of C. polykrikoides strains collected from Japan, Korea, Philippines and Malaysia were analysed.
Sequence divergences between all Korean and most of Japanese strains were completely identical, while other
strains had several substitutions to them. According to this data, the origin of this species seems to be in and
around tropical to subtropical coastal areas such as the Philippines and Saba, Malaysia.
However, its biological nature such as optimum environmental conditions for reproduction, life history
including resting cysts and ichtyotoxicity are not fully understood for the moment. Noxious effects on
aquaculture, expanding mechanisms and taxonomic histories of motile cells and cysts was summarized and
discussed in the present study for clarification of various problems concerning with C. polykrikoides.
Harmful blooms of Cochlodinium polykrikoides in the southwestern Sea of Japan (Sanin coastal waters)
Kazutaka Miyahara1, Ryosuke Uji2 and Mineo Yamaguchi3
Hyogo Tajima Fisheries Technology Institute, 1126-5 Sakai, Kasumi, Kami, Mikata, Hyogo, 669-9541, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Tottori Prefectural Fisheries Research Center, Ishiwaki, Yurihama, Tohaku, Tottori, 689-0602, Japan
Harmful Algal Bloom Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Maruishi, Hatsukaich,
Hiroshima, 739-0452, Japan
Since 2002, blooms of Cochlodinium polykrikoides have often been observed in early autumn in the
southwestern Sea of Japan (San-in coastal waters in Tottori and Hyogo prefectures, Japan) and caused a great
deal of damages to local coastal fisheries. This study reports on the bloom of 2003, focusing on the distribution
and its association with oceanographic conditions. The bloom was first found in the western Hyogo on
September 15 and in the eastern Tottori on September 16, and then spread over all around Tottori and to the
eastern Hyogo on September 17-18. Detritus-like dark brown masses composed of inactive or decayed cells of
C. polykrikoides were accumulated on the seafloor in the middle and end of the bloom. Water temperature,
salinity and dissolved oxygen during the bloom ranged 24.9-28.4oC, 26.80-32.11 and 2.3-9.3 ml/l, respectively.
The maximum cell density of C. polykrikoides was 12,400 cells/ml and various kinds of prevalent aquatic
animals such as not only finfishes, but also molluscs and echinoids, were crucially damaged, killed, stranded
and observed to behave abnormally. Flow pattern of the Tsushima Current and images of SST and
chlorophyll-a from satellite observations suggested that the bloom was presumably related to the Tsushima
Current; it flowed specifically alongside the coastal area, where water temperature was about 1ºC higher than
that of 2002. The bloom occurred in so wide-spread areas of Tottori and Hyogo that careful monitoring and
observation are needed to prevent recurrent damages to the fisheries in the areas.
Species of the genera Cochlodinium and Dinophysis from the east coast of Russia
Tatiana Orlova, Marina Selina and Galina Konovalova
Institute of Marine Biology, FEBRAS, 17 Palchevskogo Street, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia. E-mail: [email protected]
Species composition, distribution and occurrence of Cochlodinium spp. and Dinophysis spp. from the east coast
of Russia are discussed. Nine species of Cochlodinium are known from the Russian Pacific coast.
Cochlodinium is an infrequent component of phytoplankton that is usually observed in August-October at low
density (100-200 cells/l). One short duration outbreak of Cochlodinium sp. cf. polykrikoides (up 2 000 000
cell/l) was registered in hypereutrophic area of Amurskii Bay in July, 2003.
Twenty eight species of Dinophysis are known for the Far Eastern Seas of Russia. Four species, D. acuminata,
D. acuta, D. fortii and D. rotundata, were common and abundant. D. acuminata is the most widespread and
abundant species in Russian waters. Highest concentrations of this species were observed on Kamchatka in
October (450 000 cells/l) and in the coastal waters of Primorye in August (11 000 cells/l). D. acuta is the most
common species near Sakhalin Isl. (2 000 cells/l). The maximum concentration of D. fortii (3 000 cells/l) was
observed in Peter-the-Great Bay in Primorye. Seasonal fluctuations of Dinophysis indicate higher abundance in
summer and autumn. The toxin composition of Dinophysis from Russian waters remains to be determined.
What we know and what we do not know about Dinophysis
Beatriz Reguera, L. Escalera, S. Gonzalez-Gil, G. Pizarro, L. Velo and J.M. Franco
Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Aptdo 1552, 36200, Vigo, Spain. E-mail: [email protected]
Dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis Ehrenberg may constitute the main threat for shellfish growers in many
coastal regions of Europe, New Zealand, Chile and Japan. Despite their moderate presence (<40 cell L-1) most
of the year, some species, such as Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta, can reach high numbers
(103-105 cell L-1), develop very persistent blooms, and lead to prolonged closures of shellfish harvesting. Their
scarcity and patchy distribution requires sampling strategies different from conventional phytoplankton
sampling. Up to date, nobody has succeeded to obtain permanent cultures of any species of Dinophysis; the
sexual cycle has been described but some stages have not been reproduced in the laboratory; studies on
physiology and behaviour, toxin profile and toxin content per cell and genetics have been based on field
populations and/or isolation of cells by microcapillarity. Here we revise existing information on the biology,
ecology and toxinology of Dinophysis spp., their shared attributes and their species-specific features, and
identify the main issues that require focused attention to solve important gaps in knowledge on the main species
of Dinophysis from the point of view of their world-wide economic impact.
LC-MS/MS analysis of lipophilic toxins in Japanese Dinophysis species
Toshiyuki Suzuki1, Akira Miyazono2, Yutaka Okumura1 and Takashi Kamiyama1
Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, 3-27-5 Shiogama, Shiogama, Miyagi, 985-0001, Japan. E-mail: [email protected]
Hokkaido Hakodate Fisheries Experimental Station, 1-2-66 Yunokawa, Hakodate, Hokkaido, 042-0932, Japan
Quantification of lipophilic toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in the toxic dinoflagelate
Dinophysis fortii, D. acuminata, D. mitra, D. norvegica, D. tripos, D. infundibulus and D. rotundata collected in
coastal waters Hokkaido, Japan in 2005 was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
(LC-MS/MS). Okadaic acid (OA), OA diol-esters, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), 7-O-palmitoyldinophysistoxin-1
(DTX3), pectenotoxin-1 (PTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), pectenotoxin-6 (PTX6), pectenotoxin-11 (PTX11),
pectenotoxin-2 seco-acid (PTX2sa), yessotoxin (YTX) and 45-hydroxyyessotoxin (45-OHYTX) in the
Dinophysis species were quantified by LC-MS/MS. PTX2 was the dominant toxin in D. acuminata,
D. norvegica and D. infundibulus whereas both DTX1 and PTX2 were the principal toxins in D. fortii. D. mitra
and D. tripos did not produced any toxins. In our previous study, several OA diol-esters and a novel
pectenotoxin, PTX11, were discovered in D. acuta collected in New Zealand. These toxins were not detected in
any Dinophysis strains in Japan.
Cochlodinium and Dinophysis in western U.S. and Canada
Vera L. Trainer1 and Charles G. Trick2
Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, Seattle, WA, 98112, U.S.A.
E-mail: [email protected]
Schulich School of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada
At least 4-5 Dinophysis species, including D. fortii, D. tripos, D. parva, D. acuminata, and D. acuta, some of
which are known to be toxic elsewhere in the world are found in western U.S. and Canadian waters. Beginning
in 2003, total dinophysistoxins (DTX, pectenotoxins, and okadaic acid) were measured at levels above 1g/g in
manila clam, Pacific oyster, littleneck clam, and geoduck clam harvested from British Columbia in western
Canada. European Union (EU) countries require testing for these toxins in shellfish that are shipped into Europe
from Canada, but there is no requirement to test for these toxins in shellfish distributed within the U.S. The first
recorded Cochlodinium bloom that caused mortality of aquacultured salmon on the west coast of Canada from
August through October 1999 resulted in economic losses of approximately $2 million. Fish stopped feeding
when cell counts exceeded 400 cells/ml in the net pens, and mortality was observed when cells numbered above
2000 cells/ml. This genus has been observed in samples on the U.S. west coast, but to date, no finfish
mortalities due to this organism have been observed. Western Pacific nations suffer many more problems due to
Cochlodinium and Dinophysis than the U.S. and Canada.
Dinophysis spp.: The abundance, distribution and the toxicity of DSP in the East China
Jinhui Wang, Yutao Qin , Caicai Liu , Xiangshen Chen and Ren Xu
East China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, SOA, Dongtang road 630, Shanghai, 200137, PR China. E-mail: [email protected]
There are 4 potential DSP causing algae in East China Sea, including Dinophysis caudata, D. fortii,
D. acuminata, and D. rotundata. Two species, D. caudate and D. fortii, are abundant and can be found
throughout the year, with a maximum density of Dinophysis caudata up to 30,000 cell/L, and an occurrence
frequency ranging from 2%~38%. The density of Dinophysis spp. has a positive correlation with temperature
and pH but a negative correlation with suspended particles and nutrient concentrations. DSP was detected in 21
of 44 shellfish species. The detection rate of 10 species of shellfish ranged from 8 to 33%, including Comb pen
shell, scallop, heptic moon shell, mussel, Venus clam, Oyster, Periwinkle and Blood clam. The levels of
toxicity ranged from undetectable to 10 Mu/100g. One half of the samples presented okadaic acid levels ranging
from 0.007 to 1.255µg/100g; the toxin levels of 11 natural grown shellfish was higher than cultured species,
and the toxicity of these species ranged from 5 to 15 Mu/100g with the concentration of okadaic acid ranged
from 0.36 4.94µg/100g; it is suggested that mussel (Mytilus edulis, Perna viridis), heptic moon shell (Polynices
didyma), Oyster (Ostrea rivularis), Blood clam (Scapharca subcrenata) and Gomphina veneriform may serve as
early warning indicator species for DSP detection and risk management activities.
Activity of CEARAC about Harmful Algal Blooms in the NOWPAP region
Takafumi Yoshida and Takeshi Ogawa
CEARAC (Special Monitoring and Coastal Environmental Assessment Regional Activity Centre), NOWPAP, 5-5 Ushijimashin-machi,
Toyama City, Toyama, 930-0856, Japan. E-mail: [email protected]
CEARAC (Special Monitoring and Coastal Environmental Assessment Regional Activity Centre) has carried
out regional activities in the NOWPAP (Northwest Pacific Action Plan) region. In these activities, CEARAC is
implementing activities related to Harmful Algal Blooms in Working Group 3. CEARAC/WG3 has compiled a
National Report on HAB of each member country (China, Japan, Korea and Russia) and integrated Report of the
NOWPAP region and established HAB Reference Database.
In red tide species, Cochlodinium is one of the species of concern in the NOWPAP region for damage to coastal
fisheries. Therefore, WG3 has organized the corresponding group on Cochlodinium (CCG) so as to make a set
of information on Cochlodinium. In CCG activities, a website has been constructed which introduces
Cochlodinium briefly to scientists and the public concerning environmental problems. The website includes
pictures of Cochlodinium, explanation of the species, and information of its damage to the fishery, and so on.
We also made a brochure of Cochlodinium to share information in the NOWPAP region.
In 2006-2007 biennium, CEARAC/WG3 suggested an activity for “Promotion of Mitigation” of red tides as a
main activity and a booklet will be made on countermeasures against red tide which includes Cochlodinium.
This booklet aims to share information on countermeasures against red tides among the NOWPAP members, to
contribute to establishing policies and measures against red tides with stakeholders and related agencies.
CEARAC and NOWPAP would like to share the information with PICES and work together.
HAB Meeting Abstracts
Progress in the development of an international collaborative harmful algal event data
base: The joint IOC-ICES-PICES HAE-DAT
Henrik Oksfeldt Enevoldsen1 and Monica Lion2
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, University of
Copenhagen, O. Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail: [email protected]
IOC-IEO Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, Spanish Institute of Oceanography, 36200, Vigo, Spain
The IOC, ICES and PICES are jointly operating the Harmful Algal Event Data base HAE-DAT with the view to
expand the partnership and thereby build a global harmful algal event database. HAE-DAT provides a
comprehensive format for reporting all types of algal events which are perceived by society as harmful. For the
PICES region will additionally be recorded algal blooms which did not cause any harm. During 2005-2006
HAE-DAT had its software platform upgraded and improved and during 2006 the associated mapping function
is being developed. The test version of the mapping function will be presented for trial, comments and
discussion. Progress in submission of 2000-onward records from the PICES areas will be assessed and
assistance will be provided as required.
The Monitoring System on HABs in China
Hao Guo
National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Linghe Street 42, Dalian, 116023, PR China
E-mail: [email protected]
The first red tide in China was recorded in 1933, from then on more than 800 red tide events have been
documented. The research on red tides has gained importance since 1978, but recent work has focused on the
survey of morphologic/physiological/ecological parameters. The comprehensive and solid national monitoring
system on HABs started formally in 2002, when 10 red tide monitoring zones were established. There are 33
red tide monitoring zones in Chinese coastal areas that have enhanced our knowledge of red tides. Research on
HABs has placed recent emphasis on early warning and forecasting. This emergency response system has play
an important role in mitigating and preventing the impacts of red tides in recent years.
A regional U.S. west coast observing system for toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia
Vera L. Trainer1, Barbara M. Hickey2, and Michael G. Foreman3
Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd. East, Seattle, WA, 98112,
U.S.A. E-mail: [email protected]
School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, U.S.A.
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada
The presence of domoic acid, the toxin produced periodically by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, appears
to be associated with topographically retentive regions off the North American west coast. The biological and
physical processes of Pseudo-nitzschia bloom development, toxicity, and transport are currently being
characterized in detail for one such feature, the Juan de Fuca eddy. We have learned that transport of cells from
this eddy to the coast is strongly associated with downwelling-favorable wind events. Because circulation in
retentive regions is generally more robust than in open coastal regions, these areas may better lend themselves to
modeling of transport pathways. Numerical circulation models, forced with winds predicted several days into
the future, such as with the MM5 atmospheric model, together with drifters deployed during key harmful algal
bloom (HAB) development periods will be used to predict regional scale movement of toxigenic cells. Sensing
platforms, placed in offshore areas that include likely initiation sites for HABs, will be used to collect both realtime and time series data needed to initialize, calibrate, and validate physical and biological models and
associated forecasts. With the system fully in place, managers will be able to use the models and real-time data
from drifters and moored arrays to forecast landfall of an identified bloom event with some accuracy. This will
give them enough warning to minimize the impact on human health while at the same time allowing harvest of
coastal resources, including razor clams and Dungeness crabs.
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