Scene by scene composition

Kalyanasougandhikam: Scene by Scene Composition
Kalyanasougandhikam is one of the most popular Kathakali plays composed by Kottayam
Thampuran, in the 17th century and considered as one of the best classical literature in the entire
Kathakali repertoire. An encounter between two step brothers, both sons of wind God Vayu, the
monkey chief Hanuman and the second of Pandava brothers; the mighty Bhima, is one of the
highly dramatic scenes on Kathakali stage.
The story is taken from the Vana Parva of the great Indian epic Mahabharata. The five Pandava
brothers were in exile in the forest to fulfill the condition laid by their cousin brother Duryodhana
and evil uncle Sakuni, as they were cheated in the dice game. One day Bhima, the second of
Pandava brothers is enjoying the company of his wife Draupadi in very beautiful natural
surroundings of Naranarayana ashrama— in the valley of mount Himalaya.
BHIMA: Second of five Pandava brothers.
DRAUPADI: Wife of five Pandava brothers.
HANUMAN: The famous monkey chief from Ramayana.
Introductory verse: Ragam sankarabharanam Talam – Chempata (Aadi)
(Kaale kadaachidatha kaami janaanukule
Maaleya maarutha vilolitha maalathike
Leela rasena vicharan vipine vinoda
Lola sameerana sutho ramanim abhaanil)
Padam: Panchama kuchitha sukokile
Paramiha devi sumangale…
Scene 1: Kale kadaachidatha… Introduction—The climate is very much enjoyable, especially for
the lovers. In the gentle wind from the Malaya Mountain the jasmine creepers are swinging
gracefully. In this appreciable surrounding and joyful occasion, Bhima who is in an amorous mood
talks these pleasing words to his consort.
Bhima: Panchama kuchitha. The cuckoos are singing with Panchama note. The nature is so
pleasant. O you, the one who has sweet sound like a parrot, please come on the marble surface and
let us enjoy.
Nin chala lochana. O dear, your beautiful flickering eyes defeat the eyes of the fearful deer.
Descriptive verse: Ragam— Mukhari— thalam— chempata
Vathena vatsalathayeva kilopanitham
Chethoharam parimala anusrtha ali vrindam.
Padam: Enkanava kantalum ni enkal oru kusumam
(Descriptive verse): Vathena vatsalathayeva… Then a divine flower of rare fragrance surrounded
by swarms of bees, waft by gentle breeze, falls at the feet of Draupadi. She collects the divine
flower and approaches her beloved (Bhima).
Draupadi: En kanava kantalum… O dear, look at this flower in my hand.
Nin karuna untennakil.If you are kind enough, I am sure that I will get more flowers of this kind.
Parililla parthal engum… It is difficult to find such beautiful flowers anywhere on earth. So I am
very much interested (to get such flowers), O lotus eyed one.
Vallathennakilum nija vallabhanmarotallathe… Whatever it may be, other than to their own
husbands, true wives will not disclose their desires.
Padam of Bhima: Ragam—Dhanyasi, Thalam— Chempata.
Manchel mizhiyale ninnal vanchthangal ayitunno—
Ranchitha saugandhikangal anchathe kontannituvan.
Bhima: Manchel mizhiyale ninnal… O doe eyed one, the Sougandhika flowers on which you have
great desire; I will get them immediately.
Saila mukalil ennalum. Even if from the top of the mountain or from the heavens I have no
difficulty to get them and to fulfil your wish.
(Interpolation Without vocal support)
Bhima: Immediately I am departing in search of the divine flowers.
Draupadi: O dear, what will you get to quench your hunger and thirst?
Bhima: O you the most beautiful one, your flickering glance, overwhelmed with love, which will
always try to follow me on my way, will be the food for my journey.
Draupadi: Who will help you to defend from the enemies in strange places?
Bhima: For me? This club which is capable of destroying even the mightiest of enemies will be
always in my hand to overcome all the obstructions. So don't be worried about me. You stay
happily with my brothers till I return. (Bhima takes leave from Draupadi and proceeds in search of
the divine flower.)
(Bhima is in the thick forest; somewhere near the mount Gandhamadana. He scales the huge
mountain with his eyes.)
Bhima: Here is the mountain Gandhamadana in front of me. On the mountain, different minerals
in various colors flow from the rocks and glitter in the sun shine. Thick black clouds on top of the
mountain resemble the smoke risen from the forest fire from the valley, spread over.
Let me now climb on the mountain. Here the thick forest interlocked with thick and long creepers
and huge trees with large branches makes hurdles on my way. Different wild animals freely
wander around making different noises.
Here are beautiful deer grazing in the meadow, playing together and flee when they get scared.
Here there are peacocks dancing. So many monkeys are playing on top of the trees.
Look at the mighty tusker strolling in the thick jungle, breaks the branches of the trees, eats the
leaves, pours dust and mud on its back and finally relaxes. A huge python crawls towards the
elephant and catches hold of its back foot. The elephant tries to get rid of the python and the
python tries to swallow the elephant. While the struggle between the wild beasts is at its peak, a
hungry lion watching this fight does not want to miss the opportunity. It jumps on the elephant's
back, hits and splits opens its head, drinks the blood and eats its flesh. After getting satisfied the
lion jumps off. The poor elephant cannot stand the double attacks. It collapses and takes its last
breath. (Witnessing such incidences Bhima proceeds further by removing the obstructions on his
path with the mace).
Scene 2: Ragam— Madhyamavathi. Thalam— Jhumpa.
(Introductory verse): Ayasa hinam athi ghora gatha sahayam
Ayantham asu hanumanbhuja sakthi mantham
Ayasa hinam athi ghora: While Bhima is on his way in search of the divine flower, having the
mighty weapon—the mace—in his hand and as an embodiment of heroism, Hanuman who is in
deep meditation to Lord Sree Rama, seeing Bhima wonders thus.
Action — Hanuman seated as if in deep meditation. His concentration is disturbed. He thinks
about the reason of this disturbance. “Why is my mind disturbed? According to the blessings of
Lord Rama, my meditation cannot be disturbed until the end of the universe.” He looks around.
“The time has yet not come for the world's destruction. The trees and the creepers are full of new
leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. The birds are flying in the sky. The animals make different sounds
and flee to hide themselves. So this is not the time for the end.” Now he listens some terrifying
sound and searches for the reason. He sees somebody approaching from far. “Here comes
someone having a golden glow. He carries a conch and a club in his hand. Who may be this? Let
me find out.”
Padam of Hanuman: Ragam— Madhyamavathi, Thalam Jhumpa.
Ariha varunnath ivan arum ethirillyo
Param iyalunna madam arnu vipine.
Hanuman: Ariha varunnath ivan… Who is this, coming from far? Is there nobody to challenge him?
He is approaching through the forest full of arrogance.
Mathanga yudham abhimanam… The herd of elephants losing all their courage and pride are
running away.
khedena kesarikal… The lions are really very much terrified and are hiding in dens.
Manasi mama kimapi. I wonder, why a special affection and compassion develops in my mind. (A
special dace sequence choreographed by Padmasree Guru Keezhupadam Kumaran Nair Asan will
be presented here)
Anilasuthan ivan ente… Alas this is my younger brother, son of Wind God.
Rama jeya Rama jeya. Hail to you O Rama; hail to you, who is the most attractive in the whole
universe. Hail to you Rama the destroyer of the evil demon Ravana. Salutations to you, husband
of Mother Sita.
Hanuman—Action only with percussion: “He is coming in his full vigor; removing all the
obstructions on his way. If he proceeds further with this arrogance, he may be cursed by the
celestials. So I must stop him, correct him and guide him to a safe way. Being a Kshatriya (king)
he will not be ready to return back or change his route. Now I will change myself as an old and
weak monkey and will lie on his way as an obstacle".
Hanuman prays to Lord Rama and assumes as the form of an old monkey and lies on the way
through which Bhima is approaching.
(Bhima arrives as Hanuman described just before, breaking trees on his way with his club,
throwing them away and proceeds. He his annoyed to see an old monkey laying on his path).
Descriptive verse: Ragam—Kamboji, Thalam— Chempata.
Nschithya soyam ithi thalpathi nischala athma
Puccham nidhaya jarasa artha iva athra sisye.....
Padam of Bhima: Vazhiyil ninnu poka vaikathe vanara adhama
Bhima: Vazhiyil ninnu poka… Get out of my way, you dirty monkey!
Pokaykil ninne… If you are not ready to move away, with full rage I will rush to you, catch hold
of your throat and throw your fatty body away.
Varishtan akiya… I am the younger brother of the great king Yudhishtira and the strongest in the
Kanatha himakara… I am born in the lunar dynasty and known as the destroyer of all enemies.
Peti kutathe matichu me pathi. Without any fear if you stay idly, you idiot fat creature, I will beat
you and break you into pieces.
(Action without vocal support). Bhima: Get out of my way, you dirty old monkey.
Hanuman: I am so week and unable to move. Please remove my tail from your path.
Bhima tries to lift the tail, but fails. Again and again he tries his best with full effort, only to lose
his club and he collapses.
(Descriptive verse): vacham nisamya… According to the words of the monkey, Bhima the
strongest one tries his best to remove the tail, but could not even move the tip of it. Bhima loses
his courage and pride. Down casts his face with shame. He speaks with humility to the great
Bhima: Vacham srnu me… Please listen my words, O great monkey of gorgeous appearance.
Pasa dharano nee cholka… Are you the God of ocean? Or are you lord Indra? I cannot consider
you as a monkey.
Sathwa sanchayangalilum… Among the living creatures nothing has strength equal to you. So
please disclose your identity.
(Hanuman in his real form)
Ravananthakan aya Ramante… I am the messenger of Lord Rama, the destroyer of Ravana, your
elder brother and my name is Hanuman.
(Bhima falls at his feet with full respect and Hanuman hugs him with full affection)
Hanuman: Jalaja vilochanayaya… I was the one in search of Sita; the lotus eyed one, I crossed the
ocean and burned Lanka, the city of Ravana.
Bhima: Balatha kontu nhan. Kindly forgive me for my childish words. I prostrate at your feet O
brother, O Ocean of mercy.
Agraja nee jaladhiye… O elder brother, the divine form by which you crossed the ocean, I am
very much interested to witness.
Hanuman: Asayam athenkil ippol… If you are interested look at my form, but don't be exhausted.
I will try to make it as small as possible.
Action without vocal music: Bhima wants to see the divine form, in its full size. Hanuman after a
brief prayer to Rama, assumes in a gigantic form. Bhima collapses by witnessing that terrifying
form. Hanuman returns to his normal size and helps Bhima regain consciousness.
Hanuman: Bhithi ullil aruth… Don't be afraid, O Bhima! Listen to my words. Be cheerful, O you
destroyer of the enemies' prosperity.
Kani neram ini vaikathe… Without any delay try to fullfil the desire of your beloved who speaks
so sweet as a parrot.
Bhima: Kauravanmarotu sangaram… There will be a terrific war against Kauravas. O the
mightiest; at that time, please be with us and destroy the enemies.
I will be on the flag of the chariot of your brother Arjuna, son of lord Indra. With a terrifying roar I
will destroy the enemies.
Action without vocal support: Hanuman enquires about the wellbeing of the other Pandava
brothers. He guides Bhima to the proper way to get the divine flower. Bhima takes leave from his
brother. But in a confusion, to go without his club. Hanuman after teasing Bhima little bit, returns
the club with the advice, that never be angry or fight with the weak, ladies and those who flee
from the war field. The brothers depart in touching feelings of emotion.
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