instructionsmedicine

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The Ministry of Public Health Care of Ukraine
Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University
Chair of Medical Biology with Course of Medical Genetics
METODICAL GUIDE OF MEDICAL BIOLOGY
FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS (Medical Faculty)
Ivano-Frankivsk
2010
The Compilers of Methodical Guides
prof. L. Kovalchuk,
assistant prof. L. Shvets, N. Frych, R. Kozoviy
Aproved at the sitting of the Chair of Medical Biology with the Course of
Medical Genetics on the 1st of June (procudings № 19)
2
Laboratory work № 1
Theme: Levels of life organizations. The place of optical systems
in biological investigations
Designation of work: to have a look at levels of organization in the
living world; to analyze features common to living organisms; to study
components of a microscope and rules of work.
І. Home work (task):write down rules of work with a light microscope.
ІІ. Control questions:
1. Medical Biology as a science: definition, subject, tasks, importance to
medicine.
2. Levels of biological organization: molecular, subcellalar, cellular,
tissular, organismic, level of population and species, biocenotical,
biospheric. Importance of levels of biological organization for medicine.
3. Light microscope structure: mechanical, optical, illuminative parts.
4. The main principles of working with light microscope. Principles of
provisional specimen preparation.
ІІІ. Class work (task):
1. Onion skin cells.
Peel from the onion internal side a skin by the pincers. Cut off a 3-4mm of
the onionskin by the scissors and prepare a provisional specimen. Examine
a specimen with a microscope (7 x 8, 7 x 40). During microscopic
examination you observe rectangular long cells. The main components of
the cell are nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. The plant cell is
surrounded by a cell wall just outside the cell membrane. There is a round
nucleus with some nucleoli in the central of the cell. Sketch. Mark a cell
membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleoli, vacuoles.
2. Animal cell ultrastructure (a chart). Draw.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. What is an objective for light magnification?
A x7
B x 15
3
C x7
D x 40
2. What does an optical part of the light microscope consist of?
A refractor
B diaphragm
C condenser
D turret
3. Work with microscope starts from a light magnification (according to
the rules). Indicate, please, the correct answer.
A ocular x 7
B ocular x 10
C ocular x 15
D objective x 8
E objective x 40
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.1–19; lecture.
Laboratory work № 2
Theme: Morphology of a cell. Structural components of cytoplasm
and a nucleus
Designation of work: to study of different forms of life, structure of
eucariotic cell; to conceive relationship between structure and function of
the cell.
I. Home work: to draw ultrastructure of the eukaryotic cell.
II. Control questions:
1. The Cell Theory in its modern form. Importance for medicine.
2. Cellular level of life organization: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
3. The common functions and structures of cells: cytoplasm, nucleus and
cell membrane.
4. Structural compounds of cytoplasm: cytosceleton, organelles and
inclusions.
5. Nucleus: nucleus envelope, nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromatin.
6. Organelles for general and for special prescription, their structure and
functions.
7. Inclusions: trophic, secretary and special.
4
ІІІ. Class work (task):
1. Chloroplasts in cells a leaf of a plant.
Place a part a leaf of an alga in a drop of water on a microscope slide,
cover integumentary glass. Find cells with a small amount of chloroplasts.
Pay attention to locomotion of cytoplasm. Sketch at the big augmentation
some cells; specify a cellular wall, cytoplasm, chloroplasts.
2. To fill in the table "Differences in a constitution of a prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells".
Characteristic organoids
and attributes
1. The dimensions
2. A cellular wall
3. A nucleus
4. The genetical device
5. Mitochondrions
6. Endoplasmic
reticulum
7. Golgi apparatus
8. Lysosomes
9. Centrioles
10. Vacuoles
11. Ribosomes
12. Organoids of
locomotion
13. A breeding
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. The lysosome membrane intact is break. What will be happen with a
cell?
A phagocytosis
B endocytosis
C lysis
D mitosis
E pinocytosis
2. What is an organelle to which proteins fold into their final forms?
A mitochondria
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B lysosomes
C golgi apparatus
3. What two-membranous organelles are in cells of animals?
A golgi apparatus
B endoplasmic reticulum
C mitochondrions
D lysosomes
E chloroplusts
F ribosomes
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p. 20 – 41; lecture.
Laboratory work № 3
Cell membranes. Transport of materials across cell membranes
Destignation of work: to study structure and function of cell
membranes and peculiarities of transport of materials across cell
membranes.
I. Home work: draw the chemical model of a plasmalemma.
II. Control questions:
1. Structure and property of cell membrane.
2. Chemical composition of cell membrane.
3. Function of cellular membrane Compartmentcy.
4. General characteristic of transport across cell membrane.
5. Intercellular contacts.
III. Class work (task):
1. Pell from the onion internal side a skin by the pincers. Cut off a 3-4 mm
of the onionskin by the scissors and prepare provisional specimen.
Examine a specimen with a microscope. During microscopic examination
you observe rectangular long cells. Sketch.
2. Repeat preparation of provisional specimen. Use hypertonic solution in
place of water. Examine a specimen with a microscope during 15 minutes.
Sketch the cells in the hypertonic solution. Mark: cell wall, nucleus,
cytoplasm, cell membrane, vacuole.
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IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. What molecules are not present in biological membranes?
A proteins
B glycerinum
C lipids
D carbohydrates
E nucleic acids
2. What joints a cell from environment
A nuclear envelop
B cell membrane
C ectoplasm
D endoplasm
E hyaloplasm
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.22-26; lecture.
Laboratory work № 4
Theme: Morphology of chromosomes. A human's karyotype. Genome
and chromosome mutations
Designation of work: To study structure of chromosome; be able to
recognize types of chromosomes in human idiograms; to have a look at the
methods of karyotype investigation.
I. Home work: to draw the schema of a metaphase chromosomes and to
designate its basic frames and components.
II. Control questions:
1. Structural and functional states of the chromosomes.
2. Euchromatin and heterochromatin.
3. The levels of organization of eukariotic chromosomes.
4. Сhromosomes types: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric,
telocentric chromosomes.
5. Normal human karyotype characteristics.
6. Human chromosomes ideogram.
7. Conceptions about genome and chromosome mutations.
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III. Class work (task):
Examine under microscope(7x90):
1. A karyotype of the human. Sketch on the big augmentation. Show
various kinds of chromosomes (metacentric, acrocentric,submetacentric)
2. Construct idiogram of chromosomes of the human.
3. Huge polytene chromosomes of insects. Examine under microscope.
Sketch on the big augmentation. Show a heterochromatin, a euchromatin
and puffs.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. The chromosome is acrocentric if:
A a centromere divides it into two arms o f approximately length;
B a centromere establishes one long arm and one short arm;
C it pinches off only a small amount of material.
2. The chromosomes can be distinguished by such main sighs, as:
A size
B centromere position
C length of the arms
D chromatids number
3. How many chromosomes groups are there in the human karyotype?
A 4
B 5
C 6
D 7
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.157 - 169, p.190-191; lecture.
Laboratory work № 5
Theme: The organization of a stream of the information in a cell. The
characteristic of nucleic acids
Designation of work: to study the structure of DNA molecule and
different types of RNA.To study mechanism of replication. To analyse
types of DNA repair.
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I. Home work:. write the complementary of a daughter strand of DNA
replicated from the following parental base sequences: TCG – AGA –
ATC – TCG – ATT.
II. Control questions:
1. A history of development of the doctrine about material bases of a
heredity.
2. Proofs of a genetical role of the DNA on an example of transformation
and transduction.
3. The characteristic of chemical constitution of the DNA. Chargaf's rules.
4. A spatial constitution of a molecula of the DNA (model of Watson and
Crick), kinds of the DNA.
5. The function characteristic of parts of a molecula of the DNA with
different frequency of repetition of nucleotides.
6. The structurally functional characteristic of a molecula of the RNA,
kinds of the RNA.
7. Autosynthetic function of a molecula of the DNA.
III. Class work (task): solving exercises on definition of the contents of
nucleotides, masses and length of moleculas DNA and RNA.
1.Write the complementary of a daughter strand of DNA replicated from
the following parental base sequences: a) CCG – TAT – AGC – CGG –
TAG; b) ATC – GGA – TCG – CTA
2. mRNA is synthesized on the one strand of DNA. The A amount is 14 %,
G – 20 %, U - 40 %, C – 26 %. What are the percent amounts of the
nucleotides the DNA molecule?
3. 1040 guanilic nucleotides in DNA molecule are 26 % from from the
general amount of nucleotides. To define:
a) how many adenylic, cytodylic and thymidylic nucleotides are there
in this DNA fragment?
b) what is the length of this fragment in DNA molecule? Real - life
situations to be solved:
c) what is the mass of this fragment in DNA molecule?
d) what is the mass of corresponding fragment in mRNA molecule?
4. How many amino acids will be present in the polypeptide strand if 86
nucleotides in mRNA are introns?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. Which one of the following nucleotides is not present in DNA:
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A thymine
B adenine
C uracil
D cytosine
E guanine
2. What class of chemicals the DNA enters into?
A carbohydrates
B nucleic acids
C amino acids
D proteins
E ATP
3. Property of the DNA is:
A denaturation
B transduction
C reduplication
D neogenesis
E transformation
4. Differences between the DNA and the RNA, all is correct, except for:
A number of strands of a spiral
B the contents of the residual of a phosphoric acid
C the contents of carbohydrates
D molecular weight
E the maintenance of nitrous bases
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.136-142; lecture.
Laboratory work № 6
Theme: The exon-intron organization of a genome eukaryotes.
Processes of realization of the genetical information
Designation of work:to study the structure of DNA molecule and
different types of RNA.To study mechanism of replication. To analyse
types of DNA repair.
I. Home work:.to draw the schema of a constitution of prokaryotes and
eukaryotes genes.
II. Control questions:
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1. A genetic code and its properties.
2. A gene - a functional unit of a heredity, classification of genes.
3. A constitution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes genes.
4. Mobile genetic elements.
5. Stages of realization of the inheritable information: transcription,
processing, and translation.
III. Class work (task): solving exercises on definition nucleotide
sequences of genes on the basis of an amino acidic sequence of
polypeptides and on the contrary.
1. Insulin fragment consists of 5 amino acids: glicin – isoleucin – valin –
glutamin - glutamin. What is the structure of corresponding DNA
fragment?
2.A DNA chain consists of 1640 nucleotides. Introns (noncoding inserts)
are composed of 240 nucleotides. Determine number of amino acids that
are coded by DNA chain.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. What is the function of promoter in a eukaryotic gene?
A contains the information on amino acids in a polypeptide
B monitors a level of an expression of genes
C a place of linkage with the RNA - polymerase
D a place of a stopping of a transcriptional
E monitors selectivity of an expression of genes
2. Exones in a eukaryotic gene are sequences of nucleotides that:
A contain the information
B free of the information
C initiators of a transcriptional
D terminators of a transcription
E regulators of a transcriptional
3. Intrones in a eukaryotic gene are sequences of nucleotides that:
A contain the information
B free of the information
C initiators of a transcription
D terminators of a transcription
E regulators of a transcriptional
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.142-151; lecture.
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Laboratory work № 7
Theme: Organization of information flow in cell. The control of gene
expression. Molecular mechanisms of human variability
Designation of work: to pay attention to the features of translation
and transcription and its stages. To take a look at the molecular mechanism
of gene regulation.
I. Home work: draw the scheme of operon model-inducible system and
repressible system.
II. Control questions:
1. The operon model.
2. Gene regulation in prokaryotes.
3. Gene regulation in eukaryotes.
4. Gene mutations and molecular illnesses.
5. DNA’s reparation.
III. Class work (task): solving exercises on gene expression and DNA
repair.
1. A DNA chain consists of 1640 nucleotides. Introns (noncoding inserts)
are composed of 240 nucleotides. Determine number of amino acids that
are coded by DNA chain.
2. What sequence of amino acids is determined by following sequence of
nucleotides in DNA: TAC GAA TGG AGT TTC CAG CTT ACC? What
will be amino acid sequence, when the second nucleotide in the third
triplet is deleted?
3. At the person sick in cystinuria (the contents in urine of the greater than
in norm numbers of amino acids ) with urine are secreted amino acids to
wich there correspond the following triplets of an messenger RNA: CUU
GUU CUG UUG UCG GUC GUU AUA. Alanine-serine –glutamic
acid is found out in the healthy person in urine. What excretion of amino
acids for patients sick in cystinuria? Write the triplets conforming to amino
acids, available in urine of healthy person?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
12
Choose the correct answer / statement
1.When corepressor and aporepressor are bond......................is formed?
A holorepressor
B protein-repressor
C inductor
D enzyme
C coenzyme
2. Where is information of the protein-repressor structure?
A in the gene - operator
B in structural genes
C in gene - promoter
D in a gene - regulator
E in all operon
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p. 151-156, lecture.
Laboratory work № 8
Theme: Cell cycle. Division of cell
Designation of work: to have a look at the cell cycle. To be able to
analyze the alteratins of cell and cell structures at the of life cycle. To
study mitotic abnormalities. To study how the division process distributes
genetic information.
I. Home work: fill in the table: "The characteristic of a mitosis and
meiosis".
Phase of the cell
cycle
1 Interphase
№
Mitosis
2 Prophase
3 Metaphase
4 Anaphase
5 Telophase
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Meiosis
1 division
2nd division
st
II. Control questions:
1. Cell (mitotic) cycle, its stages: G1-, S-, G2- phases, mitosis.
2. Mitosis, its stages. Biological significance of mitosis.
3. Cytological and cytogenetical characteristics of meiosis, mechanisms of
the gametes genetic diversity formation.
4. Mitotic abnormalities, somatic mutations.
5. Cytogenetical characteristics of meiosis.
6. Biological significance of meiosis.
III. Class work (task):
Mitosis in plant cells (apical onion root meristem).
Examine under the light microscope (7 x 40) an onion rootlet tip specimen.
Sketch the cells on different stages of mitosis. Be able to differentiate
these stages according to chromosome structure and choreography.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. DNA is duplicated in the cell cycle during the:
A G1 phase
B S phase
C G2 phase
D mitosis
2. During mitosis, sister chromatids begin their migration to opposite poles
during:
A telophase
B metaphase
C anaphase
D prophase
3. What chromosome number is present in sex cells?
A haploid
B diploid
C tetraploid
D triploid
4. In which stage of prophase I does crossing-over occur?
B leptotene
C zygotene
D pachytene
E diplotene
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.42-49, p.58-64, lecture.
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Laboratory work № 9
Theme: Final control of I st module “Biological features of human life”
Designation of work: to know the history of cell biology, genetic
evidence of the role of nucleic acids, especially the process of DNA
reduplication, DNA repair mechanisms, gene structure of pro- and
eukaryotes, metaphase chromosome structure, rules of chromosome,
classification of mutations, to work with a light microscope, be able to
distinguish cell components on cytological preparations, be able to solve
situational exercises from molecular biology.
I. Control questions:
1. The Cell Theory in its modern form. Importance for medicine.
2. Cellular level of life organization: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
3. The common functions and structures of cells: cytoplasm, nucleus and
cell membrane.
4. Structural compounds of cytoplasm: cytosceleton, organelles and
inclusions.
5. Proofs of a genetical role of the DNA on an example of transformation
and transduction.
6. The characteristic of chemical constitution of the DNA. Chargaf's rules.
7. A spatial constitution of a molecula of the DNA (model of Watson and
Crick), kinds of the DNA.
8. The function characteristic of parts of a molecula of the DNA with
different frequency of repetition of nucleotides.
9. The structurally functional characteristic of a molecula of the RNA,
kinds of the RNA.
10. Autosynthetic function of a molecula of the DNA.
11. The operon model.
12. DNA’s reparation.
13. Normal human karyotype characteristics.
14. Cell (mitotic) cycle, its stages.
15. Meiosis.
III. Class work (task): solving individual tests and situational exercises.
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IV. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
– p. 1 - 49, p.58-64, lectures.
Laboratory work № 10
Theme: Features of the human genetics. Exhibiting of the basic
laws of inheritance on an example of attributes, that transfer under
Mendel's laws
Designation of work to formulate the significance of human genetics;
on the basis of heredity principles discovered by G. Mendel to study
pedigree analysis , study of family record; to determine type of inheritance
of human traits.
I. Home work: solve exercises:
1. How many and what types of gametes produce individuals with such
genotype: AA, aa, Aa, BB, AaBB, AaBb, AaBbCc.
2. Polydactylia and myopia – dominate and autosomal signs. What
probability of birth of children without anomalies in family, where parents
sick in two illnesses and are heterozygous in both attributes.
3. Astigmatism and hemeralopia – autosomal-dominant signs. Father has
an astigmatism, mother - a hemeralopia. What genotypes must be in
parents that children shell born healthy?
II. Control questions:
1. General genetics and human genetics as sciences.
2. The main terms of genetic: the heredity, gene, dominant and recessive
genes, phenotype, allele’s genes, non-alleles genes, homozygotes,
heterozygotes.
3. The classification of cross: monohybrid, dihybrid, polyhybrid and test
cross.
4. Patterns of inheritance. Mendel’s Laws of inheritance
5. Mendelian Traits in humans.
6. Monogenous diseases.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1.In human the dominant gene determines a migraine. a) A healthy woman
has married the man, heterozygous on a migraine. What probability of a
child with a migraine birth in them? b) A healthy woman has married the
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man, homozygous on a migraine. What probability of a child with a
migraine birth in them?
2. Albinism is inherited as a recessive trait. If two normally pigmented
parents produce an albino offspring, what ratio of albino to normal would
be expected amoung subsequent offspring?
3. Polydactyly (extra fingers and toes) is dominant trait in humans. A
heterozygous woman has polydactyly and brown eyes. The man has 5
fingers and blue eyes. The genes for these traits assort independently. The
dominance relationship of the alleles are as follows: A – polydactyly; a –
normal; B – brown eyes; b – blue eyes. What is the probability that their
child will have the same genotype as mother? Father?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. How many types gametes are presence in the person with such
genotype: AaBbCC?
A – 2;
B – 4;
C – 8;
D – 3;
E – 4.
2. What will be the phenotypic ration in the first filial generation during
test cross, if an analyzing person is heterozygous by one pair of genes:
A – 3:1;
B – 9:3:3:1;
C – 1:1;
D – 4:1;
E – segregation is absent.
3. In a P cross, an AABBCC individual is paired with an aabbcc individual.
What will be the expected frequency of aabbcc individuals in the F2
generation?
A – 16/64;
B – 8/64;
C – 4/64;
D – 2/64;
E – 1/6
17
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.106-115; lecture.
Laboratory work № 11
Theme: Gene interaction of one allelic pair
Designation of work: to study main types of interaction of allelic
genes,to determine types of interactions of, to determine blood groupe,.
I. Home work: solve exercises.
1. How many allelic genes (1,2,3 or 4) determine blood groups in system
AB0: a) in population; b) in human; c) in gamete.
2. When F1 hybrids are not similar in phenotype compare with both
homozygous parent forms?
II. Control questions:
1. Forms of interaction between allelic genes: complete dominance,
incomplete dominance, superdominance, codominance.
2. Multiple alleles condition.
3. Inheritance of human ABO-blood groups.
4. Rhesus blood types or Rh factor in man.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1. Rhesus-negative man with the I group of blood married with rhesuspositive woman with the IV group of blood. What blood will their children
have?
2. The parents are brown-eyed, rhesus-positive, with II group of blood.
They are heterozygotic by all three traits. How many and what types of
gametes form of this parents? Brown eyes is autosomal.
3. One of the forms of cystinuria (metabolism disorder) is inherited as an
autosomal recessive sign. Though it is noticed that heterozygotes have
only the rised amount of cystine in the urine and homozygotes get cystine
stones in their kidneys. Determine the possible forms of cystinuria that can
get children in a family where one of the parents fell ill with kidney stones
and the other is normal in accordance to analised signdominant trait .
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
18
Choose the correct answer / statement.
1. What is the genotype of man with the rhesus-negative IV group of
blood?
A - IAIA RhRh
B - IAiRhrh
C - IBirhrh
D - IAIB Rhrh
E - IAIB rhrh
2.Parents have I and III groups of blood. Which groups of blood may their
children get?
A - I or II
B - I or III
C - II or III
D - I or IV
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.116-121; lecture.
Laboratory work № 12
Theme: Non-allelic genes interaction. Pleiotropy
Destignation of work: to study main types of interactions of
nonallelic genes; to determine types of interactions.To appreciate that the
expression of some genes is modified by othe genes
I. Home work: solve an exercise:
1. At the person one of forms of inheritable deafness determined by 2
recessive not linked genes d and e. For normal auditions are necessary two
dominant alleles (DE), one of them determines development of a cochlea,
and another – an acoustical nerve. Parents are the dummies, but their two
children have a normal audition. How these two dominant not allelic genes
interact? Write the schema of marriage.
II. Control questions:
1. Forms of interaction between non-allelic
complementarity, continuous variation (polimery).
2. Qualitative and quantitative traits.
3. Pleiotropy—the multiple effect of a gene.
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genes:
epistasis,
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1. Formation in a human's cells of an interferon is connected with
complementary interaction of two dominant non-allelic genes (A and B).
a) In one of parents there is no ability to form an interferon in consequence
of presence in him a gene "a", another is healthy and all his relatives are
healthy too. What probability of a healthy children birth? b) Parents are
healthy, but are double heterozygous in genes A and B. Determine
probability of a healthy children birth.
2. In human, diseases, for example a gastritis, for which there is typically
polygenic inheritance, are known. What probability of birth of children
with inheritable predisposition to a gastritis, if both parents sick in gastritis
and are heterozygotes in two pairs of polymeric genes.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. Allelic genes:
A have the different loci (sites) in the homologous chromosomes
B are situated in the non-homologous chromosomes
C are situated in the homologous chromosomes
D have the same loci in the homologous chromosomes
2. Which form of gene interactions is characterized that one gene masks
the phenotypic effect of gene from different pair:
A complete dominance
B incomplete dominance
C superdominance
D codominance
E epistasis
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.121-127; lecture.
Laboratory work № 13
Theme: Chromosomal theory of heredity. Autosomal linkage.
Crossing-over
Designation of work: to study linkage and inheritance of linked
genes. To analyse complete and incomplete linkage, to note significance of
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crossing over for explanation of incomplete linkage and making of genetic
maps of chromosomes. To know how to solve genetics problems in linked
inheritance.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
1. In an individual with genotype AaBbCc genes B and C are bonded, the
crossing-over between them makes 40 %. Determine a proportion of a
gametes' all kinds, produced by this heterozygote.
2. In a human, the locus of an Rh factor bonded to the locus that
determines the form of erythrocytes and locates from it on distance 3
Morganides (3% of crossing-over frequency). Rhesus-positiveness and
elliptocitosis (erythrocytes have form similar to ellipse) are determined by
dominant autosomal genes. One among the family is heterozygous in both
attributes. Positive Rh factor he has inherited from one of parents,
elliptocitosis – from another. Other among the family is rhesus-negative
and has normal erythrocytes' form. Determine the percentage ratios of
probable genotypes and phenotypes in this family.
II. Control questions:
1. A position of a gene on the chromosome.
2. Linkage and crossing-over: complete linkage and incomplete one.
3. Theory of inheritance by Morgan.
4. Linear order of genes.
5. Chromosome mapping.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1. In one chromosome there are genes C, D and E. Genes C and D have
crossing-over with frequency of 13 %, genes D and E - 12 %, and C and E
- 25 %. Design a genetical map of a chromosome
2.. In the human the gene determining a set of symptoms of defect of nails
and a patella and the gene determining a blood group on AB0 system are
in one chromosome on distance 10 Morganides. In the father II (A) blood
group and he has a set of symptoms (he has inherited this attribute from
mother with I (0) a blood group), and mother without a set of symptoms
with III (B) blood group, the healthy boy with I (0) blood group was born.
What probability of birth in this family of the ill child with I (0) blood
group.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
21
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. In maize there are 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes. How many
linkage groups does maize have?
A - 20
B - 10
C-5
D–2
2. In human genes A and B located in the same autosome. What types of
spermatozoons does a man with genotype
complete linkage?
A - AB, ab
B - AB, ab, Ab, aB
C - Ab, aB
produce in the case of
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.128-131, p.192-196; lecture.
Laboratory work № 14
Theme: Genetics of a sex
Designation of work: to have a look at mechanism of sex
determination in animals and a human. To study features of inheritance of
sex –linked traits.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
1. The daughter of the man with colour blindness marries the son of the
man with colour blindness (in the groom and brides vision is a normal).
What vision is possible in their children?
II. Control questions:
1. Sex determination in animals.
2. Sex differentiation in human.
3. Human sex-limited traits.
4. Human sex-influenced traits.
5. Sex-linked inheritance.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
22
1. In human Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive disorder (h— allele of
the hemophilia, H—allele of the normal blood clotting).
a) Which types of gametes does normal heterozygous woman produce?
b) Which types of gametes does normal homozygous woman produce?
c) Which types of gametes does man wich normal blood clotting produce?
d) Which types of gametes does man wich hemophilia produce?
2. In human color-blindness is a sex-linked recessive disorder. A normalsighted woman with O-blood type marries a color-blinded man whith Ablood type. What are the parent’s genotypes? What is the probability that
their child will be color-blinded whith O-blood type?
3. In human absent of the sweat glands determines by recessive gene a,
which is located in X-chromosome. Healthy man marries a heterozygous
woman. Is it possible to reveal this trait in offspring?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. Which holandric traits do you know?
A baldness
B beard growth
C heiry pinnae
D ichthyosis
E hemophilia
2. Hemophilia is sex-linked recessive trait. How many allelic genes of
hemophilia does female diploid number of chromosomes contain?
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4
3. What sex-linked traits do you know?
A rhesus factor
B color blindness
C ABO blood types
D polydactyl
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.131-135; lecture.
Laboratory work № 15
Theme: Variation and it kinds
23
Designation of work: to know essence of the different forms of
variation for subsequent understanding of the causes human’s hereditary
diseases and gene (molecular) diseases.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
1. In three children – I, II, IV blood groups on system AB0. What blood
groups are possible in their parents?
2. In people, who smoke, the tumour lung is frequently observed. What is
type of variation?
II. Control questions:
1.Variation and its forms.
2. Modification (phenotypic) variation (environmental influences, adaptive
character of modification, phenocopies).
3. Combinatic variation a basis of phenotypic and genotypic variety of
persons in Human’s population.
4. Mutation and its types.
5. Genomic mutation (chromosome mutation): 1) polyploidy; 2)
aneuploidy.
6. Chromosomal aberrations: 1) deletion; 2) duplication; 3) inversion; 4)
translocation.
7. Gene mutations: 1) deletion; 2) duplication; 3) inversion; 4) insertion.
8. Origin of mutations (physical, chemical, biological mutagens).
III. Class work (task): to sketch the graph of height of 1st year students.
Define the main indexs.
Solving a situational exercise:
1. Woman, who had the rubeola during pregnancy, the deaf child was
born. What is the probability for second child to be deaf?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. What from the listed diseases of the man are examples of the
modification variability:
A scurvy
B albinism
C quinsy
D influenza
E color blindness
2. What type of mutations has the greatest probability to be expressed in
24
the next generation:
A recessive, linked with a sex, which arises in X-chromosome
B recessive, which arises in autosomes
C dominant autosomic mutation
3. A segment of DNA of normal diploid cells have the sequence of the
nucleotides: AATGCTA. After ionizing radiation mutant DNA have the
sequence of the nucleotides: AACGTTA. What kind of mutation does take
place?
A deletion
B duplication
C inversion
D insertion
4. Inhabitants Zakarpat'ja frequently are sick of an endemial struma owing
to deficiency of Iodum in foodstuffs. Name the form of variability that
causes this phenomenon:
A
B
C
D
E
mutation
inheritable
heritable
genotypic
combinational
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.170-184; lecture.
Laboratory work № 16
Theme: Methods of medical genetics: genealogical and bigeminal
(method of twins)
Designation of work: to know main methods of the human genetics;
be able to make a pedigree and to analyse a type of the pathological
symptoms, to recognize genotypes of the family members.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
1. Proband - the boy with freckles. His brother has no a freckles. Proband's
mother and father with freckles. Father was married twice. His other wife
and their children (one daughter and two sons) without freckles. Make a
genealogical tree; determine a mode of inheritance of this attribute and
genotypes of all people specified in the task.
25
2. In a population from 12 pairs of monozygotic twins 11 - are similar on
the attribute of slanting an eye, and from 27 pair of dizygotic twins are
similar - 7. Determine quotient of a heredity (H) of this attribute.
Explanation:
H
QSM - QSD
,
100% - QSD
where QSM - Quotient of similitude of
monozygotic twins and QSD - Quotient of similitude of dizygotic twins.
QS (Quotient of similitude) determine under the
formula: QS  Number of similar pairs of twins (mono - or dizigotic)
General number of pairs of twins (mono - or dizigotic)
II. Control questions:
1. Human organism as a specific object of the genetic analysis.
2. Methods of human genetics: Genealogy method (Pedigree Analysis),
Twin method (study of Twins).
3. Rules of Genealogy.
4. Types of inheritance: autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, Xlinked recessive, X-linked dominant, Y-linked.
5. Analysis of the pedigree: determination of type of inheritance,
proband’s genotype, probability of the sick children birth in the proband’s
family.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1. Proband (boy) is right hander. His brothers and sisters are left-handers.
Proband's father is right-hander and mother is left-hander. Proband's
mother has two brothers: one of them is left-hander and another is righthander. Proband's grandmother in the mother's line - right-hander, the
grandfather - left-hander. Brother of proband's mother (the proband's
uncle) is right-hander and he has married the right-hander woman, but
their two daughters are left-handers. Compose the line of descens,
determine inheritance type and family members genotypes.
2. Members of one family are deaf-mutes (they don’t hear and speak).
Proband is a girl with deaf-mutism. Her brother, mother and father are
healthy. From the fathers side aunt and grandfather are healthy and
grandmother is sick. Proband's mother has deaf-mute brother and health
brother with sister. Compose the pedigree. Determine inheritance type
and family member's genotypes.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1) Autosomal-recessive inheritance occurs when:
A a trait can effect both sexes (female and male can be ill)
26
B the trait is inherited horizontally in the pedigree (it does not affect
every generation)
C parents of ill child can be healthy in the phenotype, but they are
heterozygous and carriers of mutant gene (individuals who have affected
children must both be carriers)
D probability of the sick children birth is higher in family marriages
(members are closely related)
E all answers are true
2) Which method of human genetics is used to distinguish hereditary and
environmental characters:
A genealogy method
B twin method
C dermatoglyphics
D cytogenetical method
E DNA analysis
3) Proband has an adnation of leg's dactyls. His three sons have the same
pathology, and in two daughters dactyls on legs are normal. Proband's
sisters have dactyls also normal. Brother and father of a proband have
dactyls also are adnated. What is the type of inheritance of this pathology?
A dominant
B recessive
С Y-linked
D allelic
E X-linked
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.185-189; lecture.
Laboratory work № 17
Theme: Chromosomal illnesses. Cytogenetic method.
Dermatoglyphics
Designation of work: to study genetic essentials, manifestation and
patterns inheritance of chromosomal illnesses in human, to acquire
knowledge the methods of their diagnostics.
I. Home work: make the table: "Cytogenetic methods in the human
genetics" according to the schema: name of a method, essence of a
method, and value of a method for diagnostics.
II. Control questions:
27
1. Methods of human genetics: Dermatoglyphics, Cytogenetical method
(Chromosome Analysis)
2. Autosomal chromosome abnormalities.
3. Numeral changes (aneuploidy) in autosomes.
4. Structural changes of chromosomes.
5. Numeral changes (aneuploidy) in sex chromosomes.
III. Class work (task).
1. To prepare a temporary cytologic slide of epithelial cells of an oral
cavity mucosa, to add a stain. Using a microscope to find in nucleus of cell
a sex chromatin (Barr body) that adjoins to nuclear membrane. To sketch
at the big magnification.
2. To study karyotypes of people with different chromosomal illnesses. To
draw. To note infringements.
3. To study on dermatoglifes a position of the palm main lines. To pay
attention to papillary lines. To find and designate finger and axial
threeradiuses, to draw. To study a drawing of a skin on fingers, to
determine a kind of a pattern.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. What is the karyotype formula for normal normal females?
A 46, XY
B 47, XXX
C 45, XO
D 46, XX
2. What syndromes involving sex chromosome aneuploidy do you know?
A Down syndrome
B Patau syndrome
C Turner syndrome
D Edwards syndrome
E Klinefelter syndrome
3. Give the karyotype formulas of the mosaic woman for normal cells and
for cells with Turner
syndrome:
A 46, XX /47, XXX
B 46, XX / 45, XO
C 46, XX/ 47, XX, 21+
D 46, XX/ 47, XX, 13+
4. Which methods of human genetics are used to diagnose Down
28
syndrome:
A genealogy method
B twin method
C dermatoglyphics
D cytogenetical method
E DNA analysis
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.210-213, p.189-192; lecture.
Laboratory work № 18
Theme: Molecular illnesses and hereditary diseases with
indeterminate initial biochemical defect
Designation of work: to study genetic essentials, manifestation and
patterns inheritance of molecular illnesses in human, to acquire knowledge
the methods of their diagnostics.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
1. Phenylketonuria (PKU) – infringement of a phenylalanine metabolism,
causes defeat of a brain and an idiocy, is inherited as a recessive attribute.
In members of family trees of a married couple there were patients with
PKU. What is a forecast of the healthy child birth?
II. Control questions:
1. Molecular illnesses and mechanisms of their origin.
2. The methods of diagnostic of molecular illnesses.
3. Stages of biochemical investigations.
4. Inheritance of Rh factor.
5. Genetic engineering.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1. The man of 35 years old has addressed in medicogenetic consultation.
His younger brother, father and grandfather have Thompson's myopathy.
He is interested, whether his children will have this illness. Thompson's
myopathy is dominant illness that is shown up to youthful age.
2. What is probability of the healthy child birth in family, where one child
has died of the Tay-Sax illness (in a brain is formed fatty substance which
causes a degeneration of a cerebral tissue, blindness and child death at the
age of 4-5 years). The Tay-Sax illness is caused by a recessive lethal gene.
29
3. Sickemia – a recessive attribute. Recessive homozygotes perish at early
age owing to hemocatheretic anaemia. For heterozygotes the mild form of
illness is characteristic. Determine probability of healthy children birth and
children with the mild form of illness in parents, ill the mild form of a
sickemia.
4. A child, an ill phenylketonuria, with I (0) blood group was born in
healthy parents (mother with II (A) group of a blood, and father with III
(B) group of a blood). Write down the schema of a marriage.
5. Father of the child is rhesus-positive homozygote, mother – rhesusnegative. What are possible genotypes and phenotypes in their child?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1.In healthy parents the son sick in phenylketonuria was born. But due to
an express diet he has developed normally. What are forms of variability
determine his illness and convalescence?
A Illness with recessive mutation, convalescence with combinative
variability.
B Illness with a chromosome mutation, convalescence with
phenotypic variability
C Illness with dominant mutation, convalescence with modification
variability
D Illness with phenocopy, convalescence with modification variability
E Illness with combinative variability, convalescence with a
phenocopy.
2. In districts of South Africa at people the falculate cellular anemia at
which erythrocytes have the form of a sickle owing to changing in a
molecule of hemoglobin of amino acid of a glutamine on valine widespreads. What mechanism of this disease?
A gene mutation
B crossing-over
C inversion
D genome mutation
E transduction
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.194, p.213-216, p.205-208, p.212-218; lecture.
30
Laboratory work №19
Theme: Population-statistical method. Medicogenetic consultancy.
Practical skills of 2nd and 3rd content modules
Designation of work: be able to use different methods in studying
human heredity to determine the probability of offspring birth with the
relevant disease, to analyze mechanisms of gene and chromosomal
diseases, to recommend ways to reduce the manifestation of the
pathological condition in patients with hereditary; to have a look at the
principles of medical genetic consultation.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
1. In medicogenetic consultation the woman, for whom in the age of 2
months the phenylketonuria was diagnosed, has addressed. In connection
with the carried out treatment Her physical and mental development has
passed a normally. Her husband is healthy. What forecast of brooding for
these parents?
II. Control questions:
1. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary diseases. Genocopy.
2. Diseases with hereditary predisposition. Multyfactorial diseases.
3. Medicogenetic aspects of family.
4. Medicogenetic consultancy.
5. Prenatal diagnosis of hereditary diseases.
6. Prevention and treatment of hereditary diseases.
III. Class work (task): analysis and solving of individual situational
exercises.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. In medicogenetic consultation has addressed the man concerning
barrenness. In nucleus of the majority of cells of the epithelium of a
mucosa of an oral cavity was revealed Barr's body. The cause of such state
may be:
A Turner's Syndrome
31
B Trisomy X
C Down's Syndrome
D Klinefelter's Syndrome
2. In medicogenetic consultation has addressed the ill girl with the initial
diagnosis Turner's syndrome. What method should be used for definition
of the final diagnosis?
A genealogical
B hybridizations of nucleic acids
C cytogenetic
D biochemical
E dermatoglyphics
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.185-209, p.210-220, lecture.
Laboratory work № 20
Theme: Reproduction is basic feature of living organisms.
Gametogenesis. Fertilization
Designation of work: to explore the cytogenetic mechanism of
reproduction and gametogenesis. To study how the division process
distributes genetic information. To investigate structure and formation of
gametes, features of fertilization.
I. Home work: to draw the scheme of spermatogenesis nd ovogenesis.
II. Control questions:
1. Definition and biological essence of a breeding.
2. Cytogenetical characteristics of meiosis.
3. Biological significance of meiosis.
4. Kinds of reproduction. Forms of sexual reproduction at different levels
of living.
5. Structural organization of sex cells.
6. Features of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
7. Process of fertilization.
III. Class work (task):
1. Spermary of a rat.
Sketch object on the big augmentation. Designate: zones of a
spermatogenesis (breeding, growing, maturing and forming) and different,
32
on degrees of maturity, sex cells (spermatogones, spermatocytes I and II,
spermatids, spermatozoons).
2. Ovary of a cat.
Sketch object on the small augmentation. Find a secondary follicle.
Designate: stroma of an ovary, ascus of a follicle, follicular epithelium,
lumen of a follicle, cytoplasm of an ootid, and nucleus of an ootid.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement.
1. In which period of spermatogenesis does meiosis take place?
A reproduction
B growing
C maturation
D formation
2. The result of meiosis is:
A 1 haploid cell
B 2 haploid cells
C 4 haploid cells
D 2 diploid cells
E 4 diploid cells
3. The result of final development of oogonium is:
A 1 ootide
B 1 ootide + 1 polar body
C 1 ootide + 3 polar bodies
D 2 ootides + 2 polar bodies
E 4 ootides
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.53-70; lecture.
Laboratory work № 21
Theme: Features of prenatal period of human development.
Precondition of birth defects
Destignation of work: to study features of human embryonic
development and biological importance of genetic control of organism
development.To study critical periods of human embryogenesis and
relationship with teratogenic birth defectes; to conceive biological
importance of morfogenesis.
33
I. Home work: to write the main periods of human ontogenesis.
II. Control questions:
1. The main periods of the ontogenesis.
2. Genetic regulation of gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage.
3. Genetic regulation of morphogenesis.
4. Embryonal induction.
5. Critical periods of embrion and fetus development.
6. Classification and mechanisms of congenital defects.
III. Class work (task):
1. To draw the schema of germinal layers and their derivatives.
2. To fill the table:” Cytological and genetical mechanisms of an
ontogenesis”.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement.
1. Embryonic cells are arranged in three distinct germ layers (endoderm
esoderm, ectoderm) during:
A cleavage
B gastrulation
C blastulation
D organogenesis
E blastocoel formation
2.The duration of pregnancy is reffered to as the:
A parturition
B induction cycle
C gestation period
D neonatal period
3. A women who has infected with toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy
has a child with multiple congenital defects.This is a result of:
A recombination
B biological mutogenesis
C teratogenesis
D chemical mutogenesis
E cancerogenesis
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000. –
p.70-76, p.203-204; lecture.
34
Laboratory work № 22
Theme: Final control of II nd module “Organismic level of life.
Fundamentals of Human Genetics”
Destignation of work: to know the basic laws of inheritance displays
an example Mendelian traits in human, methods of human genetics, the
mechanisms of hereditary diseases; be able to make and analyze
genealogical tree, to conduct medicogenetic consultancy, to solve
situational exercises.
I. Control questions:
1. Patterns of inheritance of Mendelian traits in human and examples of
their violation (gene interaction).
2. Genetics of a sex.
3. Methods of human genetics: genealogical, bigeminal (method of twins),
dermatoglyphics, cytogenetical method (Chromosome Analysis) and
biochemical.
4. Chromosomal illnesses.
5. Molecular illnesses and hereditary diseases with indeterminate initial
biochemical defect.
6. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary diseases. Genocopy.
7. Diseases with hereditary predisposition. Multyfactorial diseases.
8. Medicogenetic aspects of family.
9. Medicogenetic consultancy.
10. Prenatal diagnosis of hereditary diseases.
11. Gametogenesis.
12. Genetic mechanisms of ontogenesis.
III. Class work (task): solving individual tests and situational exercises.
IV. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p. 54 – 86, p. 106 – 135, p. 170 – 220.
35
Laboratory work № 23
Theme: Medico-biological foundations of parasitism. A medical
protozoology. Phylum Sarcomastigophora. Class Lobosea
Designation of work: to study the main terms of medical parasitology
and general characteristic of the parasites of humans in the kingdom
PROTOZOA; to pay attention to the features of biology of parasites in the
LOBOZEA.
I. Home work:
1. To draw life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica.
2. Write parasitic representatives of subphylum SARCODINA.
II. Control questions:
1. Phenomenon of parasitism.
2. Medical Parasitology as a science.
3. Classification of parasites and hosts.
4. Adaptations of parasites.
5. Protozoan diseases.
6. Classification of Protozoa.
7. General characteristic of Protozoa.
8. Species of class Lobozea: Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli,
Entamoeba gingivalis.
III. Class work (task):
1.To draw the scheme of structure of Entamoeba histolytica,Entamoeba
coli(vegetative forms and cysts).Mark differences in structure.
2.Look at Amoeba vulgaris. To draw the main structural parts.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement.
1. Which types of locomotive organelles does amoeba have?
A cilia
B pseudopodia
C flagella
D no locomotive organelles
36
2. What is the way of transmission of amebiasis?
A sexual
B alimentary
C by blood
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. One patient was admitted to the hospital with a suggested diagnosis
“amebiasis”. Which material should be taken for laboratory examination?
2. The feces of two patients with chronic inflammation of a colon were
examined in the laboratory. 18 micro;m cysts with 8 nuclei were found in
the faeces of the first patient and 10 micro;m cysts with 4 nuclei were
found in the faeces of the second patient. Are the carriers of these cysts
dangerous for other people? Explain your answer.
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p.292-305; lecture.
Laboratory work № 24
Theme:Representatives of a class Zoomastigophora – human parasites
Designation of work: to study the main features of parasites of
humans in the class ZOOMASTIGOPHOREA(FLAGELLATES), life
cycles and infective stages of this parasites; to have a look at diagnosis,
clinical manifestations and prevention of parasitic flagellates.
I. Home work:
1.To draw the life cycles of pasitic flagellates.
2. Write all parasitic flagellates in Latin.
II. Control questions:
1. General characteristic of class Zoomastigophorea.
2. Parasites of genus Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense,
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi.
3. Parasites of genus Leishmania: Leishmania tropica, Leishmania
donovani.
4. Parasites of genus Trichomonas: Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomonas
hominis.
5. Lamblia intestinalis - the causative agent of lambliasis.
III. Class work (task):
37
1. To examine Trypanosoma on specimen between blood cells .Look, draw
and mark cytoplasm, undulating membrane, nucleus and flagellum.
2. To examine on preparation Leishmania. Look, draw and mark the main
structural parts.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement.
1. Which types of locomotor organelles does lamblia have?
A cilia
B pseudopodia
C flagella
D no locomotor organelles
2. What is the way of transmission of African trypanosomiasis?
A by bite of Anopheles mosquito
B alimentary
C by bite of Glossina palpalis
D by bite of bugs (family Triatomidae)
E by bite of sandfly (genus Phlebotomus)
3. Which organ can’t Leishmania donovani be found in?
A blood
B liver
C lung
D skin
E spleen
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. Smears from the skin ulcer of a patient with the initial diagnosis of
cutaneous leishmaniasis have been taken. Which species of leishmania
could be found in these smears?
2. During the examination of the staff in one of the canteens, amebiasis has
been found in one woman, lambliasis - another one, urogenital
trichomoniasis - third one. Which of these women are epidemically
dangerous? What measures should be taken?
3. A student from Sudan was found to be ill with sleeping sickness. Can
other students be infected by him in Ukraine? Why?
4. Antelope has been brought to the Ukrainian zoo. Trypanosomes have
been found in its blood smears. Is this antelope epidemically dangerous?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p.305-316; lecture.
38
Laboratory work № 25
Theme: Phylum Apicomplexa. Representatives of a class Sporozoa –
human parasites.Phylum:Ciliophora. Representatives of a class
Ciliata– human parasites
Designation of work: to study the main features of parasites of
human in the classes: SPOROZOA, CILIATA.; to be able to analyse life
cycle, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and prevention of this parasites.
I. Home work:
1. To draw the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii.
2. To draw the main stages of development of Malaria parasites of man.
II. Control questions:
1. General characteristic of phylum Apicomplexa.
2. General characteristic of class Sporozoa.
3. Malaria parasites of man: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malaria,
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale.
4. Toxoplasma gondii - the causative agent of toxoplasmosis.
III. Class work (task):
1. Examine under microscope (7  40) a slide of toxoplasma trophozoites
(stained with Romanowsky stain). They are situated off the cells. Parasites
are lunate, one end of its body is long, another is round. Red nucleus is
situated on the center of the blue cytoplasm. Draw some toxoplasmas.
Mark at the drawing: cytoplasm and nucleus.
2. Examine under microscope (7  40) a blood smears of patient with
malaria (stained with Romanowsky stain). It is seen many pink
erythrocytes and some leukocytes (they are larger and have nuclei of blue
color). Find erythrocytes with Plasmodium vivax on different stages of
parasite development. . Draw. Mark at the drawing: erythrocytes and
different stages of parasite development.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. What type of host is man in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii?
39
A intermediate host
B definitive host
C reservoir host
2. One patient was admitted to the hospital with a suggested diagnosis
“malaria”. Which material should be taken for laboratory examination?
A blood
B urine
C feces
D material from breast bone puncture
E material from lymph node puncture
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. A child with multiple abnormalities of development was born.
Examination of the family members has not found a hereditary pathology:
karyotypes of the parents and the child are normal. What protozoan disease
could cause such abnormalities of development?
2. A fever has developed in a patient two weeks after blood transfusion.
What protozoan disease should be considered? What investigations must
be performed to confirm a diagnosis?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p.316-325; lecture.
Laboratory work № 26
Theme: Medical Helminthology. Phylum Plathyhelminthes. Class
Trematoda. Genus Schistosoma. Fasciola hepatica
Designation of work: to have a look at biological peculiarities of
helminthes’ life cycle, biohelminthes and geohelmintes. To study general
characteristics of phylum Plathyhelminthes, morphological peculiarities,
life cycles and pathogenic significance of helminthes of class Trematoda;
be able to determine their reference to species, to ground the methods of
laboratory diagnostics and prophylactics of schistomiasis, fascioliasis.
I. Home work:
1. Draw a life cycle of Fasciola hepatica.
2. Draw a life cycle of schistosomes.
II. Control questions:
40
1. Biological peculiarities of helminthes’ life cycle. Biohelminthes and
geohelminthes.
2. General characeristics of class Trematoda
3. Blood Flukes: Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni,
Schistosoma japonicum.
4 Fluke: Fasciola hepatica.
III. Class work (task):
Examine under magnifying instrument adult form of Fasciola hepatica.
Draw and mark at the drawing: oral sucker, pharyn, gonopore, intestinal
caeca, uterus, ejaculatory duct, yolk reservoir, aecetabulum, ovary, testis,
vitelline glands, ventral sucker.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement.
1. Where do schistosomes lay fertilized eggs:
A bronchial tubes
B intestine
C blood vessels
D muscles
E bile duct
2. A man, who came from Far East, passed a medical examination. Eggs
(0,1 mm, oval, golden-brownish, operculated) were found in sputum.
Indicate the most probable diagnosis:
A fascioliasis
B paragonimiasis
C chlonorchiasis
D shistosomiasis
2. Real - life situations to be solved
1. Name organs of human body in blood vessels of which lay eggs
a) S.haematobium; b) S.mansoni; c) S.japonicum.
2. A man has eaten an undercooked beef liver (contained fascioles). Can
this person be infected with fascioliasis?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p. 326 - 358; lecture.
41
Laboratory work № 27
Theme: Class Trematoda: Paragonimus westermani ,Dicrocoelium
lanceatum, Opisthorchis felineus ,Clonorchis sinensis
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life cycles and
pathogenic significance of Paragonimus westermani , Dicrocoelium
lanceatum, Opisthorchis felineus, Clonorchis sinensis. Be able to
determine their reference to species, to ground the methods of laboratory
diagnostics and prophylactics of paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis,
opisthorhiasis and dicrocoeliasis.
I. Home work:
1. Draw a life cycle of Dicrocoelium lanceatum, Opisthorchis felineus.
II. Control questions:
1. Fluke: Clonorchis sinensis : morphological peculiarities, life cycles and
pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylactics of
clonorchiasis.
2. Fluke: Paragonimus westermani morphological peculiarities, life
cycles and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and
prophylactics of paragonimiasis.
3. Fluke: Dicrocoelium lanceatum: morphological peculiarities, life
cycles and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and
prophylactics of dicrocoeliasis.
4. Fluke: Opisthorchis felineus: morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylactics of
opisthorhiasis.
III. Class work (task):
1. Examine under magnifying instrument adult form of Opisthorchis
felineus.
2. Examine under magnifying instrument adult form of Dicrocoelium
lanceatum. Draw and mark at the drawing: oral sucker, acetabulum, testis,
ovary, vesicular seminalis, uterus, yolk reservoir, ejaculatory duct,
pharynx, intestinal caeca.
42
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. A man, who came from Far East, passed a medical examination. Eggs
(0,1 mm, oval, golden-brownish, operculated) were found in sputum.
Indicate the most probable diagnosis:
A fascioliasis
B paragonimiasis
C chlonorchiasis
D shistosomiasis
2. The life cycle of Clonorchis involves asexual reproduction in which
animal:
A snail
B crab
C pig
D fish
E cattle
3. In general, which of the trematodes are found in Africa?
A Shistosoma mansoni
B Shistosoma japonicum
C Shistosoma haematobium
D Clonorchis sinensis
E Paragonimus westermani
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. A family has a cat with opisthorchiasis. Can children be infected with
opisthorchiasis from this cat?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p. 333-348; lecture.
Laboratory work № 28
Theme: Class Cestoidea: Taenia saginata, Taenia solium
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance of Taenia saginata, Taenia solium. Be able to
determine their reference to species, to ground the methods of laboratory
diagnostics and prevention of teniasis solium, cysticercosis, taeniasis
saginata.
43
I. Home work:
Draw a life cycle of Taenia saginata, Taenia solium.
II. Control questions:
1. General characteristics of class Cestoda.
2. Medical importance of cestodes.
3. Taenia saginata: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle,
transmission, pathogenic significance.
4. Taenia solium: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle,
transmission, pathogenic significance
5. Clinical manifestation and laboratory diagnosis of teniasis,
cysticercosis.
6. Prevention of teniasis, cysticercosis.
III. Class work (task):
1. Examine under magnifying instrument hermaphroditic proglottides of
Tenia solium (pork tapeworm), Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm). Draw.
Mark at the drawing: ovary, testis, sperm ducts, a vagina, an uterus,
Melisse‘s body, yolk gland, excretory system.
2. Examine slides of Gravid proglottides of Tenia solium, Taenia saginata
under magnifying instrument Draw. Mark at the drawing uterine branches.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. Indicate systems which Cestodes have:
A digestive system
B excretory system
C nervous system
D respiratory system
E genital system
2. What is the characteristic feature of gravid proglottid of Taenia solium?
A 17 –35 uterine branches
B 7 –12 uterine branches
C bilobed ovary
D trilobed ovary
E gravid uterus is in the form of rosette
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. That is the difference in appearance of the scolex of T.solium,
T.saginata?
44
2. A patient delivers to the laboratory some helminth segments which were
found in the bed early in the morning. Is it possible to identify the species
of helminth? What method of laboratory examination has to be perform
additionally to confirm this diagnosis ?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p359-367; lecture.
Laboratory work № 29
Theme: Medical Helminthology. Plathelminthes Cestodes
(Tapeworms): Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus granulosus,
Echinococcus multilocularis, Diphyllobothrium latum
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance of Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus
granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Diphyllobotrium latum; be able
to determine their reference to species, to ground the methods of
laboratory diagnostics and prophylaxis of Hymenolepiasis, Unilocular
Hydatid Cyst Disease, Multilocular Hydatid Disease and diphyllobotriasis.
I. Home work:
1.Fill the table: “Structure and biology of helmintes”
Specie of
helmintes
Structure
of scolex
Structure Structure of
of
gravid
hermaph proglottid
roditic
proglottid
Prevention of
helminthiasis
2. Draw the life cycle Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus
multilocularis, Diphyllobothrium latum.
II. Control questions:
1. Diphyllobotrium latum: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life
cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
2. Hymenolepis nana: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle,
transmission, pathogenic significance.
45
3. Echinococcus granulosus: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life
cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
4. Echinococcus multilocularis: morphological peculiarities, distribution,
life cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
5. Laboratory diagnostics of Hymenolepiasis, Unilocular Hydatid Cyst
Disease, Multilocular Hydatid Disease, diphyllobothriasis.
6. Prevention of Hymenolepiasis, Unilocular Hydatid Cyst Disease,
Multilocular Hydatid Disease, diphyllobothriasis.
III. Class work (task):
1. Diphyllobotrium latum (fish tapeworm) Examine under microscope
scolex. Draw. Mark at the drawing: scolex with 2 elongated sucking
grooves.
2. Examine under magnifying instrument hermaphroditic proglottids.
Draw. Mark at the drawing: ovary, testis, sperm ducts, a vagina, an uterus,
Melisse‘s body, yolk gland, excretory system.
3. Examine under magnifying instrument hydatid cyst of E.multilocularis.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. What kind of helminthiasis is characterised by the development of
anemia?
A Teniasis solium
B Cysticercosis
C Taeniasis saginata
D Diphyllobothriasis
E Fascioliasis
2. Indicate the infectious stage of E.granulosus for humans:
A hydatid cysts
B egg
C oncosphere
D gravid proglottid
E cysticercus
3. Autoinvasion with eggs of what Cestoda can take place during life
cycle?
A Hymenolepis nana
B Echinococcus granulosus
C Echinococcus multilocularis
D Taenia solium
E Taenia saginata
46
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. Hymenolepiasis was diagnosed in one child during medical
examination. Is this child epidemically dangerous for others members of
the family? What method of laboratory examination should be perform to
confirm the diagnosis?
2. Why Hymenolepiasis is very hard to treat? Please, explain your answer?
3. Surgical removal of cysts in the patient with Unilocular Hydatid Cyst
Disease was complicated by fluid-filled cyst rupture. Cyst fluid got into
the abdominal cavity of the patient. Explain how this situation can be
dangerous for the patient ?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, 2000.
p.368-378;lecture
Laboratory work № 30
Theme: Medical Helminthology. Phyllum Nemathelminthes. Class
Nematoda Roundworms). Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma
duodenale, Necator americanus.
Strongyloides stercoralis
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma
duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis; be able to
determine their reference to species, to ground the methods of laboratory
diagnostic and prophylactics of ancylostomiasis, strongyloidiasis and
ascariasis.
I. Home work:
1.Sketch a life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides.
2.Sketch the migration of larva of Ascaris lumbricoides in human body.
II. Control questions:
1. General characteristics of Nematodes.
2. Medical importance of Nematodes.
3. Ascaris lumbricoides: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life
cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
4.Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms):
morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle, transmission,
47
pathogenic significance.
5. Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm): morphological peculiarities,
distribution, life cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
6. Laboratory diagnostic of ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, strongyloidiasis.
7.Prevention of ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, strongyloidiasis.
III. Class work (task):
1. Examine the display of adult Ascaris lumbricoides. Pay attention on
sexual dimorphism. Sketch. .Mark at the drawing (female parasitre): lips,
peripharyngeal nervous ring, intestine, excretory channels, two ovaries,
oviducts, two uteri, vagina.
2. Learn a structure of adult worms (female parasite).Examine transverse
section under microscope. Mark at the drawing: dorsal nerve, intestine,
excretory canal, ovary, oviduct, cuticule, pseudocoel, uterus.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. What are the main organs through over the Ascaris lumbricoides
migrate?
A muscles
B brain
C liver
D heart
E lungs
2. Which stage of Ancylostoma duodenale is invasive for humans?
A an egg
B filariform larva
C rhabditiform larva
D adult worm
E encapsulated larva
2. Real - life situations to be solved
1. Ascariasis was diagnosed in 8-years old child. Is this child epidemically
dangerous for other members of the family? Why?
2. The larvae were found during the sputum microscopy of one patient
with pneumonia, blood analysis had shown an eosinophilia. Indicate the
most probable diagnosis.
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol,
2000.:p.378-386;393-403; lecture.
48
Laboratory work № 31
Theme: Medical Helminthology. Phylum: Nemathelminthes
Nematodes (Roundworms): Trichinella spiralis, Enterobius
vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance of Trichinella spiralis, Trichuris trichiura and
Enterobius vermicularis; be able to determine their reference to species, to
ground the methods of laboratory diagnostic and prevention of
enterobiasis, trichinosis and trichuriasis.
I. Home work:
1. Sketch a life cycle of Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura,
Trichinella spiralis.
2. Fill the table “Features of medically important nematodes”.
Specie
Shape and size
of
Infective stage Transmission
of body
helminth
Prevention
of disease
II. Control questions:
1. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm): morphological peculiarities,
distribution, life cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
2. Trichuris trichiura (whipworm): morphological peculiarities,
distribution, life cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
3. Trichinella spiralis: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle,
transmission, pathogenic significance.
4. Dracunculus medinensis (guinea fire worm) – the causative agent of
dracunculiasis.
5. Laboratory diagnostics of trichinosis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis.
6. Prevention of trichinosis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis.
III. Class work (task):
1. Learn a structure of adult Enterobius vermicularis (a chart). Sketch a
female parasite. Mark at the drawing: mouth, vesicle (a cuticle in the front
49
part of body), esophagus, bulbous (an esophagus dilatation), intestine, two
ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina.
2. Learn a structure of adult worms Trichuris trichiura (a chart). Sketch a
general appearance of male and female worms.
3. Examine the slide of encapsulated Trichinella spiralis larvae in crossstriated muscles of the rat under a microscope (7x8) Sketch. Mark:
capsules, muscles fibers, Trichinella larvae.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement:
1. What kind of Nematodes is biohelminth?
A Trichinella spiralis
B Ancylostomas duodenale
C Strongyloides stercoralis
D Necator americanus
E Ascariasis lumbricoides
2. Indicate the helminth of class Nematoda which life cycle does not have
migration of larvae?
A Ascaris lumbricoides
B Strongyloides stercoralis
C Ancylostoma duodenale
D Trichuris trichiura
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. In hookworm infection, what is the mode of transmission and how is the
laboratory diagnosis made?
2. A patient was admitted to the hospital and complained of muscle pain,
fever, periorbital edema. This patient ate an undercooked pork some time
before illness. Blood analysis had shown an eosiniphilia. What is the most
probable diagnosis? How you can confirm the diagnosis?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.387 393; p.403 - 413; lecture.
Laboratory work № 32
Theme: The laboratory diagnostic of helminthiasis
Designation of work: to study the main methods of laboratory
diagnostics of human helminthiasis; be able to recognize eggs of 2
phylums: NEMATHELMINTHES and PLATHELMINTHES.
50
I. Home work: fill the table according next scheme:
Specie of helminth
Material taken from the Stages of helminth
patient
II. Control questions:
1. Methods of researches of helmintes.
2. Methods of recognition of eggs of helmintes.
3. Laboratory method of diagnostic of flukes.
4. Laboratory method of diagnostic of tapeworms.
5. Laboratory method of diagnostic of roundworms.
III. Class work (task):
1. Examine the slide of hermaphroditic, gravid proglottids and scolex of
tapeworms under magnifying instrument. Recognize specie of helminte.
2. Examine under microscope (7 х 8,7 40) slides of eggs of helmints. Make
a drawing that shows the differences eggs.Mark the specie of helmint.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. What is the characteristic feature of gravid proglottid of Taenia solium?
A 17 –35 uterine branches
B 7 –12 uterine branches
C bilobed ovary
D trilobed ovary
E gravid uterus is in the form of rosette
2. A man, who came from Far East, passed a medical examination. Eggs
(0,1 mm, oval, golden-brownish, operculated) were found in sputum.
Indicate the most probable diagnosis:
A fascioliasis
B paragonimiasis
C chlonorchiasis
D shistosomiasis
2. Real - life situations to be solved:
1. A man has eaten an undercooked beef liver (contained fascioles). Can
this person be infected with fascioliasis?
51
2. That is the difference in appearance of the scolex of T. solium, T.
saginata and D. latum?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p. 387 436; lecture
Laboratory work № 33
Theme: Medical Arachnoenthomology. Phylum Arthropoda. Class
Arachnida
Designation of work: to study the general characteristics of phylum
ARTHROPODA; learn how to identify medically important
representatives of Class Arachnida; be able to ground control methods.
I. Home work: sketch the scheme of circulation of causative organism of
diseases transmission in natural landscape.
II. Control questions:
1. Phylum Arthropoda: general characteristic, classification, medical
importance
2. Class Arachnida: general characteristic, classification, medical
importance.
3. Characteristic of scorpions and poisonous spiders.
4. Family IXODIDAE, ARGASIDAE. Itch mite.
5. The control of medically important representatives of class
ARACHNIDA.
III. Class work (task):
1. Learn a structure of scorpion and poisonous spiders. Draw.
2. Examine under magnifying instrument a slide of ticks in family
IXODIDAE ( adult males, females and larva).
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer / statement
1. Indicate the place of scorpion’s poisonous glands location:
A cephalothorax
B distal end of pedipalp
C close to base of chelicerae
D last segment of the abdomen
2. What parts of the human body are usually infested by itch mite:
52
A neck
B head
C interdigital spaces
D flexor surfaces of wrists and forearms
E armpits
F groin and genitals
1. Review questions:
1. What is pathogenesis of tick paralysis?
2. How can scabies reinfestation be prevented?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.437446; lecture.
Laboratory work № 34
Theme: Medical Arachnoenthomology. Class Insecta. Lice, fleas, bugs
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life
cycles and pathogenic significance of lice, fleas, cockroachs and bugs; be
able to identify their species and to base the methods of control of
medically important representatives of orders Anoplura, Siphonaptera,
Hemiptera and Blatoidea.
I. Home work: fill the comparative table of biology and development of
lice,fleas and bugs.
II. Control questions:
1. General characteristics of class Insecta.
2. Classification of class Insecta.
3. Order Anoplura (lice). Morphology, medical importance, methods of
control.
4. Order Siphonaptera (fleas). Morphology, medical importance, methods
of control.
5. Order Hemiptera (bugs). Morphology, medical importance, methods of
control.
III. Class work (task):
1. Examine under magnifying instrument a slide of flea.
2. Examine under magnifying instrument a slide head louse .
Examine under magnifying instrument a slide of bug. Draw. Mark
53
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer/statement
1. Which insects are representatives of order Anoplura
A termites
B fleas
C ants
D mayflies
E lice
F mosquitoes
2. Indicate the representatives of Order Hemiptera
A termites
B fleas
C ants
D mayflies
E lice
F mosquitoes
G bugs
2. Review questions
1. How would you characterize the importance of order Siphonaptera to
medicine?.
2. What diseases can be transmitted through body louse?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.446451; lecture
Laboratory work № 35
Theme: Medical Arachnoentomology. Order Diptera. Flies and
mosquitoes
Designation of work: to study morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance of flies and mosquitoes; be able to identify
their species and to base the methods of control of medically important
representatives of order Diptera morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance of flies and mosquitoes; be able to identify
their species and to base the methods of control of medically important
representatives of order Diptera.
54
I. Home work: fill the comparative table of morphology and physiology
of Anopheles and Culex (egg, adult, larva and pupa).
II. Control questions:
1. General characteristics of order Diptera.
2. Classification of order Diptera. Medical importance of order Diptera.
3. Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes and their role in transmission
of infections. Mosquito control.
4. Family Muscidae. Myiasis
III. Class work (task):
Comparative morphology of malarial (genus Anopheles) and nonmalarial
(genus Culex) mosquitoes. Examine under magnifying instrument a slide
of:
a) larvae of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes
b) pupa of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes
c) mouthparts of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes
d) wings of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
1. Choose the correct answer/ statement
1.Order Diptera is characterized by having:
A 1 pair of wings
B 2 pairs of wings
C 3 pairs of wings
1. What is a myiasis:
A myiasis - infestation by larvae of flies
B myiasis - invasion or infestation of man’s body and/or tissues by
Diptera larvae
C myiasis - infestation by larvae of mosquitoes
D myiasis - invasion of man’s body by representatives of Order
Anoplura
2. Review questions:
1. How would you characterize the importance of Anopheles mosquitoes
to medicine?
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.452459; lecture
55
Laboratory work № 36
Theme: Synthetic theory of evolution. Population structure of
humanity
Designation of work: to discuss about the agent of evolutionary
change; characterize population structure of humanity and explain the
Hardy-Weinberg law; use this law in the human genetics for determination
of frequency of homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive and
heterozygous individuals in human population.
I. Home work: solve an exercise.
Aniridia (an absence of the iris) is inherited as autosomal dominant trait
with the frequency of 1:10000. What is the genetical structure of
population? (Genetical structure of population is a frequency of dominant
homozygotes – p2, heterozygotes – 2pq and recessive homozygotes – q2).
II. Control questions:
1. Synthetic theory of evolution.
2. Agents of evolutionary change: mutation, isolation, genetic drift
(random fluctuation in allele frequencies over time), gene flow, natural
selection.
3. Types of selection.
4. Population genetics as a branch of biology. Genetic characters of
populations.
5. Allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg law.
III. Class work (task): solving of situational exercises.
1. 70 % people of human population have ability to taste bitter
phenylthiocarbamide, and 30 % tasteless it. The ability to taste PTC is
inherited as autosomal dominant trait. Determine the frequency of
heterozygous, homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive
individuals in the population.
2. Sickle-cell disease is a human disorder that is controlled by
incompletely dominant alleles. Individuals with the genotype HbAHbA are
normal, those with genotype HbSHbS have sickle-cell disease, and those
56
with the genotype HbAHbS have sickle-cell trait, a condition in which the
blood cells are sickle shaped. As many as 60% of persons in malariainfected regions of Africa have the allele HbS. The malarial parasite
flourishes in normal homozygotes but dies in heterozygotes. And persons
with the genotype HbAHbA often die from malaria. Give a reason why there
are more heterozygote individuals than homozygote ones in Africa?
3. Assuming a Hardy-Weinberg law, 21% of a population is homozygous
dominant, 50% is heterozygous, and 29% is homozygous recessive. What
percentage of the next generation is predicted to be homozygous
recessive?
4. There are 2 cases of phenylketonuria (hyperphenylalaninemia, mental
retardation, hipopigmentation of hair and skin) among 30000 infants of the
city. The disease is inherited as autosomal recessive disorder. What is the
frequency of heterozygous individuals in the population?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. Evolution is:
A genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in populations with the
passage of time
B resulting in increased adaptation of organisms to the prevailing
environment
C is study of fossils that results in knowledge about the history of
life
D the development of the individual organism, that includes the set of
morphological, physiological and biochemical transformations from the
moment of gamete formation to death
E both A and B
2. Which of these are necessary to natural selection?
A variations
B differential reproduction
C inheritance of differences
D all of these
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.236255; lecture
Laboratory work № 37
Theme: Phylogenesis of the main systems of organs in Vertebrates.
57
Designation of work: to study the main directions of evolution of
systems of organs for better understanding of anatomy and physiology of
human; to have a look at congenital malformations.
I.
Homework: compose the table of comparison of excretory system in
Vertebrates.
II. Control questions:
1. Comparison of skeleton and surfaces of body in vertebrates.
2. Organs of respiration in different groups of vertebrates.
3. Phylogenetic changing of excretory system.
4. Evolution of nervous system.
5. The main congenital malformations.
III. Class work (task): write the main congenital malformations.
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer / statement
1. Stenosis:
A displacement of an organ,i.e.location at an unusual area
B narrowing of a canal or of an opening
C presence of cells, tissuses, or organs in other organs
2. Aplasia:
A a complete congenital lack of an organ with existence of vascular
stem
B a complete absence of a canal or a natural opening
C inappropriate small weight and size of an organ
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.268269; lecture
Laboratory work № 38
Theme: Human ecology. The Biosphere as system, which provides
existence of human.
Designation of work: to have a look at human ecology as science;
characterize the components of ecosystem; to study the main medical and
biological aspects of human ecology, be able to explain appearance
58
adaptation, adaptive human types.
I. Home work: compose the scheme of biogeocenose. Indicate trofic
chains in this biogeocenose.
II. Control questions:
1. Ecology as a science of interactions between organisms.
2. Components of ecosystems.
3. The flow of energy. Food chains.
4. Human ecology as a science.
5. Adaptive human types.
6. Biosphere or living globe.
III. Class work (task):
Study the adaptive human types using the table: arctic type, tropical type,
moderate type, and mountain type. What are the main characteristics of
these type?
IV. Questions for self-knowledge:
Choose the correct answer/ statement:
1.What are the factors abiotic:
A temperature
B water
C parasites
D food
2. In what way are decomposers like producers?
A either one may be the first member of a grazing food chain
B both produce oxygen for other forms of life
C both require a source of nutrient molecules and energy
D both supply organic food for the biosphere
V. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p.284 288; 272 - 283; lecture
Laboratory work № 39 – 40
Theme: Practical skills of the 5th and 6th content modules.
Final control of IIInd module: “Population-specific and biospherical
level of life”
59
Designation of work: to know morphological features, life cycles and
pathogenic effect of parasites, methods of laboratory diagnostic, the basic
concepts of human ecology; be able to develop preventive measures of
spread parasitic diseases, be able to determine the ecology of medical
communication.
I. Control questions:
1. Phenomenon of parasitism.
2. Medical Parasitology as a science.
3. Classification of parasites and hosts.
4. Adaptations of parasites.
5. Protozoan diseases.
6. Classification of Protozoa.
7. General characteristic of Protozoa.
8. Species of class Lobozea: Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli,
Entamoeba gingivalis.
9. General characteristic of class Zoomastigophorea.
10. Parasites of genus Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense,
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi.
11. Parasites of genus Leishmania: Leishmania tropica, Leishmania
donovani.
12. Parasites of genus Trichomonas: Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomonas
hominis.
13. Lamblia intestinalis - the causative agent of lambliasis.
14. Malaria parasites of man: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malaria,
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale.
15. Toxoplasma gondii - the causative agent of toxoplasmosis.
16. Blood Flukes: Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni,
Schistosoma japonicum.
17. Fluke: Fasciola hepatica.
18. Fluke: Clonorchis sinensis : morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylactics of
clonorchiasis.
19. Fluke: Paragonimus westermani morphological peculiarities, life
cycles and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and
prophylactics of paragonimiasis.
20. Fluke: Dicrocoelium lanceatum: morphological peculiarities, life
cycles and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and
prophylactics of dicrocoeliasis.
60
21. Fluke: Opisthorchis felineus: morphological peculiarities, life cycles
and pathogenic significance. Laboratory diagnostics and prophylactics of
opisthorhiasis.
22. Taenia saginata: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle,
transmission, pathogenic significance.
23. Taenia solium: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life cycle,
transmission, pathogenic significance
24. Clinical manifestation and laboratory diagnosis of teniasis,
cysticercosis.
25. Prevention of teniasis, cysticercosis.
26. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm): morphological peculiarities,
distribution, life cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
27. Trichuris trichiura (whipworm): morphological peculiarities,
distribution, life cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
28. Trichinella spiralis: morphological peculiarities, distribution, life
cycle, transmission, pathogenic significance.
29. Dracunculus medinensis (guinea fire worm) – the causative agent of
dracunculiasis.
30. Laboratory diagnostics of trichinosis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis.
31. Prevention of trichinosis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis.
The laboratory diagnostic of helminthiasis
32. Phylum Arthropoda: general characteristic, classification, medical
importance
33. Class Arachnida: general characteristic, classification, medical
importance .
34. Characteristic of scorpions and poisonous spiders.
35. Family IXODIDAE, ARGASIDAE. Itch mite.
36. The control of medically important representatives of class
ARACHNIDA.
37. General characteristics of class Insecta.
38. Classification of class Insecta.
39. Order Anoplura (lice). Morphology, medical importance, methods of
control.
40. Order Siphonaptera (fleas). Morphology, medical importance, methods
of control.
41. Order Hemiptera (bugs). Morphology, medical importance, methods of
control.
42. General characteristics of order Diptera.
43. Classification of order Diptera. Medical importance of order Diptera.
61
44. Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes and their role in transmission
of infections. Mosquito control.
45. Family Muscidae. Myiasis.
46. Synthetic theory of evolution.
47. Agents of evolutionary change: mutation, isolation, genetic drift
(random fluctuation in allele frequencies over time), gene flow, natural
selection.
48. Allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg law.
49. The main congenital malformations.
50. Ecology as a science of interactions between organisms.
51. Components of ecosystems.
52. The flow of energy. Food chains.
53. Human ecology as a science.
54. Adaptive human types.
55. Biosphere or living globe.
III. Class work (task): view specimens that need to determine during the
3rd final control module.
IV. Literature: Medical biology/Lazarev. Textbook. – Simferopol, p. 292
– 474.
62
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