Test Two

PSC 211 - Introduction to the Legal System
Review Sheet Two
The answers to the following questions can be found in the text, in the order that I have
presented them. Answer each question precisely. Where an asterisk appears, you will
want to write extended answers in complete sentences. These questions will appear as
possible short answer questions on the test. The information related to questions which
are not used as short answer questions and all remaining questions will be used to
generate multiple choice questions on the test.
Chapter Six
Most discussions regarding the quality of judges begin with discussions of what?
What three general questions shape the debate over judicial selection?
Judicial selection allows influence by what groups and individuals?
What contradictory expectations do Americans have about judges?
What are the three principle methods of selection?
Whom does the text say is currently the primary player in the federal judicial nomination
* Explain what senatorial courtesy involves.
The president has the greatest degree of political freedom in nominations where?
The confirmation process is increasingly the object o great attention by whom?
* Describe the structure and work of the ABA's Standing Committee on Federal
What does the text say about the ABA's influence today?
* Describe three contrasting motivations with respect to selecting judicial nominees and
align them with specific presidents.
Since World War II, most presidents have been guided by which motivation?
Which president tried to make the federal bench more representative?
The modern day politicization of the judiciary may have been started by whom?
What does the text say will be "likely" by 2009?
* What are some similarities between Republican and Democratic judges?
A majority of state judges are initially selected or retained how?
Judicial elections emerged in what era?
The Progressive movement championed which form of selection?
Why aren't formal selection methods always a guide to how judges are actually selected?
* Describe the typical judicial campaign.
* Describe the circumstances in which incumbent judges are more likely to be removed.
Judges tend to work closely with whom in order to ensure victory.
Which states involve the most costly supreme court campaigns?
* What are three adverse effects of electing judges?
* Summarize the merit selection system.
What is the typical outcome of merit retention elections?
What factors seem to be related to whether or not a state adopts merit selection?
* Summarize the findings of the most far-reaching study of merit selection and its
relationship to "politics."
How do methods of selection make slight differences?
What effects do selection systems have "from a broader perspective?
Selection systems seem to eliminate what types of persons?
Judges are seldom what?
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Chapter Five
Law schools first gained prominence when?
Who reformed teaching at Harvard?
Today, law schools require what?
Admission to law school is primarily based on what?
How many years are required in law school?
What are two purposes of legal education?
What is the most distinctive feature of law school education?
* On what three fronts have critics attacked legal education?
How many law schools are there in America?
* Identify and explain four ways that law schools are fundamentally different.
Describe the bar exam in the 19th century.
What three topics are typically addressed in today's bar exams?
What percent passed the MBE in 2004?
In the past 25 years, law schools have focused increased attention on what?
What are the three most common allegations of misconduct?
What happens to most complaints about lawyers?
What is an integrated bar?
What is the difference between a solicitor and a barrister?
* Identify and explain the five major activities of lawyers.
* Generalize about the settings in which lawyers work.
* Summarize the famous study of Heintz and Laumann
Where is the largest law firm, and how many lawyers does it have?
What did the Supreme Court rule in Gideon?
* What are some criticisms of assigned counsel?
* What are the arguments in favor of a public defender system?
Explain what a contingency fee is.
* What are some criticisms of the contingency fee system?