Overview of US/Indian relations in 19C Learn: Syncretism Cultural imperialism Ban: civilized, savage, primitive, wilderness, frontier Three broad periods 1607-1815 1815-1890 1890-present 1607-1815 characterized by warfare for survival and syncretism—two-way street North America not a wilderness but a huge food farm, 1000s of years of managing resources NA foods led to regional cuisines of USA; Indians of Americas cultivated >1/2 world’s foods Wars: More persons killed in King Phillip’s War than in Revolutionary War or War of 1812 With trade intra-Indian wars increased and got new idea: annihilation 80% of fed budget in GW’s admin was to fund Indian wars Stereotype of Indian attacking wagon trains: but 250,000 crossed Plains 362 pioneers and 426 NAs killed; usually NAs guides Zone of contact: mixed towns, intensive trade that became integrated into international trade NAs—had tools and skills to survive and thrive EAs—had more advanced technology like guns and metal tools and weapons Thousands of NAs were enslaved, even sold to Caribbean and Europe, even into 1860s What EAs got from NAs: food, place names, 1000s of words, individual rights, freedoms, concept of federation, farming techniques, hunting techniques, ex. of more rights for women Many tribes settled down but were rubbed out or removed anyway Constant: NAs not citizens, can’t sue or testify even when land was stolen 1815-1890 characterized by cultural imperialism and wars of annihilation The conception of a reservation Marshall court rulings regarding Indians as wards, not sovereign nations The word “hostile” as synonym for Indian Corruption among US officials “buying” land or signing treaties they had no intention of enforcing Use of infected clothes and blankets to decimate native populations Pre-Civil War encroachments on Native American land in the West 1849 and following: California gold rush and migration to Oregon 1859 and following: Colorado gold rush and the expulsion of Natives from Colorado diseases like cholera, smallpox , and typhus spreading from white settlements discovery of gold in Montana During Civil War US forces herded Indians into two great reservations: Dakota and Oklahoma Homestead Act of 1862 opened up lands inhabited by natives to white settlement 1864 Sand Creek Massacre of Indians who believed they had immunity Led to Sioux massacre of 81 soldiers in Bighorn Mountains Led to a treaty in which the US abandoned the Bozeman Trail* Led to raids on whites in Kansas Led to division among Indians to accept whites’ terms or not Led to massacre on Washita River in OK November 27, 1868, ending Indian resistance S. Plains 1864 Kit Carson rounds up Navahos and sends them on Long Walk to After the Civil War 1874 discovery of gold in Black Hills of Dakota by an expedition led by GA Custer *Attacks on whites and soldiers encroaching on Indian lands by Indians led to Custer’s attack Powder R. 1876 Custer and his forces annihilated at Little Big Horn: last and only real victory: has become legend; Cheyenne and Sioux led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull Chief Joseph led the Nez Perce in a flight to avoid being herded onto a reservation Betrayed into thinking they could return to their ancestral lands, actually sent to Kansas; 40% died Southwest: Apaches led by Geronimo resisted white encroachments but in 80s defeated and went to OK 1880s: the wholesale slaughter of the buffalo for tongues Ghost Dance—a religious/political ritual aimed at spiritually and actually regaining lost land and culture; Suppressed by government in 1890s Wounded Knee Massacre: small creek in South Dakota, Christmas 1890: Attempt to stamp out Ghost Dance Indians thought they were protected on reservation, instead attacked Figurative end of Indian Wars and the native way of life 1887 Dawes Act—attempt to end reservations and establish private property and farms Dissolved many reservations; promise of citizenship in 25 years if behave selves Establishment of a system of schools: Carlisle Indian School (PA) and Haskell Institute (KS) Forcible education in English—native tongues banned 1890-present: trying to work out reservation system and rights & responsibilities of both sides—2B told later Different possibilities in past: 1. intermarriage 2. multi-racial societies 4. balanced acculturation 3. Indian states; e.g. OK and DE Questions to ask of EZ-NA relations: 1. Who were nomads and who were settled? 2. Whose warfare was more destructive? 3. Who was more warlike and who was more peaceful? 4. Who has used the land more wisely? What are the different possibilities now?