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Art History 129
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Spring 2003
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART cont'd.
Ottonian
Gospel Book of Otto III, c. 1000, Bayerische Staatbibliothek, Munich Ms. Lat. 4453
Otto III enthroned, fol. 24r
*Hildesheim doors, Bishop Bernward as designer?, 1015, bronze, each panel approx. 23 x 43",
doors 16' 6" high, Hildesheim Cathedral (originally for St. Michael's, Hildesheim)
*Genesis scenes and Life of Christ
*Gero Crucifix, commissioned by Archbishop Gero, c. 970, painted oak, 74", Cologne Cathedral
ROMANESQUE
themes of militant religion, conquest, frontiers, feudalism, monasticism, cult of relics, crusades,
pilgrimage, and eschatology
visual culture
terms: archivolt, jamb, lintel, trumeau, tympanum, voussoir
*Bayeux "Tapestry," c. 1070-80, possibly made at Canterbury, embroidery in wool on linen, 20" x
about 230', Centre Guillaume le Conquérant, Bayeux
Norman Conquest of England
*Virgin and Child relic statue (Morgan Madonna), second half of 12th C., from the Auvergne region
of France, painted wood, 31" h., Metropolitan Museum of art, New York
*Moissac, St-Pierre (Languedoc), Cluniac abbey, limestone, approx. 16' 6" wide at base
south portal, c. 1115-35
*tympanum: the Apocalyptic Vision or Christ in Majesty with Tetramorph
*trumeau: prophet (Jeremiah)
cloister pier: Abbot Durandus, c. 1100
*Vézelay, La Madeleine (Burgundy), center narthex portal, 1120-32, limestone
*tympanum and lintel: Mission of the Apostles & Ascension
*archivolts: scenes of healing (driving out demons) and teaching
*Autun Cathedral, St-Lazare (Burgundy), c. 1125-35, limestone, approx. 21' wide
(the "myth" of Gislebertus as the artist?)
*west portal:
tympanum: Last Judgment, 11'4" x 21'
archivolts: Zodiac and Labors of the Months
*north portal of transept , lintel: Eve (Musée Municipale, Autun)
*nave capital: *Flight into Egypt (chapter house, Autun Cathedral)
Art History 129
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Spring 2003
architecture
terms:
ambulatory, ashlar, bay, bay division, crypt, hemicycle, stringcourse, tribune, triforium,
vaults--barrel, groin, ribbed
*Pisa Cathedral, Sta. Maria Maggiore (Tuscany, Italy), begun 1063, campanile 1174
three-story basilica (arcade, tribune or gallery, clerestory), 5 aisles, timber roofed, Early
Christian elevation without bay division, coloristic treatment of marble; extensive exterior
galleries
*Speyer Cathedral, Virgin Mary (Rhineland), c. 1027-1106, 89 x 42', 107' when vaulted
two-story basilica (arcade and clerestory), originally timber roofed, groin vaults and transverse
arches added in c. 1082, bay division in alternating system forming double bays with
longitudinal system of arches, compound piers with engaged half-columns, imperial scale
*Toulouse, St. Sernin (Languedoc [southwestern] France), c. 1070-1120, 68 x 359'
two-story "pilgrimage-road church" type (arcade, tribune or gallery), five-aisled nave, large
aisled transept, ambulatory, transept chapels and ambulatory chapels, choir, barrel-vaulted nave
and groin-vaulted aisles, galleries quadrant vaulted, compound piers have attached half-columns
which rise to meet transverse arches (half-column also called vaulting respond)
Santiago Cathedral, St. James (Galicia), c. 1075, 77', like Toulouse but 3 aisles
*Caen, St. Etienne (Normandy), begun c. 1067, about 70'
three-story timber-roofed basilica (arcade, tribune or gallery, clerestory); later six-part ribbed
vaults added in c. 1125-30, originally aisles groin vaulted and galleries quadrant vaulted,
alternation of compound piers, thick-walled construction with clerestory passage; two-tower
west façade
*Durham Cathedral (Benedictine monastery) (northern England), 1093-c. 1130, 73 x 39'
three-story rib-vaulted basilica (arcade, tribune or gallery, clerestory with passage) rib vaults
throughout: first rib vaults in western Europe; alternation of piers, pointed arches in transverse
arches of nave Anglo-Norman
manuscript illumination
*Initial "R" with knight fighting dragon, Moralia in Job, c. 1115-25/early 12th C., Cîteaux
(Cistercian) MS, 14 x 9", Bibliothèque Municipale, Dijon (Burgundy)
Hildegard of Bingen
Scivias (You shall know/Ways of Knowing), c. 1150-79, formerly Hessische Landesbibliothek,
Wiesbaden Cod. 2 (Rhineland)
Fourth vision: Soul's Exodus from its Tabernacle, or Sould and its tabernacle (Human Journey)
*The vision of Hildegard/Hildegard receiving divine illumination
Sixth vision: Choir of Angels
*Third vision: The "Universe"
*Second vision, Pt. 2: True Threeness of the True Oneness
Liber Divinorum Operum (Book of DivineWorks ), by 1174, The Cosmic Wheel
Art History 129
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Spring 2003
GOTHIC
themes of developing economic expansion, urbanism, beginnings of modernism, importance of women
and the feminine, courtly culture
sculpture
Early Gothic
Chartres Cathedral (Beauce, SW of Paris), west portals, 1145-55 (also called the Portail Royal)
*central portal: Apocalyptic Vision/Second Coming with angels and 24 Elders in the archivolts;
Apostles from the Last Judgment in the lintel; Old Testament kings and queens as column statues
on the jambs
High Gothic
Chartres Cathedral, south transept façade, c. 1210-30
*left portal, added c. 1225-30: column statues with left figure of "St. Theodore," the Christian
knight
*Naumburg Cathedral (Saxony, Germany), c. 1250-60
*Founders' choir statues: Ekkehart and Uta
architecture terms: flying buttress, molding, pinnacle, ribbed vault, shaft, springing (of a vault or rib),
tracery
Early Gothic
*St-Denis (outside Paris), abbey church, 1134-44, limestone, Abbot Suger as patron
west façade--2-tower block with rose window and narthex
*ambulatory above crypt--marble columns, contiguous radiating chapels with large windows
Abbot Suger's chalice, c. 1140, agate and silver gilt (National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
*Laon Cathedral of Notre-Dame, c. 1160, 79 x 35'; west façade, c. 1190-1205 (Northeast France)
four-story basilican elevation (arcade, gallery, triforium, clerestory) colonnade, alteration above
columns, sexpartite ribbed vaults
Paris Cathedral of Notre-Dame, 1163-c. 1210, 107-110 x 44'; west façade, c. 1200
originally four-story elevation (arcade, gallery, rose triforium, clerestory); flying buttresses in
nave
High or Classic Gothic
*Chartres Cathedral of Notre-Dame, west façade, 1145-70; church begun after fire of 1194, 114 x
54' (Beauce, SW of Paris)
three-story elevation (arcade, triforium, tall clerestory with tracery window of two lancets
surmounted by an oculus), flying buttresses, large transept façades originally to have had two
towers each, cantonné piers, four-part vaults (rib vaults); exterior niches on buttresses containing
saints
*Amiens Cathedral of Notre-Dame, begun c. 1220, Robert de Luzarches, Thomas and Regnault de
Cormont, 138 x 45' (Northeast France--Picardy)
three-story elevation (arcade, triforium, large traceried clerestory) compound piers like those of
Chartres (cantonné pier), large tracery windows, glazed triforium in choir
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