Liquid Tissue: What Functions Does Blood Have


Liquid Tissue: What Functions Does Blood Have?

Write down the functions of blood that you know.


What materials are carried to the cell?

Water, nutrients, oxygen, etc.

What materials are carried away from the cell?

Heat, water, waste, carbon dioxide, etc.

Blood has three functions


-transportation – blood carries nutrients, oxygen, and chemical messengers to the cell and removes wastes like carbon dioxide and urea

-regulation – chemical messengers are carried in the blood like hormones. Blood also regulates body temperature, pH, and water protection – blood contains specialized cells and chemicals that defend the body against disease. Blood also clots to prevent blood loss.

The 4 components of blood are Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White

Blood Cells and Platelets.


The liquid portion of blood is called __ plasma ____. Plasma is a clear liquid that is 90% water. The other 10% contains salts, glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, cellular wastes, and proteins. One of the most important types of proteins in plasma is ___ antibodies ____.

Antibodies are proteins that bind to and destroy foreign substances in the body.

Red Blood Cells:

_____Red Blood Cells______ , or erythrocytes, are made in the bone marrow and are the cells in blood that are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Where in the body does erythrocytes drop off carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen?

Red Blood Cells have no nuclei. However, red blood cells do contain

_ hemoglobin _. Hemoglobin is the substance that makes blood red and is responsible for the transport of gases. A person that does not have enough hemoglobin is __ anemic __. Someone that has anemia does not have enough oxygen in their blood and must be treated with iron-rich foods or injections of B12. sickle-cell anemia _ is caused for a different reason. Someone born with sickle-cell anemia has red blood cells that are a strange shape and therefore cannot carry enough oxygen.

White Blood Cells:

___White Blood Cells_____ , or leukocytes , are considered the defenders of the body. White blood cells defend the body against disease-causing organisms like bacteria and viruses. Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects leukocytes.


The cell fragments that are involved in blood _ clotting _ are called

__ platelets _. Platelets prevent cuts and scrapes from being life threatening by quickly fixing damaged blood vessels. The platelets solidify the blood at the damage in a process called clotting .

Blood Groups, Transfusions, and Transplants

It was discovered in the early 1900’s that not all blood was the same. In fact, there are four ___blood types ___ . The four blood types are A, B, AB, and O. These four blood types are known as the ABO blood group .

What blood type a person has depends on what __ antigens _ a person has on his/her red blood cells (erythrocytes). Antigens are proteins that are present on the surface of a cell. A human will have __ antibodies _ against foreign antigens in their blood as a form of protection. If a foreign antigen enters the body, the antibodies will attack it and destroy it.

What type of antibodies does someone with type A blood have?


What type of antibodies does someone with type B blood have?


What type of antibodies does someone with type AB blood have?


What type of antigens does a person with type O blood have?


What type of antibodies does a person with type O blood have?


Rh factors:

There is another group of antigens found on the surface of red blood cells called _Rh Factor__ . 85% of the human population has Rh factors (Rh+) and

15% do not (Rh-). Unlike the ABO system, antibodies to Rh factors are not produced until the individual is exposed.


When someone needs a blood transfusion, both ABO and Rh factors must be considered. This is because the recipient, or person receiving blood, must not have antibodies that will react with the antigens on the red blood cells from the donor. If the recipient received blood that had foreign antigens, the blood would be rejected and the person could die.

---People that have type __ O __ blood are called __ universal donors _.

This means that people with type O blood can donate to anyone. Why do you think this is? NO ANTIGENS ON THE SURFACE

---People that have type __ AB __ blood are called __universal recipients _.

This means that people with type AB blood can receive blood from anyone.

Why do you think this is? NO ANTIBODIES IN THEIR BLOOD

A person that is Rh+ can receive blood from Rh+ and Rh-. An Rh+ person already has __Rh Factors__ so that person can receive blood that already has

Rh factors . However, if a Rh- person receives blood from a person that has

Rh factors, antibodies will attack the transfused blood and cause clumping.

Clumping can lead to a stroke.


-When an organ or tissue is transplanted from one person, the

____ donor _, to another person, the _ recipient _, the transplant is recognized by the immune system as foreign. This is because the body the organ was donated from is different than the body that received it. The immune system tries to _ reject _ the organ that was transplanted. When the immune system tries to kill the transplanted organ, it is called rejection.

This can be treated by taking drugs that _ suppress _ the immune system.

When you suppress the immune system, it decreases the reaction.


Using today’s notes, write a paragraph outlining what you know about blood.